Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 12
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Leung, Tommy L. F. 2015. Fossils of parasites: what can the fossil record tell us about the evolution of parasitism?. Biological Reviews, p. n/a.

    Nagler, Christina and Haug, Joachim T. 2015. Fossil Parasites.

    Poinar, George O. 2015. Fossil Parasites.

    Robin, Ninon Petit, Gilles and Charbonnier, Sylvain 2015. A newly recognized Mesozoic-Recent interspecific association: calcifying bacteria on decapod crustaceans. Lethaia, Vol. 48, Issue. 4, p. 463.

    Poinar, George 2012. Nematode Parasites and Associates of Ants: Past and Present. Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Vol. 2012, p. 1.

    2011. Insect Ecology.

    LaPolla, John S. and Dlussky, Gennady M. 2010. Review of FossilPrenolepisGenus-Group Species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, Vol. 112, Issue. 2, p. 258.

    Smejkal, Gary B Poinar, George O and Righetti, Pier Giorgio 2009. Will amber inclusions provide the first glimpse of a Mesozoic proteome?. Expert Review of Proteomics, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Poinar, George O. Porter, Sanford D. Tang, Sha and Hyman, Bradley C. 2007. Allomermis solenopsi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitising the fire ant Solenopsi s invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina. Systematic Parasitology, Vol. 68, Issue. 2, p. 115.

    Poinar, George Lachaud, Jean-Paul Castillo, Alfredo and Infante, Francisco 2006. Recent and fossil nematode parasites (Nematoda: Mermithidae) of Neotropical ants. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Vol. 91, Issue. 1, p. 19.

    Poinar, George and Buckley, Ron 2006. Nematode (Nematoda: Mermithidae) and hairworm (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae) parasites in Early Cretaceous amber. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Vol. 93, Issue. 1, p. 36.

    Poinar, George 2003. Formicitylenchus oregonensis n. g., n. sp. (Allantonematidae: Nematoda), the first tylenchid parasite of ants, with a review of nematodes described from ants. Systematic Parasitology, Vol. 56, Issue. 1, p. 69.


First fossil record of nematode parasitism of ants; a 40 million year tale

  • G. POINAR Jr (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2003

A mermithid nematode emerging from a male ant, Prenolepis henschei Mayr, in Baltic amber is the first fossil record demonstrating nematode parasitism of ants. This parasite, described as Heydenius formicinus sp. n., is compared to extant mermithid parasites of ants, especially Allomermis myrmecophila Baylis 1921. The present fossil, together with earlier reports of braconid and mite parasitism of ants in Baltic amber, indicates that several diverse groups had already evolved parasitic associations with ants by the Eocene.

Corresponding author
Tel: +541 752 0917. Fax: +541 737-3643. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *