Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia

  • LEIDI LAURIMAA (a1), EPP MOKS (a1), EGLE SOE (a1), HARRI VALDMANN (a1) and URMAS SAARMA (a1)...
Summary
SUMMARY

Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. Department of Zoology, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46, 51014 Tartu, Estonia. E-mail: urmas.saarma@ut.ee
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

L. G. Arlian (1989). Biology, host relations, and epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei . Annual Review of Entomology 34, 139161.

P. W. Bateman and P. A. Fleming (2012). Big city life: carnivores in urban environments. Journal of Zoology 287, 123.

F. J. Conraths and P. Deplazes (2015). Echinococcus multilocularis: epidemiology, surveillance and state-of-the-art diagnostics from a veterinary public health perspective. Veterinary Parasitology 213, 149161.

R. K. Davidson , T. Romig , E. Jenkins , M. Tryland and L. J. Robertson (2012). The impact of globalisation on the distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis . Trends in Parasitology 28, 239247.

P. Deplazes , D. Hegglin , S. Gloor and T. Romig (2004). Wilderness in the city: the urbanization of Echinococcus multilocularis . Trends in Parasitology 20, 7784.

E. Fuglei , A. Stien , N. G. Yoccoz , R. A. Ims , N. E. Eide , P. Prestrud , P. Deplazes and A. Oksanen (2008). Spatial distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis, Svalbard, Norway. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14, 7375.

S. Harris and J. M. V. Rayner (1986). Urban fox (Vulpes vulpes) population estimates and habitat requirements in several British cities. Journal of Animal Ecology 55, 575591.

J. Heukelbach and H. Feldmeier (2006). Scabies. Lancet 367, 17671774.

S. Hofer , S. Gloor , U. Müller , A. Mathis , D. Hegglin and P. Deplazes (2000). High prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in urban red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and voles (Arvicola terrestris) in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. Parasitology 120, 135142.

K. Kauhala and R. Kowalczyk (2011). Invasion of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides in Europe: history of colonization, features behind its success, and threats to native fauna. Current Zoology 57, 584598.

J. Knapp , M. Nakao , T. Yanagida , M. Okamoto , U. Saarma , A. Lavikainen and A. Ito (2011). Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): an inference from nuclear protein-coding genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61, 628638.

J. Knapp , B. Gottstein , U. Saarma and L. Millon (2015). Taxonomy, phylogeny and molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus multilocularis: from fundamental knowledge to health ecology. Veterinary Parasitology 213, 8591.

L. Laurimaa , J. Davison , L. Plumer , K. Süld , R. Oja , E. Moks , M. Keis , M. Hindrikson , L. Kinkar , T. Laurimäe , J. Abner , J. Remm , P. Anijalg and U. Saarma (2015 a). Non-invasive molecular diagnostics identifies Echinococcus multilocularis spillover to an urban area in Estonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 21, 163164.

L. Laurimaa , K. Süld , E. Moks , H. Valdmann , G. Umhang , J. Knapp and U. Saarma (2015 b). First report of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in raccoon dogs in Estonia, and comparisons with other countries in Europe. Veterinary Parasitology 212, 200205.

L. Laurimaa , J. Davison , K. Süld , L. Plumer , R. Oja , E. Moks , M. Keis , M. Hindrikson , L. Kinkar , T. Laurimäe , J. Abner , J. Remm , P. Anijalg and U. Saarma (2015 c). First report of highly pathogenic Echinococcus granulosus genotype G1 in dogs in European urban environment. Parasites & Vectors 8, 182.

L. Laurimaa , K. Süld , J. Davison , E. Moks , H. Valdmann and U. Saarma (2016). Alien species and their zoonotic parasites in native and introduced ranges: the raccoon dog example. Veterinary Parasitology 219, 2433.

A. Marcinkute , M. Šarkunas , E. Moks , U. Saarma , P. Jokelainen , G. Bagrade , S. Laivacuma , K. Strupas , V. Sokolovas and P. Deplazes (2015). Echinococcus infections in the Baltic region. Veterinary Parasitology 213, 121131.

E. Moks , U. Saarma and H. Valdmann (2005). Echinococcus multilocularis in Estonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11, 19731974.

E. Moks , I. Jõgisalu , U. Saarma , H. Talvik , T. Järvis and H. Valdmann (2006). Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus . Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42, 359365.

E. Moks , I. Jõgisalu , H. Valdmann and U. Saarma (2008). First report of Echinococcus granulosus G8 in Eurasia and a reappraisal of the phylogenetic relationships of “genotypes” G5–G10. Parasitology 135, 647654.

T. J. Newman , P. J. Baker and S. Harris (2002). Nutritional condition and survival of red foxes with sarcoptic mange. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80, 154161.

L. Plumer , J. Davison and U. Saarma (2014). Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases. PLoS ONE 9, e115124.

I. Saeed , C. Maddox-Hyttel , J. Monrad and C. M. O. Kapel (2006). Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark. Veterinary Parasitology 139, 168179.

G. C. Smith , B. Gangadharan , Z. Taylor , M. K. Laurenson , H. Bradshaw , G. Hide , J. M. Hughes , A. Dinkel , T. Romig and P. S. Craig (2003). Prevalence of zoonotic important parasites in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain. Veterinary Parasitology 118, 133142.

L. Stone and A. Roberts (1990). The checkerboard score and species distributions. Oecologia 85, 7479.

K. Süld , H. Valdmann , L. Laurimaa , E. Soe , J. Davison and U. Saarma (2014). An invasive vector of zoonotic disease sustained by anthropogenic resources: the raccoon dog in northern Europe. PLoS ONE 9(5), e96358.

Z. Szell , G. Marucci , E. Pozio and T. Sreter (2013). Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary. Veterinary Parasitology 197, 393396.

N. Tamminga , W. F. W. Bierman and P. J. de Vries (2009). Cutaneous larva migrans acquired in Brittany, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15, 18561858.

G. Umhang , M.-A. Forin-Wiart , V. Hormaz , C. Caillot , J.-M. Boucher , M.-L. Poulle and B. Franck (2015). Echinococcus multilocularis detection in the intestines and feces of free-ranging domestic cats (Felis s. catus) and European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) from northeastern France. Veterinary Parasitology 214, 7579.

D. A. Vuitton , F. Demonmerot , J. Knapp , C. Richou , F. Grenouillet , A. Chauchet , L. Vuitton , S. Bresson-Hadni and L. Millon (2015). Clinical epidemiology of human AE in Europe. Veterinary Parasitology 213, 110120.

I. Ziadinov , P. Deplazes , A. Mathis , B. Mutunova , K. Abdykerimov , R. Nurgaziev and P. R. Torgerson (2010). Frequency distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis and other helminths of foxes in Kyrgyzstan. Veterinary Parasitology 171, 286292.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Parasitology
  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Laurimaa supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (21 KB)
21 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 61 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 268 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th July 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.