Burger, Monica Du Plessis, Elizabeth C. Suleman, Essa and Gardner, Brett R. 2017. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a zoological collection of meerkats (<i>Suricata suricatta</i>). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, Vol. 88, Issue. 0,
MANGIAVACCHI, B. M. VIEIRA, F. P. BAHIA-OLIVEIRA, L. M. G. and HILL, D. 2016. Salivary IgA against sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP) in the study of horizontally transmitted toxoplasmosis via T. gondii oocysts in endemic settings. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 144, Issue. 12, p. 2568.
SHAPIRO, KAREN MILLER, MELISSA A. PACKHAM, ANDREA E. AGUILAR, BEATRIZ CONRAD, PATRICIA A. VANWORMER, ELIZABETH and MURRAY, MICHAEL J. 2016. Dual congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in a late-term aborted pup from a chronically infected southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Parasitology, Vol. 143, Issue. 03, p. 276.
Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim 2016. Sero-epidemiology and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Arab and African countries. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, Vol. 40, Issue. 3, p. 569.
Haq, Sameena Z.H. Abushahama, Muftah S. Gerwash, Omar Hughes, Jacqueline M. Wright, Elizabeth A. Elmahaishi, Mohamed S. Lun, Zhao-Rong Thomasson, Denise and Hide, Geoff 2016. High frequency detection ofToxoplasma gondiiDNA in human neonatal tissue from Libya. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 110, Issue. 9, p. 551.
Lawrence, K.E. Gedye, K. McFadden, A.M.J. Pulford, D.J. and Pomroy, W.E. 2016. An observational study of the vertical transmission of Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) in a New Zealand pastoral dairy herd. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 218, p. 59.
Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza Rassouli, Maryam Fazaeli, Asghar and Salimi-Bejestani, Mohammad Reza 2016. Outbreak of ovine congenital toxoplasmosis in Iran, confirmed by different diagnostic methods. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, Vol. 40, Issue. 1, p. 152.
dos Santos, Thaís Rabelo Faria, Gabriela da Silva Magalhães Guerreiro, Bruna Martins dal Pietro, Nathalia Helena Pereira da Silva Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti da Silva, Helenara Machado Garcia, João Luis Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva da Costa, Alvimar José and Gantt, Soren 2016. Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Chronically Infected and Subsequently Challenged Ewes. PLOS ONE, Vol. 11, Issue. 10, p. e0165124.
Hide, Geoff 2016. Role of vertical transmission ofToxoplasma gondiiin prevalence of infection. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, Vol. 14, Issue. 3, p. 335.
Chen, Di Lin, Jiaxin Liu, Yangyang Li, Xiangzhi Chen, Gaozhi Hua, Qianqian Nie, Qinqin Hu, Xin and Tan, Feng 2016. Identification of TgAtg8–TgAtg3 interaction in Toxoplasma gondii. Acta Tropica, Vol. 153, p. 79.
Lun, Zhao-Rong Lai, De-Hua Wen, Yan-Zi Zheng, Ling-Ling Shen, Ji-Long Yang, Ting-Bo Zhou, Wen-Liang Qu, Liang-Hu Hide, Geoff and Ayala, Francisco J. 2015. Cancer in the parasitic protozoansTrypanosoma bruceiandToxoplasma gondii. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue. 29, p. 8835.
Abdollahi, Seyed Hossein Ayoobi, Fateme Khorramdelazad, Hossein Nasiri Ahmadabadi, Behzad Rezayati, Mohammadtaghi Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad and Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad 2015. Levels of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta After Immunization of Mice With Toxoplasma gondii prepared Excretory/Secretory Proteins. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 8, Issue. 5,
BAJNOK, J. BOYCE, K. ROGAN, M. T. CRAIG, P. S. LUN, Z. R. and HIDE, G. 2015. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in localized populations of Apodemus sylvaticus is linked to population genotype not to population location. Parasitology, Vol. 142, Issue. 05, p. 680.
Dodd, Nicole S. Lord, Jennifer S. Jehle, Robert Parker, Steven Parker, Fiona Brooks, Darren R. and Hide, Geoff 2014. Toxoplasma gondii: Prevalence in species and genotypes of British bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus). Experimental Parasitology, Vol. 139, p. 6.
Boyce, K. Hide, G. Craig, P.S. Reynolds, C. Hussain, M. Bodell, A.J. Bradshaw, H. Pickles, A. and Rogan, M.T. 2014. A molecular and ecological analysis of the trematode Plagiorchis elegans in the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus from a periaquatic ecosystem in the UK. Journal of Helminthology, Vol. 88, Issue. 03, p. 310.
Thompson, R.C. Andrew 2014. Parasites and food: ripe for exploitation. Trends in Parasitology, Vol. 30, Issue. 1, p. 1.
Wang, Tao Gao, Jiang-Mei Yi, Si-Qi Geng, Guo-Qing Gao, Xiao-Jie Shen, Ji-Long Lu, Fang-Li Wen, Yan-Zi Hide, Geoff and Lun, Zhao-Rong 2014. Toxoplasma gondii infection in the peritoneal macrophages of rats treated with glucocorticoids. Parasitology Research, Vol. 113, Issue. 1, p. 351.
Morger, Jennifer Bajnok, Jaroslav Boyce, Kellyanne Craig, Philip S. Rogan, Michael T. Lun, Zhao-Rong Hide, Geoff and Tschirren, Barbara 2014. Naturally occurring Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11) and Toll-like receptor 12 (TLR12) polymorphisms are not associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild wood mice. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 26, p. 180.
Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti Macêdo Junior, Arlindo Gomes de da Silva, Murilo Vieira Ferreira, Flávia Batista Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira Pompermayer, Endrigo Sangioni, Luis Antônio Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca and Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores 2014. Serological status of mares in parturition and the levels of antibodies (IgG) against protozoan family Sarcocystidae from their pre colostral foals. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 199, Issue. 1-2, p. 107.
Toxoplasma gondii is a highly ubiquitous and prevalent parasite. Despite the cat being the only definitive host, it is found in almost all geographical areas and warm blooded animals. Three routes of transmission are recognised: ingestion of oocysts shed by the cat, carnivory and congenital transmission. In natural populations, it is difficult to establish the relative importance of these routes. This paper reviews recent work in our laboratory which suggests that congenital transmission may be much more important than previously thought. Using PCR detection of the parasite, studies in sheep show that congenital transmission may occur in as many as 66% of pregnancies. Furthermore, in families of sheep on the same farm, exposed to the same sources of oocysts, significant divergent prevalences of Toxoplasma infection and abortion are found between different families. The data suggest that breeding from infected ewes increases the risk of subsequent abortion and infection in lambs. Congenital transmission rates in a natural population of mice were found to be 75%. Interestingly, congenital transmission rates in humans were measured at 19·8%. The results presented in these studies differ from those of other published studies and suggest that vertical transmission may be much more important than previously thought.
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