Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Leishmania vaccines: progress and problems

  • L. KEDZIERSKI (a1), Y. ZHU (a1) and E. HANDMAN (a1)

Leishmania are protozoan parasites spread by a sandfly insect vector and causing a spectrum of diseases collectively known as leishmaniasis. The disease is a significant health problem in many parts of the world resulting in an estimated 12 million new cases each year. Current treatment is based on chemotherapy, which is difficult to administer, expensive and becoming ineffective due to the emergence of drug resistance. Leishmaniasis is considered one of a few parasitic diseases likely to be controllable by vaccination. The relatively uncomplicated leishmanial life cycle and the fact that recovery from infection renders the host resistant to subsequent infection indicate that a successful vaccine is feasible. Extensive evidence from studies in animal models indicates that solid protection can be achieved by immunisation with protein or DNA vaccines. However, to date no such vaccine is available despite substantial efforts by many laboratories. Advances in our understanding of Leishmania pathogenesis and generation of host protective immunity, together with the completed Leishmania genome sequence open new avenues for vaccine research. The major remaining challenges are the translation of data from animal models to human disease and the transition from the laboratory to the field. This review focuses on advances in anti-leishmania vaccine development over the recent years and examines current problems hampering vaccine development and implementation.

Corresponding author
Infection and Immunity Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Pde., Parkville 3050, Australia. Tel: 61-3-93452475. Fax 61-3-93470852. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Abdelhak, S., Louzir, H., Timm, J., Blel, L., Benlasfar, Z., Lagranderie, M., Gheorghiu, M., Dellagi, K. and Gicquel, B. ( 1995). Recombinant BCG expressing the leishmania surface antigen Gp63 induces protective immunity against Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice. Microbiology141, 15851592.

Adler, S. and Gunders, A. E. ( 1964). Immunity to Leishmania mexicana following spontaneous recovery from oriental sore. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene58, 274277.

Aebischer, T., Wolfram, M., Patzer, S. I., Ilg, T., Wiese, M. and Overath, P. ( 2000). Subunit vaccination of mice against new world cutaneous leishmaniasis: comparison of three proteins expressed in amastigotes and six adjuvants. Infection and Immunity68, 13281336.

Afrin, F., Rajesh, R., Anam, K., Gopinath, M., Pal, S. and Ali, N. ( 2002). Characterization of Leishmania donovani antigens encapsulated in liposomes that induce protective immunity in BALB/c mice. Infection and Immunity70, 66976706.

Aguilar-Be, I., da Silva Zardo, R., Paraguai de Souza, E., Borja-Cabrera, G. P., Rosado-Vallado, M., Mut-Martin, M., Garcia-Miss Mdel, R., Palatnik de Sousa, C. B. and Dumonteil, E. ( 2005). Cross-protective efficacy of a prophylactic Leishmania donovani DNA vaccine against visceral and cutaneous murine leishmaniasis. Infection and Immunity73, 812819.

Ahmed, S. B., Bahloul, C., Robbana, C., Askri, S. and Dellagi, K. ( 2004). A comparative evaluation of different DNA vaccine candidates against experimental murine leishmaniasis due to L. major. Vaccine22, 16311639.

Alarcon, J. B., Waine, G. W. and McManus, D. P. ( 1999). DNA vaccines: technology and application as anti-parasite and anti-microbial agents. Advances in Parasitology42, 343410.

Alexander, J. ( 1982). A radioattenuated Leishmania major vaccine markedly increases the resistance of CBA mice to subsequent infection with Leishmania mexicana mexicana. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene76, 646649.

Alexander, J. ( 1988). Sex differences and cross-immunity in DBA/2 mice infected with L. mexicana and L. major. Parasitology96, 297302.

Alexander, J. and Bryson, K. ( 2005). T helper (h)1/Th2 and Leishmania: paradox rather than paradigm. Immunology Letters99, 1723.

Alexander, J. and Phillips, R. S. ( 1978). Leishmania tropica and Leishmania mexicana: cross-immunity in mice. Experimental Parasitology45, 93100.

Amaral, V. F., Teva, A., Oliveira-Neto, M. P., Silva, A. J., Pereira, M. S., Cupolillo, E., Porrozzi, R., Coutinho, S. G., Pirmez, C., Beverley, S. M. and Grimaldi, G.Jr. ( 2002). Study of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of attenuated and killed Leishmania (Leishmania) major vaccines in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) model of the human disease. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz97, 10411048.

Antunes, C. M., Mayrink, W., Magalhaes, P. A., Costa, C. A., Melo, M. N., Dias, M., Michalick, M. S., Williams, P., Lima, A. O., Vieira, J. B. and et al. ( 1986). Controlled field trials of a vaccine against New World cutaneous leishmaniasis. International Journal of Epidemiology15, 572580.

Armijos, R. X., Weigel, M. M., Calvopina, M., Hidalgo, A., Cevallos, W. and Correa, J. ( 2004). Safety, immunogenecity, and efficacy of an autoclaved Leishmania amazonensis vaccine plus BCG adjuvant against New World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Vaccine22, 13201326.

Ashford, R. W. ( 2000). The leishmaniases as emerging and reemerging zoonoses. International Journal for Parasitology30, 12691281.

Badovinac, V. P., Messingham, K. A., Jabbari, A., Haring, J. S. and Harty, J. T. ( 2005). Accelerated CD8+ T-cell memory and prime-boost response after dendritic-cell vaccination. Nature Medicine11, 748756.

Baldwin, T. M., Elso, C., Curtis, J., Buckingham, L. and Handman, E. ( 2003). The site of Leishmania major infection determines disease severity and immune responses. Infection and Immunity71, 68306834.

Belkaid, Y., Piccirillo, C. A., Mendez, S., Shevach, E. M. and Sacks, D. L. ( 2002). CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control Leishmania major persistence and immunity. Nature420, 502507.

Belkaid, Y., Valenzuela, J. G., Kamhawi, S., Rowton, E., Sacks, D. L. and Ribeiro, J. M. ( 2000). Delayed-type hypersensitivity to Phlebotomus papatasi sand fly bite: An adaptive response induced by the fly? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA97, 67046709.

Belkaid, Y., Von Stebut, E., Mendez, S., Lira, R., Caler, E., Bertholet, S., Udey, M. C. and Sacks, D. ( 2002). CD8+ T cells are required for primary immunity in C57BL/6 mice following low-dose, intradermal challenge with Leishmania major. Journal of Immunology168, 39924000.

Berberich, C., Ramirez-Pineda, J. R., Hambrecht, C., Alber, G., Skeiky, Y. A. and Moll, H. ( 2003). Dendritic cell (DC)-based protection against an intracellular pathogen is dependent upon DC-derived IL-12 and can be induced by molecularly defined antigens. Journal of Immunology170, 31713179.

Berman, J. ( 2003). Current treatment approaches to leishmaniasis. Current Opinion In Infectious Diseases16, 397401.

Borja-Cabrera, G. P., Cruz Mendes, A., Paraguai de Souza, E., Hashimoto Okada, L. Y., de Atrivellato, F. A., Kawasaki, J. K., Costa, A. C., Reis, A. B., Genaro, O., Batista, L. M., Palatnik, M. and Palatnik-de-Sousa, C. B. ( 2004). Effective immunotherapy against canine visceral leishmaniasis with the FML-vaccine. Vaccine22, 22342243.

Botelho, A. C., Tafuri, W. L., Genaro, O. and Mayrink, W. ( 1998). Histopathology of human American cutaneous leishmaniasis before and after treatment. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical31, 1118.

Brandonisio, O., Spinelli, R. and Pepe, M. ( 2004). Dendritic cells in Leishmania infection. Microbes and Infection6, 14021409.

Breton, M., Tremblay, M. J., Ouellette, M. and Papadopoulou, B. ( 2005). Live nonpathogenic parasitic vector as a candidate vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis. Infection and Immunity73, 63726382.

Cabrera, M., Blackwell, J. M., Castes, M., Trujillo, D., Convit, J. and Shaw, M. A. ( 2000). Immunotherapy with live BCG plus heat killed Leishmania induces a T helper 1-like response in American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Parasite Immunology22, 7379.

Campbell, K., Diao, H., Ji, J. and Soong, L. ( 2003). DNA immunization with the gene encoding P4 nuclease of Leishmania amazonensis protects mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infection and Immunity71, 62706278.

Campos-Neto, A., Porrozzi, R., Greeson, K., Coler, R. N., Webb, J. R., Seiky, Y. A., Reed, S. G. and Grimaldi, G.Jr. ( 2001). Protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis induced by recombinant antigens in murine and nonhuman primate models of the human disease. Infection and Immunity69, 41034108.

Campos-Neto, A., Webb, J. R., Greeson, K., Coler, R. N., Skeiky, Y. A. and Reed, S. G. ( 2002). Vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding TSA/LmSTI1 leishmanial fusion proteins confers protection against Leishmania major infection in susceptible BALB/c mice. Infection and Immunity70, 28282836.

Cardoso, S. R., da Silva, J. C., da Costa, R. T., Mayrink, W., Melo, M. N., Michalick, M. S., Liu, I. A., Fujiwara, R. T. and Nascimento, E. ( 2003). Identification and purification of immunogenic proteins from nonliving promastigote polyvalent Leishmania vaccine (Leishvacin ). Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical36, 193199.

Chen, G., Darrah, P. A. and Mosser, D. M. ( 2001). Vaccination against the intracellular pathogens Leishmania major and L. amazonensis by directing CD40 ligand to macrophages. Infection and Immunity69, 32553263.

Clemens, J. and Jodar, L. ( 2005). Introducing new vaccines into developing countries: obstacles, opportunities and complexities. Nature Medicine11, S12S15.

Coler, R. N. and Reed, S. G. ( 2005). Second-generation vaccines against leishmaniasis. Trends in Parasitology21, 244249.

Coler, R. N., Skeiky, Y. A., Bernards, K., Greeson, K., Carter, D., Cornellison, C. D., Modabber, F., Campos-Neto, A. and Reed, S. G. ( 2002). Immunization with a polyprotein vaccine consisting of the T-Cell antigens thiol-specific antioxidant, Leishmania major stress-inducible protein 1, and Leishmania elongation initiation factor protects against leishmaniasis. Infection and Immunity70, 42154225.

Connell, N. D., Medina-Acosta, E., McMaster, W. R., Bloom, B. R. and Russell, D. G. ( 1993). Effective immunization against cutaneous leishmaniasis with recombinant bacille Calmette-Guerin expressing the Leishmania surface proteinase gp63. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA90, 1147311477.

Convit, J., Ulrich, M., Polegre, M. A., Avila, A., Rodriguez, N., Mazzedo, M. I. and Blanco, B. ( 2004). Therapy of Venezuelan patients with severe mucocutaneous or early lesions of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis with a vaccine containing pasteurized Leishmania promastigotes and bacillus Calmette-Guerin: preliminary report. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz99, 5762.

Convit, J., Ulrich, M., Zerpa, O., Borges, R., Aranzazu, N., Valera, M., Villarroel, H., Zapata, Z. and Tomedes, I. ( 2003). Immunotherapy of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela during the period 1990–99. Transactions of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene97, 469472.

Cupolillo, E., Medina-Acosta, E., Noyes, H., Momen, H. and Grimaldi, G.Jr. ( 2000). A revised classification for Leishmania and Endotrypanum. Parasitology Today16, 142144.

Davoudi, N., Tate, C. A., Warburton, C., Murray, A., Mahboudi, F. and McMaster, W. R. ( 2005). Development of a recombinant Leishmania major strain sensitive to ganciclovir and 5-fluorocytosine for use as a live vaccine challenge in clinical trials. Vaccine23, 11701177.

De Luca, P. M., Mayrink, W., Alves, C. R., Coutinho, S. G., Oliveira, M. P., Bertho, A. L., Toledo, V. P., Costa, C. A., Genaro, O. and Mendonca, S. C. ( 1999). Evaluation of the stability and immunogenicity of autoclaved and nonautoclaved preparations of a vaccine against American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Vaccine17, 11791185.

De Luca, P. M., Mayrink, W., Pinto, J. A., Coutinho, S. G., Santiago, M. A., Toledo, V. P., Costa, C. A., Genaro, O., Reis, A. B. and Mendonca, S. C. ( 2001). A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the immunogenicity of a candidate vaccine against American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Acta Tropica80, 251260.

De Rossell, R. A., Bray, R. S. and Alexander, J. ( 1987). The correlation between delayed hypersensitivity, lymphocyte activation and protective immunity in experimental murine leishmaniasis. Parasite Immunology9, 105115.

Dondji, B., Perez-Jimenez, E., Goldsmith-Pestana, K., Esteban, M. and McMahon-Pratt, D. ( 2005). Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with the LACK antigen protects against murine visceral leishmaniasis. Infection and Immunity73, 52865289.

Evans, T. G. ( 1993). Leishmaniasis. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America7, 527546.

Fragaki, K., Suffia, I., Ferrua, B., Rousseau, D., Le Fichoux, Y. and Kubar, J. ( 2001). Immunisation with DNA encoding Leishmania infantum protein papLe22 decreases the frequency of parasitemic episodes in infected hamsters. Vaccine19, 17011709.

Fujiwara, R. T., Vale, A. M., Franca da Silva, J. C., da Costa, R. T., Quetz Jda, S., Martins Filho, O. A., Reis, A. B., Correa Oliveira, R., Machado-Coelho, G. L., Bueno, L. L., Bethony, J. M., Frank, G., Nascimento, E., Genaro, O., Mayrink, W., Reed, S. and Campos-Neto, A. ( 2005). Immunogenicity in dogs of three recombinant antigens (TSA, LeIF and LmSTI1) potential vaccine candidates for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Veterinary Research36, 827838.

Genaro, O., de Toledo, V. P., da Costa, C. A., Hermeto, M. V., Afonso, L. C. and Mayrink, W. ( 1996). Vaccine for prophylaxis and immunotherapy, Brazil. Clinical Dermatology14, 503512.

Ghosh, A., Labrecque, S. and Matlashewski, G. ( 2001). Protection against Leishmania donovani infection by DNA vaccination: increased DNA vaccination efficiency through inhibiting the cellular p53 response. Vaccine19, 31693178.

Ghosh, A., Madhubala, R., Myler, P. J. and Stuart, K. D. ( 1999). Leishmania donovani: characterization and expression of ORFF, a gene amplified from the LDI locus. Experimental Parasitology93, 225230.

Ghosh, A., Zhang, W. W. and Matlashewski, G. ( 2001). Immunization with A2 protein results in a mixed Th1/Th2 and a humoral response which protects mice against Leishmania donovani infections. Vaccine20, 5966.

Ghosh, M., Pal, C., Ray, M., Maitra, S., Mandal, L. and Bandyopadhyay, S. ( 2003). Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy combined with antimony-based chemotherapy cures established murine visceral leishmaniasis. Journal of Immunology170, 56255629.

Gicheru, M. M., Olobo, J. O. and Anjili, C. O. ( 1997). Heterologous protection by Leishmania donovani for Leishmania major infections in the vervet monkey model of the disease. Experimental Parasitology85, 109116.

Gicheru, M. M., Olobo, J. O., Anjili, C. O., Orago, A. S., Modabber, F. and Scott, P. ( 2001). Vervet monkeys vaccinated with killed Leishmania major parasites and interleukin-12 develop a type 1 immune response but are not protected against challenge infection. Infection and Immunity69, 245251.

Gollob, K. J., Antonelli, L. R. and Dutra, W. O. ( 2005). Insights into CD4+ memory T cells following Leishmania infection. Trends in Parasitology21, 347350.

Gonzalez, C. R., Noriega, F. R., Huerta, S., Santiago, A., Vega, M., Paniagua, J., Ortiz-Navarrete, V., Isibasi, A. and Levine, M. M. ( 1998). Immunogenicity of a Salmonella typhi CVD 908 candidate vaccine strain expressing the major surface protein gp63 of Leishmania mexicana mexicana. Vaccine16, 10431052.

Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, G., Taladriz, S., Marquet, A. and Larraga, V. ( 1999). Molecular cloning, cell localization and binding affinity to DNA replication proteins of the p36/LACK protective antigen from Leishmania infantum. European Journal of Biochemistry259, 909916.

Gonzalo, R. M., del Real, G., Rodriguez, J. R., Rodriguez, D., Heljasvaara, R., Lucas, P., Larraga, V. and Esteban, M. ( 2002). A heterologous prime-boost regime using DNA and recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the Leishmania infantum P36/LACK antigen protects BALB/c mice from cutaneous leishmaniasis. Vaccine20, 12261231.

Gonzalo, R. M., Rodriguez, J. R., Rodriguez, D., Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, G., Larraga, V. and Esteban, M. ( 2001). Protective immune response against cutaneous leishmaniasis by prime/booster immunization regimens with vaccinia virus recombinants expressing Leishmania infantum p36/LACK and IL-12 in combination with purified p36. Microbes and Infection3, 701711.

Gradoni, L., Foglia Manzillo, V., Pagano, A., Piantedosi, D., De Luna, R., Gramiccia, M., Scalone, A., Di Muccio, T. and Oliva, G. ( 2005). Failure of a multi-subunit recombinant leishmanial vaccine (MML) to protect dogs from Leishmania infantum infection and to prevent disease progression in infected animals. Vaccine23, 52455251.

Greenblatt, C. L. ( 1988). Cutaneous leishmaniasis: The prospects for a killed vaccine. Parasitology Today4, 5354.

Gumy, A., Louis, J. A. and Launois, P. ( 2004). The murine model of infection with Leishmania major and its importance for the deciphering of mechanisms underlying differences in Th cell differentiation in mice from different genetic backgrounds. International Journal for Parasitology34, 433444.

Gurunathan, S., Klinman, D. M. and Seder, R. A. ( 2000). DNA vaccines: immunology, application, and optimization. Annual Review of Immunology18, 927974.

Gurunathan, S., Prussin, C., Sacks, D. L. and Seder, R. A. ( 1998). Vaccine requirements for sustained cellular immunity to an intracellular parasitic infection. Nature Medicine4, 14091415.

Gurunathan, S., Sacks, D. L., Brown, D. R., Reiner, S. L., Charest, H., Glaichenhaus, N. and Seder, R. A. ( 1997). Vaccination with DNA encoding the immunodominant LACK parasite antigen confers protective immunity to mice infected with Leishmania major. Journal of Experimental Medicine186, 11371147.

