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Coproantigen detection for immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and taeniasis in dogs and humans

  • J. C. Allan (a1), P. S. Craig (a1), J. Garcia Noval (a2), F. Mencos (a2), D. Liu (a3), Y. Wang (a4), H. Wen (a5), P. Zhou (a5), R. Stringer (a1), M. Rogan (a1) and E. Zeyhle (a6)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182000061801
  • Published online: 01 April 2009
Abstract
SUMMARY

Three ELISA assays, based on hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against adult cestode somatic antigen, were applied in this study for the detection of Taenia- and Echinococcus-specific antigens in host faeces. The first assay, using an antiserum against Taenia pisiformis antigen extract, was used in a time-course of T. pisiformis experimental infection in dogs. The assay was shown to be considerably more sensitive than microscopical detection of eggs in faeces. Antigen was present in faeces before patency and antigen levels were independent of T. pisiformis egg output. The second assay, involving a test for human taeniasis based on antibodies against T. solium, was applied in two field studies carried out in China and Guatemala. The test was highly specific, no false positive reactions occurred with human faecal samples and the test was capable of diagnosing individuals who would not have been detected by coproscopy or treatment to recover the tapeworm. A third assay was designed for E. granulosus and demonstrated 87·5% sensitivity and 96·5% specificity with samples from naturally and experimentally infected dogs with Echinococcus or Taenia infections. In both the human Taenia and canine Echinococcus studies antigen could be detected in faecal samples from infected hosts stored in 5% formalin for 6 months. Further refinements to these tests for field application are discussed.

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