Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 58
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    El Basha, Noussa R. Zaki, Mayssa M. Hassanin, Omayma M. Rehan, Mohamed K. and Omran, Dalia 2016. GiardiaAssemblagesAandBin Diarrheic Patients: A Comparative Study in Egyptian Children and Adults. Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 102, Issue. 1, p. 69.

    Fava, Natália M.N. Soares, Rodrigo M. Scalia, Luana A.M. Rodrigues da Cunha, Maria Júlia Faria, Elaine S.M. and Cury, Márcia Cristina 2016. Molecular typing of canine Giardia duodenalis isolates from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Experimental Parasitology, Vol. 161, p. 1.

    Hatam-Nahavandi, Kareem Mohebali, Mehdi Mahvi, Amir-Hossein Keshavarz, Hossein Mirjalali, Hamed Rezaei, Sasan Meamar, Ahmad-Reza and Rezaeian, Mostafa 2016. Subtype analysis of Giardia duodenalis isolates from municipal and domestic raw wastewaters in Iran. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,

    Scalia, Luana A. M. Fava, Natália M. N. Soares, Rodrigo M. Limongi, Jean E. da Cunha, Maria Júlia R. Pena, Isabella F. Kalapothakis, Evanguedes and Cury, Márcia C. 2016. Multilocus genotyping ofGiardia duodenalisin Brazilian children. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 110, Issue. 6, p. 343.

    Skhal, Dania Aboualchamat, Ghalia and Al Nahhas, Samar 2016. Giardia duodenalis in Damascus, Syria: Identification of Giardia genotypes in a sample of human fecal isolates using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyzing method. Acta Tropica, Vol. 154, p. 1.

    Thompson, R.C.A. and Ash, A. 2016. Molecular epidemiology of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 40, p. 315.

    Wang, Haiyan Qi, Meng Zhang, Kaifang Li, Junqiang Huang, Jianying Ning, Changshen and Zhang, Longxian 2016. Prevalence and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolated from sheep in Henan Province, central China. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 39, p. 330.

    Wegayehu, Teklu Karim, Md Robiul Erko, Berhanu Zhang, Longxian and Tilahun, Getachew 2016. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolates from calves in Oromia Special Zone, Central Ethiopia. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 43, p. 281.

    Liu, Gang Su, Yan Zhou, Mengjiao Zhao, Jixue Zhang, Tianyu Ahmad, Waqas Lu, Huijun Jiang, Ning Chen, Qijun Xiang, Mei and Yin, Jigang 2015. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis isolates from dairy cattle in northeast China. Experimental Parasitology, Vol. 154, p. 20.

    Minetti, Corrado Lamden, Kenneth Durband, Caroline Cheesbrough, John Fox, Andrew and Wastling, Jonathan M. 2015. Determination of Giardia duodenalis assemblages and multi-locus genotypes in patients with sporadic giardiasis from England. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 8, Issue. 1,

    Pallant, Louise Barutzki, Dieter Schaper, Roland and Thompson, RC 2015. The epidemiology of infections with Giardia species and genotypes in well cared for dogs and cats in Germany. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. 2.

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora Ares-Mazás, Elvira Martínez-Cedeira, José A. Romero-Suances, Rafael Cacciò, Simone M. and Gómez-Couso, Hipólito 2015. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in cetaceans on the European Atlantic coast. Parasitology Research, Vol. 114, Issue. 2, p. 693.

    Sommer, M. F. Beck, R. Ionita, M. Stefanovska, J. Vasić, A. Zdravković, N. Hamel, D. Rehbein, S. Knaus, M. Mitrea, I. L. Shukullari, E. Kirkova, Z. Rapti, D. Capári, B. and Silaghi, C. 2015. Multilocus sequence typing of canine Giardia duodenalis from South Eastern European countries. Parasitology Research, Vol. 114, Issue. 6, p. 2165.

    Tibayrenc, Michel and Ayala, Francisco J. 2015. The population genetics of Trypanosoma cruzi revisited in the light of the predominant clonal evolution model. Acta Tropica, Vol. 151, p. 156.

    Zhang, Yu Chen, Zhimin An, Wei Xiao, Shumin Yuan, Hongying Zhang, Dongqing and Yang, Min 2015. Risk assessment of Giardia from a full scale MBR sewage treatment plant caused by membrane integrity failure. Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 30, p. 252.

    Zhao, Guang-Hui Du, Shuai-Zhi Wang, Hui-Bao Hu, Xiong-Feng Deng, Ming-Jun Yu, San-Ke Zhang, Long-Xian and Zhu, Xing-Quan 2015. First report of zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in golden takins (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi). Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 34, p. 394.

    Delport, Tiffany C. Asher, Amy J. Beaumont, Linda J. Webster, Koa N. Harcourt, Robert G. and Power, Michelle L. 2014. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) exposed to varied levels of human interaction. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 269.

    Jafari, Hedieh Jalali, Mohamad Hossein Razi Shapouri, Masoud Seyfi Abad and Hajikolaii, Mohamad Rahim Haji 2014. Determination of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in sheep and goat from Iran. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, Vol. 38, Issue. 1, p. 81.

    Koehler, Anson V. Jex, Aaron R. Haydon, Shane R. Stevens, Melita A. and Gasser, Robin B. 2014. Giardia/giardiasis — A perspective on diagnostic and analytical tools. Biotechnology Advances, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 280.

    Minetti, C. Taweenan, W. Hogg, R. Featherstone, C. Randle, N. Latham, S. M. and Wastling, J. M. 2014. Occurrence and Diversity ofGiardia duodenalisAssemblages in Livestock in the UK. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Vol. 61, Issue. 6, p. e60.


Comparative evaluation of Giardia duodenalis sequence data

  • C. M. WIELINGA (a1) and R. C. A. THOMPSON (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 2007

A review of the Giardia duodenalis sequences currently available on the GenBank database was completed to compare the different genotyping loci (small subunit ribosomal DNA, glutamate dehydrogenase, triose-phosphate isomerase and beta giardin) for their ability to discern assemblage and subassemblage groups and infer phylogenetic relationships. In total, 405 Giardia duodenalis sequences were sorted and aligned to examine the substitutions within and between the assemblages – A and B (zoonotic), C and D (dogs), E (livestock), F (cats) and G (rodents). It was found that all of the genes could reproducibly group isolates into their assemblages and that the AI/AII subassemblage groups were robust and identifiable at all loci. However, the assemblage B subgroups were not reproducible at half of the loci (small subunit ribosomal DNA and beta giardin), not due to their conserved nature, but because there was insufficient sequence data of reference isolates available for comparison. It is anticipated that further investigation of these loci may reveal the core subgroups of this medically important and zoonotic assemblage and also those of others. The closer, more recent, phylogenetic relationships amongst the assemblages appear to be resolved; however, more sequence data from the current loci, and possibly new loci, will be required to establish the remaining relationships.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. Tel: +61 08 9360 2466. Fax: +61 08 9310 4144. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

N. Abe , C. Read , R. C. Thompson and M. Iseki (2005 b). Zoonotic genotype of Giardia intestinalis detected in a ferret. The Journal of Parasitology 91, 179182.

A. C. Baruch , J. Isaac-Renton and R. D. Adam (1996). The molecular epidemiology of Giardia lamblia: a sequence-based approach. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 174, 233236.

F. Berrilli , D. Di Cave , C. De Liberato , A. Franco , P. Scaramozzino and P. Orecchia (2004). Genotype characterisation of Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic and farm animals by SSU-rRNA gene sequencing. Veterinary Parasitology 122, 193199.

S. M. Caccio , R. C. Thompson , J. McLauchlin and H. V. Smith (2005). Unravelling Cryptosporidium and Giardia epidemiology. Trends in Parasitology 21, 430437.

T. D. Edlind and P. R. Chakraborty (1987). Unusual ribosomal RNA of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. Nucleic Acids Research 15, 78897901.

A. Healey , R. Mitchell , J. A. Upcroft , P. F. Boreham and P. Upcroft (1990). Complete nucleotide sequence of the ribosomal RNA tandem repeat unit from Giardia intestinalis. Nucleic Acids Research 18, 4006.

C. L. Hunt , G. Ionas and T. J. Brown (2000). Prevalence and strain differentiation of Giardia intestinalis in calves in the Manawatu and Waikato regions of North Island, New Zealand. Veterinary Parasitology 91, 713.

P. R. Hunter and R. C. Thompson (2005). The zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. International Journal for Parasitology 35, 11811190.

T. Itagaki , S. Kinoshita , M. Aoki , N. Itoh , H. Saeki , N. Sato , J. Uetsuki , S. Izumiyama , K. Yagita and T. Endo (2005). Genotyping of Giardia intestinalis from domestic and wild animals in Japan using glutamate dehydrogenase gene sequencing. Veterinary Parasitology 133, 283287.

M. Lalle , E. Jimenez-Cardosa , S. M. Caccio and E. Pozio (2005 a). Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis from humans and dogs from Mexico using a beta-giardin nested polymerase chain reaction assay. The Journal of Parasitology 91, 203205.

M. Lalle , E. Pozio , G. Capelli , F. Bruschi , D. Crotti and S. M. Caccio (2005 b). Genetic heterogeneity at the beta-giardin locus among human and animal isolates of Giardia duodenalis and identification of potentially zoonotic subgenotypes. International Journal for Parasitology 35, 207213.

B. P. Meloni and R. C. Thompson (1987). Comparative studies on the axenic in vitro cultivation of Giardia of human and canine origin: evidence for intraspecific variation. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81, 637640.

P. T. Monis and R. H. Andrews (1998). Molecular epidemiology: assumptions and limitations of commonly applied methods. International Journal for Parasitology 28, 981987.

P. T. Monis , R. H. Andrews , G. Mayrhofer and P. L. Ey (1999). Molecular systematics of the parasitic protozoan Giardia intestinalis. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16, 11351144.

P. T. Monis , R. H. Andrews , G. Mayrhofer , J. Mackrill , J. Kulda , J. L. Isaac-Renton and P. L. Ey (1998). Novel lineages of Giardia intestinalis identified by genetic analysis of organisms isolated from dogs in Australia. Parasitology 116, 719.

T. E. Nash and D. B. Keister (1985). Differences in excretory-secretory products and surface antigens among 19 isolates of Giardia. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 152, 11661171.

C. M. Read , P. T. Monis and R. C. Thompson (2004). Discrimination of all genotypes of Giardia duodenalis at the glutamate dehydrogenase locus using PCR-RFLP. Infection, Genetics and Evolution: Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases 4, 125130.

L. J. Robertson , L. Hermansen , B. K. Gjerde , E. Strand , J. O. Alvsvag and N. Langeland (2006). Application of genotyping during an extensive outbreak of waterborne giardiasis in Bergen, Norway, during autumn and winter 2004. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 22122217.

A. M. Stranden , J. Eckert and P. Kohler (1990). Electrophoretic characterization of Giardia isolated from humans, cattle, sheep, and a dog in Switzerland. The Journal of Parasitology 76, 660668.

I. M. Sulaiman , R. Fayer , C. Bern , R. H. Gilman , J. M. Trout , P. M. Schantz , P. Das , A. A. Lal and L. Xiao (2003). Triosephosphate isomerase gene characterization and potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9, 14441452.

I. M. Sulaiman , J. Jiang , A. Singh and L. Xiao (2004). Distribution of Giardia duodenalis genotypes and subgenotypes in raw urban wastewater in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70, 37763780.

R. C. Thompson , R. M. Hopkins and W. L. Homan (2000). Nomenclature and genetic groupings of Giardia infecting mammals. Parasitology Today 16, 210213.

J. M. Trout , M. Santin and R. Fayer (2003). Identification of assemblage A Giardia in white-tailed deer. The Journal of Parasitology 89, 12541255.

J. M. Trout , M. Santin , E. Greiner and R. Fayer (2004). Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in pre-weaned dairy calves. Veterinary Parasitology 124, 179186.

J. A. Upcroft , A. Healey and P. Upcroft (1994). A new rDNA repeat unit in human Giardia. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 41, 639642.

J. A. Upcroft and P. Upcroft (1994). Two distinct varieties of Giardia in a mixed infection from a single human patient. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 41, 189194.

J. W. Van Der Giessen , A. De Vries , M. Roos , P. Wielinga , L. M. Kortbeek and T. G. Mank (2006). Genotyping of Giardia in Dutch patients and animals: a phylogenetic analysis of human and animal isolates. International Journal for Parasitology 36, 849858.

H. Van Keulen , S. R. Campbell , S. L. Erlandsen and E. L. Jarroll (1991). Cloning and restriction enzyme mapping of ribosomal DNA of Giardia duodenalis, Giardia ardeae and Giardia muris. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 46, 275284.

H. Van Keulen , W. L. Homan , S. L. Erlandsen and E. L. Jarroll (1995). A three nucleotide signature sequence in small subunit rRNA divides human Giardia in two different genotypes. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 42, 392394.

J. B. Weiss , H. Van Keulen and T. E. Nash (1992). Classification of subgroups of Giardia lamblia based upon ribosomal RNA gene sequence using the polymerase chain reaction. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 54, 7386.

T. S. Yong , S. J. Park , U. W. Hwang , H. W. Yang , K. W. Lee , D. Y. Min , H. J. Rim , Y. Wang and F. Zheng (2000). Genotyping of Giardia lamblia isolates from humans in China and Korea using ribosomal DNA Sequences. The Journal of Parasitology 86, 887891.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *