Akaltun, İsmail Kara, Soner Sertan and Kara, Tayfun 2018. The relationship between Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies and generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: a new approach. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 72, Issue. 1, p. 57.
Kelly, John R. Minuto, Chiara Cryan, John F. Clarke, Gerard and Dinan, Timothy G. 2017. Cross Talk: The Microbiota and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Frontiers in Neuroscience, Vol. 11,
Morais, Fábio Barreto Arantes, Tiago Eugênio Faria e and Muccioli, Cristina 2017. Seroprevalence and Manifestations of Ocular Toxoplasmosis in Patients with Schizophrenia. Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, p. 1.
Del Grande, Claudia Galli, Luca Schiavi, Elisa Dell’Osso, Liliana and Bruschi, Fabrizio 2017. Is Toxoplasma gondii a Trigger of Bipolar Disorder?. Pathogens, Vol. 6, Issue. 4, p. 3.
Wyman, Cynthia P. Gale, Shawn D. Hedges-Muncy, Ariana Erickson, Lance D. Wilson, Eric and Hedges, Dawson W. 2017. Association between Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and memory function in nondemented older adults. Neurobiology of Aging, Vol. 53, p. 76.
Massa, Nick M. Duncan, Erica Jovanovic, Tanja Kerley, Kimberly Weng, Lei Gensler, Lauren Lee, Samuel S. Norrholm, Seth Powers, Abigail Almli, Lynn M. Gillespie, Charles F. Ressler, Kerry and Pearce, Bradley D. 2017. Relationship between Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and acoustic startle response in an inner-city population. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Vol. 61, p. 176.
Šebánková, Blanka and Flegr, Jaroslav 2017. Physical and Mental Health Status in Toxoplasma-Infected Women before and 3 Years after They Learn about Their Infection: Manipulation or Side-Effects of Impaired Health?. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 5,
Berrett, Andrew Gale, Shawn Erickson, Lance Brown, Bruce and Hedges, Dawson 2017. Toxoplasma Gondii Moderates the Association between Multiple Folate-Cycle Factors and Cognitive Function in U.S. Adults. Nutrients, Vol. 9, Issue. 6, p. 564.
Janecek, Elisabeth Waindok, Patrick Bankstahl, Marion Strube, Christina and Ratnappan, Ramesh 2017. Abnormal neurobehaviour and impaired memory function as a consequence of Toxocara canis- as well as Toxocara cati-induced neurotoxocarosis. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol. 11, Issue. 5, p. e0005594.
Stepanova, Ekaterina V. Kondrashin, Anatoly V. Sergiev, Vladimir P. Morozova, Lola F. Turbabina, Natalia A. Maksimova, Maria S. Brazhnikov, Alexey I. Shevchenko, Sergei B. Morozov, Evgeny N. and Calderaro, Adriana 2017. Significance of chronic toxoplasmosis in epidemiology of road traffic accidents in Russian Federation. PLOS ONE, Vol. 12, Issue. 9, p. e0184930.
Sugden, Karen Moffitt, Terrie E. Pinto, Lauriane Poulton, Richie Williams, Benjamin S. Caspi, Avshalom and Tanowitz, Herbert B. 2016. Is Toxoplasma Gondii Infection Related to Brain and Behavior Impairments in Humans? Evidence from a Population-Representative Birth Cohort. PLOS ONE, Vol. 11, Issue. 2, p. e0148435.
Bharti, Ajay R. McCutchan, Allen Deutsch, Reena Smith, Davey M. Ellis, Ronald J. Cherner, Mariana Woods, Steven P. Heaton, Robert K. Grant, Igor and Letendre, Scott L. 2016. LatentToxoplasmaInfection and HigherToxoplasma gondiiImmunoglobulin G Levels Are Associated With Worse Neurocognitive Functioning in HIV-Infected Adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 63, Issue. 12, p. 1655.
Mangot, Ajish G. 2016. Psychiatric aspects of toxoplasmosis: an Indian perspective. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, Vol. 40, Issue. 4, p. 1636.
Esshili, Awatef Thabet, Sihem Jemli, Achraf Trifa, Fatma Mechri, Anouar Zaafrane, Ferid Gaha, Lotfi Juckel, Georg Babba, Hamouda and Bel Hadj Jrad, Besma 2016. Toxoplasma gondii infection in schizophrenia and associated clinical features. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 245, p. 327.
Siransy, Liliane Dasse, Sery Romuald Dou Gonat, Serge Pacôme Legbedji, Antoinette N’guessan, Koffi Kouacou, Patricia Ama Yeboah, Richard and Menan, Hervé 2016. Immunity Status of Blood Donors RegardingToxoplasma gondiiInfection in a Low-Income District of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa. Journal of Immunology Research, Vol. 2016, p. 1.
Ene, L. Marcotte, T.D. Umlauf, A. Grancea, C. Temereanca, A. Bharti, A. Achim, C.L. Letendre, S. and Ruta, S.M. 2016. Latent toxoplasmosis is associated with neurocognitive impairment in young adults with and without chronic HIV infection. Journal of Neuroimmunology, Vol. 299, p. 1.
Al-Hussainy, Nabeel H. Al-saedi, Ahmad M. Al-lehaibi, Jehad H. Al-lehaibi, Yasser A. Al-Sehli, Yasser M. and Afifi, Mohammed A. 2015. Serological evidences link toxoplasmosis with schizophrenia and major depression disorder. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 148.
Erickson, Lance D. Gale, Shawn D. Berrett, Andrew Brown, Bruce L. and Hedges, Dawson W. 2015. Association between toxocariasis and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults. Folia Parasitologica, Vol. 62,
Cook, Thomas B. Brenner, Lisa A. Cloninger, C. Robert Langenberg, Patricia Igbide, Ajirioghene Giegling, Ina Hartmann, Annette M. Konte, Bettina Friedl, Marion Brundin, Lena Groer, Maureen W. Can, Adem Rujescu, Dan and Postolache, Teodor T. 2015. “Latent” infection with Toxoplasma gondii: Association with trait aggression and impulsivity in healthy adults. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 60, p. 87.
Toxoplasma gondii is known to induce specific behavioural changes in its intermediate hosts. This is usually considered to be an evolutionary adaptation aimed to increase the probability of transmission of the parasite into its definitive host, the cat, by predation. In rodents an increase of reaction time as well as many other specific behavioural patterns have been observed. Here we report the results of our double blind study showing the significantly longer reaction times of 60 subjects with latent toxoplasmosis in comparison with those of 56 controls. Moreover, the existence of a positive correlation between length of infection and mean reaction time suggested that slow and cumulative effects of latent toxoplasmosis rather than a one-step (and possibly transient) effect of acute toxoplasmosis disease are responsible for the decrease of psychomotor performance of infected subjects. To our knowledge, this is the first study confirming the existence of such parasite-induced changes in human behaviour that could be considered in evolutionary history of the human species as adaptive from the point of view of parasite transmission.
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