Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Poole, Helen Terlouw, Dianne J Naunje, Andrew Mzembe, Kondwani Stanton, Michelle Betson, Martha Lalloo, David G and Stothard, J 2014. Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 153.


Intestinal schistosomiasis in chimpanzees on Ngamba Island, Uganda: observations on liver fibrosis, schistosome genetic diversity and praziquantel treatment

  • C. J. STANDLEY (a1), L. MUGISHA (a2) (a3), M. ADRIKO (a4), M. ARINAITWE (a4), J. RUKUNDO (a5), L. AJAROVA (a5), S. MOPYA (a4) (a6), M. BETSON (a7), N. B. KABATEREINE (a4) and J. R. STOTHARD (a7)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 25 October 2012

Despite treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) at 40 mg/kg in food, several chimpanzees on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary (NICS) continue to excrete eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. To monitor disease, 8 animals were closely examined under anaesthesia in March 2011 with portable ultrasonography and by rectal snip biopsy. Schistosome genetic diversity had been previously assayed within 4 of these chimpanzees, finding extensive diversity with 27 DNA barcodes encountered, although none was common to all animals. Calcified schistosome eggs were found in the rectal snips from 5 chimpanzees and liver fibrosis was clearly documented, indicative of progressive disease in 6 animals, the latter being surprisingly advanced in a younger chimpanzee. All 8 animals were treated under anaesthesia by oral gavage with PZQ at 60 mg/kg dosing that was well tolerated. These animals were again re-examined in June 2012 using stool and urine sampling. Only 1 chimpanzee appeared to be free from infection and active egg excretion was confirmed in 6 animals. If intestinal schistosomiasis is to be controlled within this setting, a long-term disease management plan is required which should combine active case-detection with an insistent treatment regime with praziquantel for these chimpanzees, exploring perhaps the performance of even higher dosing.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Disease Control Strategy Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. Balen , J. R. Stothard , N. B. Kabatereine , E. M. Tukahebwa , F. Kazibwe , S. Whawell , J. P. Webster , J. Utzinger and A. Fenwick (2006). Morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni: an epidemiological assessment of distended abdomen syndrome in Ugandan school children with observations before and 1-year after anthelminthic chemotherapy. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 100, 10391048.

A. C. A. Clements , M.-A. Deville , O. Ndayishimiye , S. Brooker and A. Fenwick (2010). Spatial co-distribution of neglected tropical diseases in the East African Great Lakes region: revisiting the justification for integrated control. Tropical Medicine & International Health 15, 198207.

C. D. Criscione and M. S. Blouin (2005). Effective sizes of macroparasite populations: a conceptual model. Trends in Parasitology 21, 212217.

M. Eberl , J. A. M. Langermans , P. A. Frost , R. A. Vervenne , G. J. van Dam , A. M. Dellder , A. W. Thomas , P. A. Coulson and A. Wilson (2001). Cellular and humoral responses and protection against schistosomes induced by a radiation-attentuated vaccine in chimpanzees. Infection and Immunity 69, 53525362.

C. H. King , P. Magak , E. A. Salam , J. H. Ouma , H. C. Kariuki and R. E. Blanton (2003). Measuring morbidity in schistosomiasis mansoni: relationship between image pattern, portal vein diameter and portal branch thickness in large-scale surveys using new WHO coding guidelines for ultrasound in schistosomiasis. Tropical Medicine & International Health 8, 109117.

J. A. T. Morgan , R. J. Dejong , G. O. Adeoye , E. D. O. Ansa , C. S. Barbosa , P. Bremond , I. M. Cesari , N. Charbonnel , L. R. Correa , G. Coulibaly , P. S. D'Andrea , C. P. De Souza , M. J. Doenhoff , S. File , M. A. Idris , R. N. Incani , P. Jarne , D. M. S. Karanja , F. Kazibwe , J. Kpikpi , N. J. S. Lwambo , A. Mabaye , L. A. Magalhaes , A. Makundi , H. Mone , G. Mouahid , G. M. Muchemi , B. N. Mungai , M. Sene , V. Southgate , L. A. T. Tchuente , A. Theron , F. Yousif , E. M. Z. Magalhaes , G. M. Mkoji and E. S. Loker (2005). Origin and diversification of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Molecular Ecology 14, 38893902.

C. J. Standley , M. Adriko, M. Alinaitwe, F. Kazibwe, N. B. Kabatereine and J. R. Stothard (2009). Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Ugandan schoolchildren: a rapid mapping assessment. Geospatial Health 4, 3953.

C. J. Standley , L. Mugisha , J. J. Verweij , M. Adriko , M. Arinaitwe , C. Rowell , A. Atuhaire , M. Betson , E. Hobbs , C. R. V. Tulleken , R. A. Kane , L. V. Lieshout , L. Ajarova , N. B. Kabatereine and J. R. Stothard (2011). Confirmed infection with intestinal schistosomiasis in semi-captive wild born chimpanzees on Ngamba Island, Uganda Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 11, 169176.

C. J. Standley and J. R. Stothard (2010). Towards defining appropriate strategies for targeted NTD control. Tropical Medicine & International Health 15, 772773.

M. L. Steinauer , M. S. Blouin and C. D. Criscione (2010). Applying evolutionary genetics to schistosome epidemiology. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 10, 433443.

J. R. Stothard , L. Mugisha and C. J. Standley (2012). Stopping schistosomes from ‘monkeying-around’ in chimpanzees. Trends in Parasitology 28, 320326.

J. R. Stothard and D. Rollinson (1997). Partial DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene can differentiate the intermediate snail hosts Bulinus globosus and B. nasutus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Journal of Natural History 31, 727737.

K. Tamura , D. Peterson , N. Peterson , G. Stecher , M. Nei and S. Kumar (2011). MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance, and Maximum Parsimony Methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28, 27312739.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *