Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Al-Riyami, Lamyaa Pineda, Miguel A. Rzepecka, Justyna Huggan, Judith K. Khalaf, Abedawn I. Suckling, Colin J. Scott, Fraser J. Rodgers, David T. Harnett, Margaret M. and Harnett, William 2013. Designing Anti-inflammatory Drugs from Parasitic Worms: A Synthetic Small Molecule Analogue of theAcanthocheilonema viteaeProduct ES-62 Prevents Development of Collagen-Induced Arthritis. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 56, Issue. 24, p. 9982.

    Strübing, Uta Lucius, Richard Hoerauf, Achim and Pfarr, Kenneth M. 2010. Mitochondrial genes for heme-dependent respiratory chain complexes are up-regulated after depletion of Wolbachia from filarial nematodes. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 40, Issue. 10, p. 1193.

    Hewitson, James P. Grainger, John R. and Maizels, Rick M. 2009. Helminth immunoregulation: The role of parasite secreted proteins in modulating host immunity. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. 167, Issue. 1, p. 1.


Does Litomosoides sigmodontis synthesize dimethylethanolamine from choline?

  • K. M. HOUSTON (a1), S. A. BABAYAN (a2), J. E. ALLEN (a2) and W. HARNETT (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2007

Juvenile female Litomosoides sigmodontis secrete a protein (Juv-p120) highly modified with dimethylethanolamine (DMAE). In an attempt to establish the source of this decoration worms were pulsed with [3H]-choline and [3H]-ethanolamine and the radio-isotope labelled products analysed. Both isotope labels were successfully taken up by the worms, as demonstrated by labelling of phospholipids with [3H]-choline, being predominantly incorporated into phosphatidylcholine and [3H]-ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine. Isotope labelling of phosphatidylethanolamine was particularly striking with the worms taking up ~30 times as much labelled ethanolamine as choline. It was possible to detect faint labelling of Juv-p120 with [3H]-ethanolamine after prolonged exposure periods but, unlike the situation with the phospholipids, it was much more readily labelled with [3H]-choline. When pulsing with [3H]-ethanolamine it was also possible to detect isotope-labelled phosphatidylcholine, which may ultimately account for the low levels of labelling of Juv-p120. Overall our results raise the previously unconsidered but intriguing possibility that in L. sigmodontis, choline may be the precursor of DMAE.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, The John Arbuthnott Building, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, UK. Tel: 0141 548 3725. Fax: 0141-552-2562. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

K. M. Al-Qaoud , B. Fleischer and A. Hoerauf (1998). The Xid defect imparts susceptibility to experimental murine filariosis – association with a lack of antibody and IL-10 production by B cells in response to phosphorylcholine. International Immunology 10, 1725.

S. Babayan , M. N. Ungeheuer , C. Marin , T. Attout , E. Belnoue , G. Snounou , L. Renia , M. Korenaga and O. Bain (2003). Resistance and susceptibility to filarial infection with Litomosoides sigmodontis are associated with early differences in parasite development and in localized immune reactions. Infection and Immunity 71, 68206829.

K. M. Brendza , W. Haakenson , R. E. Cahoon , L. M. Hicks , L. H. Palavilli , B. J. Chiapelli , M. McLaird , J. P. McCarter , D. J. Williams , M. C. Hresko and J. M. Jez (2007). Phosphoethanolamine N-Methyltransferase (PMT-1) catalyses the first reaction of a new pathway for phosphocholine biosynthesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. The Biochemical Journal, e. publication 22nd February.

J. F. Cipollo , A. Awad , C. E. Costello , P. W. Robbins and C. B. Hirschberg (2004). Biosynthesis in vitro of Caenorhabditis elegans phosphorylcholine oligosaccharides. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 101, 30043008.

H. S. Goodridge , F. A. Marshall , K. J. Else , K. M. Houston , C. Eagan , L. Al-Riyami , F.-Y. Liew , W. Harnett and M. M. Harnett (2005). Immunomodulation via novel use of TLR4 by the filarial nematode phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing secreted product, ES-62. Journal of Immunology 174, 284293.

W. Harnett , M. Grainger , M. J. Worms and R. M. E. Parkhouse (1989). Evaluation of the potential of excretions-secretions (E-S) of Litomosoides carinii to substitute for human filarial E-S. Parasitology Research 76, 3944.

W. Harnett and M. M. Harnett (2001). Modulation of the host immune system by phosphorylcholine-containing glycoproteins secreted by parasitic filarial nematodes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1539, 715.

W. Harnett , M. Patterson , D. B. Copeman and R. M. E. Parkhouse (1994). Biosynthetic radiolabelling of excretions-secretions of adult male Onchocerca gibsoni. International Journal for Parasitology 24, 543550.

M. Hintz , M. Kasper , B. Stahl , R. Geyer , H.-O. Kalinowski , M. Kras , S. Kuhnhardt , H.-H. Schott , F. Conraths , H. Zahner and A. Stirm (1996). Dimethylaminoethanol is a major component of the Litomosoides carinii microfilarial sheath. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 76, 325328.

M. Hintz , G. Schares , A. Taubert , R. Geyer , H. Zahner , S. Stirm and F. J. Conraths (1998). Juvenile female Litomosoides sigmodontis produce an excretory/secretory antigen (Juv-p120) highly modified with dimethylaminoethanol. Parasitology 117, 265271.

K. M. Houston , W. Cushley and W. Harnett (1997). Studies on the site and mechanism of attachment of phosphorylcholine to a filarial nematode secreted glycoprotein. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272, 15271533.

K. M. Houston and W. Harnett (1999). Mechanisms underlying the transfer of phosphorylcholine to filarial nematode glycoproteins – a possible role for choline kinase. Parasitology 118, 311318.

K. M. Houston , G. Lochnit , R. Geyer and W. Harnett (2002). Investigation of the nature of potential phosphorylcholine donors for filarial nematode glycoconjugates. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 123, 5566.

D. Rhodes and A. D. Hanson (1993). Quaternary ammonium and tertiary sulfonium compounds in higher plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 44, 357384.

V. P. Smith , M. E. Selkirk and K. Gounaris (1996). Identification and composition of lipid classes in surface and somatic preparations of adult Brugia malayi. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 78, 105116.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *