Adamo, S. A. (2004). Estimating disease resistance in insects: phenoloxidase and lysozyme-like activity and disease resistance in the cricket Gryllus texensis. Journal of Insect Physiology 50, 209–216.
Adamo, S. A., Jensen, M. and Younger, M. (2001). Changes in lifetime immunocompetence in male and female Gryllus texensis (formely G. integer): trade-offs between immunity and reproduction. Animal Behaviour 62, 417–425.
Armitage, S. A. O., Thompson, J. J. W., Rolff, J. and Siva-Jothy, M. T. (2003). Examining costs of induced and constitutive immune investment in Tenebrio molitor. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 16, 1038–1044.
Calleri, I. I. D., McGrail, V., Reid, E., Rosengaus, R. B., Vargo, E. L. and Traniello, J. F. A. (2006). Inbreeding and disease resistance in a social insect: effect of heterozygosity on immunocompetence in the termite Zootermopsis angusticollis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 273, 2633–2640.
Contreras-Garduño, J., Córdoba-Aguilar, A., Lanz-Mendoza, H. and Cordero Rivera, A. (2009). Territorial behaviour and immunity are mediated by juvenile hormone: the physiological basis of honest signaling? Functional Ecology 23, 157–163.
Contreras-Garduño, J., Lanz-Mendoza, H., Córdoba-Aguilar, A. (2007). The expression of a sexually selected trait correlates with different immune defense components and survival in males of the American rubyspot. Journal of Insect Physiology 53, 612–621.
Córdoba-Aguilar, A., Contreras-Garduño, J., Peralta-Vázquez, H., Luna- González, A., Campa-Córdova, A. I. and Ascencio, F. (2006). Sexual comparisons in immune ability, parasite intensity and survival in two damselfly species. Journal of Insect Physiology 52, 861–869.
Cotter, S. C., Kruuk, L. E. B. and Wilson, K. (2004). Costs of resistance: genetic correlations and potential trade-offs in an insect immune system. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17, 421–429.
Cotter, S. C. and Wilson, K. (2002). Heritability of immunocompetence in the caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis. Heredity 88, 229–234.
Dromph, K. M. (2003). Collembolans as vectors of entomopathogenic fungi. Pedobiologia 47, 245–256.
Fedorka, K. M., Zuk, M. and Mousseau, T. A. (2004). Immune suppression and the cost of reproduction in the ground cricket, Allonemobious socius. Evolution 56, 2478–2485.
Fisher, R. C. (1963). Oxygen requirements and the physiological suppression of supernumary insect parasitoids. Journal of Experimental Biology 38, 605–658.
Folstad, I. and Karter, A. J. (1992). Parasites, bright males, and the immunocompetence handicap. American Naturalist 139, 603–622.
Gerloff, C. U., Ottmer, B. K. and Schmid-Hempel, P. (2003). Effects of inbreeding on immune response and body size in a social insect, Bombus terrestris. Functional Ecology 17, 582–589.
Gershman, S. N. (2008). Sex-specific differences in immunological costs of multiple mating in Gryllus vocalis field crickets. Behavioural Ecology 19, 810–815.
Gillespie, J. P., Kanost, M. R. and Trenczek, T. (1997). Biological mediators of insect immunity. Annual Review of Entomology 42, 611–643.
Gillespie, J. P. and Khachatourians, G. G. (1992). Characterization of Melanopplus sanguinipes after infection with Beauverina bassiana or wounding. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 103B, 455–463.
Gorman, M. J., Cornel, A. J., Collins, F. H. and Paskewitz, S. M. (1996). A shared genetic mechanism for melanotic encapsulation of CM-sephadex beads and the malaria parasite, Plasmodium cynomolgi B, in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Experimental Parasitology 84, 380–386.
Gray, D. A. (1998). Sex differences in susceptibility of house crickets, Acheta domesticus, to experimental infection with Serratia liquefaciens. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 71, 288–289.
Gupta, A. P. (2001). Immunology of invertebrates: cellular. In Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Nature Publishing Group, London, UK (www.els.net).
Kapari, L., Haukioja, E., Rantala, M. J. and Ruuhola, T. (2006). Immune defence of a defoliating insect interacts with induced plant defence during a population outbreak. Ecology 87, 291–296.
Keller, L. F. and Waller, D. M. (2002). Inbreeding effects in wild populations. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17, 230–241.
Kelly, C. D. and Jennions, M. D. (2009). Sexually dimorphic immune response in the harem polygynous Wellington tree weta Hemideina crassidens. Physiological Entomology 34, 174–179.
Kivleniece, I., Krams, I., Krama, T., Daukste, J. and Rantala, M. J. (2010). Terminal investment in sexual signaling in male meal worm beetles. Animal Behaviour 80, 1015–1021.
Köning, C. and Schmid-Hempel, P. (1995). Foraging activity and immunocompetence in workers of the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 260, 225–227.
Koskimäki, J., Rantala, M. J., Suhonen, J., Taskinen, J. and Tynkkynen, K. (2004). Immunocompetence and resource holding potential and immunocompetence in the damselfly Calopteryx virgo L. Behavioural Ecology 15, 169–173.
Kruuk, L. E. B. (2004). Estimating genetic parameters in natural populations using the ‘animal model’. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B 359, 873–890.
Kurtz, J., Wiesner, A., Götz, P. and Sauer, K. (2000). Gender differences and individual variation in the immune system of the scorpionfly Panorpa vulgaris (insecta: mecoptera). Developmental and Comparative Immunology 24, 1–12.
Lindsey, E. and Altizer, S. (2009). Sex differences in immune defenses and response to parasitism in monarch butterflies. Evolutionary Ecology 23, 607–620.
Mallon, E. B., Loosli, R. and Schmid-Hempel, P. (2003). Specific versus nonspecific immune defense in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L. Evolution 57, 1444–1447.
Mietkiewski, R. and Tkaczuk, C. (1998). The spectrum and frequency of entomopathogenic fungi in litter, forest soil and arable soil. IOBC wprs Bulletin 21, 41–44.
Møller, A. P., Sorci, G. and Erritzøe, J. (1998). Sexual dimorphism in immune defense. American Naturalist 152, 605–619.
Moret, Y. and Schmid-Hempel, P. (2000). Survival for immunity: the price of immune system activation for bumblebee workers. Science 290, 1166–1168.
Moret, Y. and Siva-Jothy, M. T. (2003). Adaptive innate immunity? Responsive-mode prophylaxis in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 270, 2475–2480.
Mucklow, P. T., Vizoso, D. B., Jensen, K. H., Refardt, D. and Ebert, D. (2004). Variation for phenoloxidase activity and its relation to parasite resistance within and between populations of Daphnia magna. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 271, 1175–1183.
van Ooik, T., Rantala, M. J. and Saloniemi, I. (2007). Diet-mediated effects of heavy metal pollution on growth and immune response in the geometrid moth, Epirrita autumnata. Environmental Pollution 145, 348–354.
Paskewitz, S. and Riehle, M. A. (1994). Response of Plasmodium refractory and susceptible strains of Anopheles gambiae to inoculated sephadex beads. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 18, 369–375.
Rantala, M. J., Jokinen, I., Kortet, R., Vainikka, A. and Suhonen, J. (2002). Do pheromones reveal immunocompetence? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 269, 1681–1685.
Rantala, M. J., Kortet, R., Kotiaho, J. S., Vainikka, A. and Suhonen, J. (2003 a). Condition dependence of pheromones and immune function in the grain beetle Tenebrio molitor. Functional Ecology 17, 534–540.
Rantala, M. J., Kortet, R. and Vainikka, A. (2003 b). The role of juvenile hormone in immune function and pheromone production trade-offs: a test of the immunocompetence handicap principle. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 270, 2257–2261.
Rantala, M. J., Koskimäki, J., Taskinen, J., Tynkkynen, K. and Suhonen, J. (2000). Immunocompetence, developmental stability and wing spot size in the damselfly Calopteryx splendens L. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 267, 2453–2457.
Rantala, M. J. and Roff, D. A. (2005). An analysis of trade-off in immune function, body size and development time in the Mediterranean field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Functional Ecology 19, 323–330.
Rantala, M. J. and Roff, D. A. (2006). Analysis of the importance of genotypic variation, metabolic rate, morphology, sex and development time on immune function in the cricket, Gryllus firmus. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19, 834–843.
Rantala, M. J. and Roff, D. A. (2007). Inbreeding and extreme outbreeding causes sex differences in immune defence and life history traits in Epirrita autumnata. Heredity 98, 329–336.
Rantala, M. J., Roff, D. A. and Rantala, L. M. (2007). Forceps size and immune function in the european earwig Forficula auricularia. Biological Journal of Linnean Society 90, 509–516.
Rolff, J. (2002). Bateman's principle and immunity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 269, 867–872.
Rolff, J. and Siva-Jothy, M. T. (2002). Copulation corrupts immunity: a mechanism for a cost of mating in insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 99, 9916–9918.
Schmid-Hempel, P. (2003). Variation in immune defence as a question of evolutionary ecology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 270, 357–366.
Schwartz, A. and Koella, J. C. (2002). Melanization of Plasmodium falciparum and c-25 sephadex beads by field-caught Anopheles gambiae (Diptera : Culicidae) from southern Tanzania. Journal of Medical Entomology 39, 84–88.
Schwarzenbach, G. A., Hosken, D. J. and Ward, P. I. (2005). Sex and immunity in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18, 455–463.
Schwarzenbach, G. A. and Ward, P. I. (2007). Phenoloxidase activity and pathogen resistance in yellow dung flies Scathophaga stercoraria. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20, 2192–2199.
Sheridan, L. A. D., Poulin, R., Ward, D. F. and Zuk, M. (2000). Sex differences in parasitic infections among arthropod hosts: is there a male bias? Oikos 88, 327–334.
da Silva, C., Dunphy, G. B. and Rau, M. E. (2000). Interaction of hemocytes and prophenoloxidase system of fifth instar nymphs of Acheta domesticus with bacteria. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 24, 367–379.
Siva-Jothy, M. T. and Thompson, J. W. (2002). Short-term nutrient deprivation affects adult immune function in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. Physiological Entomology 27, 206–212.
Spielman, D., Brook, B. W., Briscoe, D. A. and Frankham, R. (2004). Does inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity decrease disease resistance? Conservation Genetics 5, 439–448.
Stevens, L., Yan, G. and Pray, L. A. (1997). Consequences of inbreeding on invertebrate host susceptibility to parasitic infection. Evolution 51, 2032–2039.
Suhonen, J., Honkavaara, J. and Rantala, M. J. (2010). Activation of the immune system promotes insect dispersal in the wild. Oecologia 162, 541–547.
Vainikka, A., Rantala, M. J., Seppälä, O. and Suhonen, J. (2007). Do male mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, sustain the honesty of pheromone signals under immune challenge? Acta Ethologica 10, 63–72.
Vainio, L., Hakkarainen, H., Rantala, M. J. and Sorvari, J. (2004). Individual variation in immune function in Formica exsecta: effect of nest, body size and sex. Evolutionary Ecology 18, 75–84.
Valtonen, T. M., Viitaniemi, H. and Rantala, M. J. (2010). Copulation enhances resistance against an entomopathogenic fungi in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. Parasitology 137, 985–989.
Washburn, J. O., Kirkpatrick, B. A. and Vokman, L. E. (1996). Insect protection against viruses. Nature, London 383, 767.
Wilson, K., Cotter, S. C., Reeson, A. F. and Pell, J. K. (2001). Melanism and disease resistance in insects. Ecology Letters 4, 637–649.
Yang, S., Ruuhola, T. and Rantala, M. J. (2007). Impacts of starvation on immune defense and other life history traits of an outbreaking geometrid, Epirrita autumnata: a possible ultimate trigger of the crash phase of population cycle. Annales Zoologici Fennici 44, 89–96.
Yourth, C. P., Forbes, M. and Smith, P. (2001). On understanding variation in immune expression of the damselflies Lestes spp. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79, 815–821.
Yourth, C. P., Forbes, M. and Smith, B. P. (2002 a). Immune expression in a damselfly is related to time of season, not to fluctuating asymmetry or host size. Ecological Entomology 27, 123–128.
Yourth, C. P., Forbes, M. and Smith, B. P. (2002 b). Sex differences in melanotic encapsulation responses (immunocompetence) in the damselfly Lestes forcipatus Rambur. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80, 1578–1583.
Zuk, M. (1990). Reproductive strategies and disease susceptibility: an evolutionary viewpoint. Parasitology Today 6, 231–233.
Zuk, M. and McKean, K. A. (1996). Sex differences in parasite infections: patterns and processes. International Journal for Parasitology 26, 1009–1024.
Zuk, M., Simmons, L. W., Rotenberry, J. T. and Stoehr, A. M. (2004). Sex differences in immunity in two species of field crickets. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82, 627–634.
Zuk, M. and Stoehr, A. M. (2002). Immune defence and host life history. American Naturalist 160, S9–S22.