Gurunathan, S., Stobie, L., Prussin, C., Sacks, D. L., Glaichenhaus, N., Iwasaki, A., Fowell, D. J., Locksley, R. M., Chang, J. T., Wu, C. Y. and Seder, R. A. ( 2000). Requirements for the maintenance of Th1 immunity in vivo following DNA vaccination: a potential immunoregulatory role for CD8+ T cells. Journal of Immunology165, 915924.

Haberer, J. E., Da-Cruz, A. M., Soong, L., Oliveira-Neto, M. P., Rivas, L., McMahon-Pratt, D. and Coutinho, S. G. ( 1998). Leishmania pifanoi amastigote antigen P-4: epitopes involved in T-cell responsiveness in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infection and Immunity66, 31003105.

Handman, E. ( 2001). Leishmaniasis: current status of vaccine development. Clinical Microbiology Reviews14, 229243.

Handman, E., Button, L. L. and McMaster, R. W. ( 1990). Leishmania major: production of recombinant gp63, its antigenicity and immunogenicity in mice. Experimental Parasitology70, 427435.

Handman, E. and Mitchell, G. F. ( 1985). Immunization with Leishmania receptor for macrophages protects mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA82, 59105914.

Handman, E., Noormohammadi, A. H., Curtis, J. M., Baldwin, T. and Sjolander, A. ( 2000). Therapy of murine cutaneous leishmaniasis by DNA vaccination. Vaccine18, 30113017.

Handman, E., Symons, F. M., Baldwin, T. M., Curtis, J. M. and Scheerlinck, J. P. ( 1995). Protective vaccination with promastigote surface antigen 2 from Leishmania major is mediated by a TH1 type of immune response. Infection and Immunity63, 42614267.

Huang, C. and Turco, S. J. ( 1993). Defective galactofuranose addition in lipophosphoglycan biosynthesis in a mutant of Leishmania donovani. Journal of Biological Chemistry268, 2406024066.

Iborra, S., Soto, M., Carrion, J., Nieto, A., Fernandez, E., Alonso, C. and Requena, J. M. ( 2003). The Leishmania infantum acidic ribosomal protein P0 administered as a DNA vaccine confers protective immunity to Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice. Infection and Immunity71, 65626572.

Ilg, T. ( 2000). Lipophosphoglycan is not required for infection of macrophages or mice by Leishmania mexicana. EMBO Journal19, 19531962.

Ivens, A. C., Peacock, C. S., Worthey, E. A., Murphy, L., Aggarwal, G., Berriman, M., Sisk, E., Rajandream, M. A., Adlem, E., Aert, R., et al. ( 2005). The genome of the kinetoplastid parasite, Leishmania major. Science309, 436442.

Jaffe, C. L., Rachamim, N. and Sarfstein, R. ( 1990). Characterization of two proteins from Leishmania donovani and their use for vaccination against visceral leishmaniasis. Journal of Immunology144, 699706.

Jardim, A., Alexander, J., Teh, H. S., Ou, D. and Olafson, R. W. ( 1990). Immunoprotective Leishmania major synthetic T cell epitopes. Journal of Experimental Medicine172, 645648.

Jimenez-Ruiz, A., Boceta, C., Bonay, P., Requena, J. M. and Alonso, C. ( 1998). Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the PSA genes from Leishmania infantum. European Journal of Biochemistry251, 389397.

Julia, V. and Glaichenhaus, N. ( 1999). CD4(+) T cells which react to the Leishmania major LACK antigen rapidly secrete interleukin-4 and are detrimental to the host in resistant B10.D2 mice. Infection and Immunity67, 36413644.

Kamhawi, S. ( 2000). The biological and immunomodulatory properties of sand fly saliva and its role in the establishment of Leishmania infections. Microbes and Infection2, 17651773.

Kamhawi, S., Belkaid, Y., Modi, G., Rowton, E. and Sacks, D. ( 2000). Protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis resulting from bites of uninfected sand flies. Science290, 13511354.

Kamil, A. A., Khalil, E. A., Musa, A. M., Modabber, F., Mukhtar, M. M., Ibrahim, M. E., Zijlstra, E. E., Sacks, D., Smith, P. G., Zicker, F. and El-Hassan, A. M. ( 2003). Alum-precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major plus bacille Calmette-Guerrin, a candidate vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis: safety, skin-delayed type hypersensitivity response and dose finding in healthy volunteers. Transactions of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene97, 365368.

Kar, S., Metz, C. and McMahon-Pratt, D. ( 2005). CD4+ T cells play a dominant role in protection against New World leishmaniasis induced by vaccination with the P-4 amastigote antigen. Infection and Immunity73, 38233827.

Kar, S., Soong, L., Colmenares, M., Goldsmith-Pestana, K. and McMahon-Pratt, D. ( 2000). The immunologically protective P-4 antigen of Leishmania amastigotes. A developmentally regulated single strand-specific nuclease associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. Journal of Biological Chemistry275, 3778937797.

Kebaier, C., Uzonna, J., Beverley, S. M. and Scott, P. ( 2006). Immunization with persistent attenuated (delta)lpg2 Leishmania major parasites requires adjuvant to provide protective immunity in C57BL/6 mice. Infection and Immunity74, 777780.

Kedzierski, L., Montgomery, J., Bullen, D., Curtis, J., Gardiner, E., Jimenez-Ruiz, A. and Handman, E. ( 2004). A leucine-rich repeat motif of Leishmania parasite surface antigen 2 binds to macrophages through the complement receptor 3. Journal of Immunology172, 49024906.

Kemp, M., Theander, T. G., Handman, E., Hey, A. S., Kurtzhals, J. A., Hviid, L., Sorensen, A. L., Were, J. O., Koech, D. K. and Kharazmi, A. ( 1991). Activation of human T lymphocytes by Leishmania lipophosphoglycan. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology33, 219224.

Khalil, E. A., El Hassan, A. M., Zijlstra, E. E., Mukhtar, M. M., Ghalib, H. W., Musa, B., Ibrahim, M. E., Kamil, A. A., Elsheikh, M., Babiker, A. and Modabber, F. ( 2000). Autoclaved Leishmania major vaccine for prevention of visceral leishmaniasis: a randomised, double-blind, BCG-controlled trial in Sudan. Lancet356, 15651569.

Khamesipour, A., Dowlati, Y., Asilian, A., Hashemi-Fesharki, R., Javadi, A., Noazin, S. and Modabber, F. ( 2005). Leishmanization: use of an old method for evaluation of candidate vaccines against leishmaniasis. Vaccine23, 36423648.

Lainson, R. and Bray, R. S. ( 1966). Studies on the immunology and serology of leishmaniasis. II. Cross-immunity experiments among different forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in monkeys. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene60, 526532.

Lainson, R. and Shaw, J. J. ( 1966). Studies on the immunology and serology of leishmaniasis. 3. on the cross-immunity between Panamanian cutaneous leishmaniasis and Leishmania mexicana infection in man. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene60, 533535.

Lainson, R. and Shaw, J. J. ( 1977). Leishmaniasis in Brazil: XII. Observations on cross-immunity in monkeys and man infected with Leishmania mexicana mexicana, L. m. amazonensis, L. braziliensis braziliensis, L. b. guyanensis and L. b. panamensis. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene80, 2935.

Lange, U. G., Mastroeni, P., Blackwell, J. M. and Stober, C. B. ( 2004). DNA-Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium primer-booster vaccination biases towards T helper 1 responses and enhances protection against Leishmania major infection in mice. Infection and Immunity72, 49244928.

Launois, P., Maillard, I., Pingel, S., Swihart, K. G., Xenarios, I., Acha-Orbea, H., Diggelmann, H., Locksley, R. M., MacDonald, H. R. and Louis, J. A. ( 1997). IL-4 rapidly produced by V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells instructs Th2 development and susceptibility to Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. Immunity6, 541549.

Lohman, K. L., Langer, P. J. and McMahon-Pratt, D. ( 1990). Molecular cloning and characterization of the immunologically protective surface glycoprotein GP46/M-2 of Leishmania amazonensis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA87, 83938397.

Lopez-Fuertes, L., Perez-Jimenez, E., Vila-Coro, A. J., Sack, F., Moreno, S., Konig, S. A., Junghans, C., Wittig, B., Timon, M. and Esteban, M. ( 2002). DNA vaccination with linear minimalistic (MIDGE) vectors confers protection against Leishmania major infection in mice. Vaccine21, 247257.

Louis, J., Gumy, A., Voigt, H., Rocken, M. and Launois, P. ( 2002). Experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis: a powerful model to study in vivo the mechanisms underlying genetic differences in Th subset differentiation. European Journal of Dermatology12, 316318.

Machado-Pinto, J., Pinto, J., da Costa, C. A., Genaro, O., Marques, M. J., Modabber, F. and Mayrink, W. ( 2002). Immunochemotherapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis: a controlled trial using killed Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis vaccine plus antimonial. International Journal of Dermatology41, 7378.

Marques-da-Silva, E. A., Coelho, E. A., Gomes, D. C., Vilela, M. C., Masioli, C. Z., Tavares, C. A., Fernandes, A. P., Afonso, L. C. and Rezende, S. A. ( 2005). Intramuscular immunization with p36(LACK) DNA vaccine induces IFN-gamma production but does not protect BALB/c mice against Leishmania chagasi intravenous challenge. Parasitology Research98, 6774.

Marzochi, K. B., Marzochi, M. A., Silva, A. F., Grativol, N., Duarte, R., Confort, E. M. and Modabber, F. ( 1998). Phase 1 study of an inactivated vaccine against American tegumentary leishmaniasis in normal volunteers in Brazil. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz93, 205212.

Mauel, J. and Behin, R. ( 1982). Leishmaniasis immunity, immunopathology and immunodiagnostics. In Immunity to Parasitic Infections. ( eds. Cohen, S. and Waren, K. S.) Oxford: Blackwell Sci.34433463.

Mayrink, W., da Costa, C. A., Magalhaes, P. A., Melo, M. N., Dias, M., Lima, A. O., Michalick, M. S. and Williams, P. ( 1979). A field trial of a vaccine against American dermal leishmaniasis. Transactions of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene73, 385387.

Mayrink, W., Williams, P., da Costa, C. A., Magalhaes, P. A., Melo, M. N., Dias, M., Oliveira Lima, A., Michalick, M. S., Ferreira Carvalho, E., Barros, G. C. and et al. ( 1985). An experimental vaccine against American dermal leishmaniasis: experience in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology79, 259269.

McConville, M. J., Bacic, A., Mitchell, G. F. and Handman, E. ( 1987). Lipophosphoglycan of Leishmania major that vaccinates against cutaneous leishmaniasis contains an alkylglycerophosphoinositol lipid anchor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA84, 89418945.

McMahon-Pratt, D. and Alexander, J. ( 2004). Does the Leishmania major paradigm of pathogenesis and protection hold for New World cutaneous leishmaniases or the visceral disease? Immunological Reviews201, 206224.

McMahon-Pratt, D., Rodriguez, D., Rodriguez, J. R., Zhang, Y., Manson, K., Bergman, C., Rivas, L., Rodriguez, J. F., Lohman, K. L., Ruddle, N. H. and et al. ( 1993). Recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing GP46/M-2 protect against Leishmania infection. Infection and Immunity61, 33513359.

McShane, H. ( 2002). Prime-boost immunization strategies for infectious diseases. Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics4, 2327.

Mendez, S., Belkaid, Y., Seder, R. A. and Sacks, D. ( 2002). Optimization of DNA vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Vaccine20, 37023708.

Melby, P. C., Yang, J., Zhao, W., Perez, L. E. and Cheng, J. ( 2001). Leishmania donovani p36(LACK) DNA vaccine is highly immunogenic but not protective against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Infection and Immunity69, 47194725.

Mendez, S., Gurunathan, S., Kamhawi, S., Belkaid, Y., Moga, M. A., Skeiky, Y. A., Campos-Neto, A., Reed, S., Seder, R. A. and Sacks, D. ( 2001). The potency and durability of DNA- and protein-based vaccines against Leishmania major evaluated using low-dose, intradermal challenge. Journal of Immunology166, 51225128.

Mendonca, S. C., Russell, D. G. and Coutinho, S. G. ( 1991). Analysis of the human T cell responsiveness to purified antigens of Leishmania: lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and glycoprotein 63 (gp 63). Clinical and Experimental Immunology83, 472478.

Misra, A., Dube, A., Srivastava, B., Sharma, P., Srivastava, J. K., Katiyar, J. C. and Naik, S. ( 2001). Successful vaccination against Leishmania donovani infection in Indian langur using alum-precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major with BCG. Vaccine19, 34853492.

Mitchell, G. F. and Handman, E. ( 1986). The glycoconjugate derived from a Leishmania major receptor for macrophages is a suppressogenic, disease-promoting antigen in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Parasite Immunology8, 255263.

Mohebali, M., Khamesipour, A., Mobedi, I., Zarei, Z. and Hashemi-Fesharki, R. ( 2004). Double-blind randomized efficacy field trial of alum precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major vaccine mixed with BCG against canine visceral leishmaniasis in Meshkin-Shahr district, I.R. Iran. Vaccine22, 40974100.

Molano, I., Alonso, M. G., Miron, C., Redondo, E., Requena, J. M., Soto, M., Nieto, C. G. and Alonso, C. ( 2003). A Leishmania infantum multi-component antigenic protein mixed with live BCG confers protection to dogs experimentally infected with L. infantum. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology92, 113.

Moll, H. and Berberich, C. ( 2001). Dendritic cell-based vaccination strategies: induction of protective immunity against leishmaniasis. Immunobiology204, 659666.

Montgomery, J., Ilg, T., Thompson, J. K., Kobe, B. and Handman, E. ( 2000). Identification and predicted structure of a leucine-rich repeat motif shared by Leishmania major proteophosphoglycan and Parasite Surface Antigen 2. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology107, 289295.

Mora, A. M., Mayrink, W., Costa, R. T., Costa, C. A., Genaro, O. and Nascimento, E. ( 1999). Protection of C57BL/10 mice by vaccination with association of purified proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Revista do Instito de Medicine Tropical do Sao Paulo41, 243248.

Morris, R. V., Shoemaker, C. B., David, J. R., Lanzaro, G. C. and Titus, R. G. ( 2001). Sandfly maxadilan exacerbates infection with Leishmania major and vaccinating against it protects against L. major infection. Journal of Immunology167, 52265230.

Mougneau, E., Altare, F., Wakil, A. E., Zheng, S., Coppola, T., Wang, Z. E., Waldmann, R., Locksley, R. M. and Glaichenhaus, N. ( 1995). Expression cloning of a protective Leishmania antigen. Science268, 563566.

Murray, H. W. ( 2004). Progress in the treatment of a neglected infectious disease: visceral leishmaniasis. Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy2, 279292.

Murray, P. J. and Spithill, T. W. ( 1991). Variants of a Leishmania surface antigen derived from a multigenic family. Journal of Biological Chemistry266, 2447724484.

Murray, P. J., Spithill, T. W. and Handman, E. ( 1989). The PSA-2 glycoprotein complex of Leishmania major is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked promastigote surface antigen. Journal of Immunology143, 42214226.

Nakhaee, A., Taheri, T., Taghikhani, M., Mohebali, M., Salmanian, A. H., Fasel, N. and Rafati, S. ( 2004). Humoral and cellular immune responses against Type I cysteine proteinase of Leishmania infantum are higher in asymptomatic than symptomatic dogs selected from a naturally infected population. Veterinary Parasitology119, 107123.

Olobo, J. O., Anjili, C. O., Gicheru, M. M., Mbati, P. A., Kariuki, T. M., Githure, J. I., Koech, D. K. and McMaster, W. R. ( 1995). Vaccination of vervet monkeys against cutaneous leishmaniosis using recombinant Leishmania ‘major surface glycoprotein’ (gp63). Veterinary Parasitology60, 199212.

Perez, H., Arredondo, B. and Machado, R. ( 1979). Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania tropica: cross immunity in C57BL/6 mice. Experimental Parasitology48, 914.

Rachamim, N. and Jaffe, C. L. ( 1993). Pure protein from Leishmania donovani protects mice against both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Journal of Immunology150, 23222331.

Rafati, S., Nakhaee, A., Taheri, T., Ghashghaii, A., Salmanian, A. H., Jimenez, M., Mohebali, M., Masina, S. and Fasel, N. ( 2003). Expression of cysteine proteinase type I and II of Leishmania infantum and their recognition by sera during canine and human visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental Parasitology103, 143151.

Rafati, S., Nakhaee, A., Taheri, T., Taslimi, Y., Darabi, H., Eravani, D., Sanos, S., Kaye, P., Taghikhani, M., Jamshidi, S. and Rad, M. A. ( 2005). Protective vaccination against experimental canine visceral leishmaniasis using a combination of DNA and protein immunization with cysteine proteinases type I and II of L. infantum. Vaccine23, 37163725.

Rafati, S., Salmanian, A. H., Hashemi, K., Schaff, C., Belli, S. and Fasel, N. ( 2001). Identification of Leishmania major cysteine proteinases as targets of the immune response in humans. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology113, 3543.

Ramiro, M. J., Zarate, J. J., Hanke, T., Rodriguez, D., Rodriguez, J. R., Esteban, M., Lucientes, J., Castillo, J. A. and Larraga, V. ( 2003). Protection in dogs against visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is achieved by immunization with a heterologous prime-boost regime using DNA and vaccinia recombinant vectors expressing LACK. Vaccine21, 24742484.

Ravindran, R. and Ali, N. ( 2004). Progress in vaccine research and possible effector mechanisms in visceral leishmaniasis. Current Molecular Medicine4, 697709.

Reed, S. G. and Campos-Neto, A. ( 2003a). Vaccines for parasitic and bacterial diseases. Current Opinion in Immunology15, 456460.

Reed, S. G., Coler, R. N. and Campos-Neto, A. ( 2003b). Development of a leishmaniasis vaccine: the importance of MPL. Expert Reviews of Vaccines2, 239252.

Requena, J. M., Soto, M., Doria, M. D. and Alonso, C. ( 2000). Immune and clinical parameters associated with Leishmania infantum infection in the golden hamster model. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology76, 269281.

Restifo, N. P., Ying, H., Hwang, L. and Leitner, W. W. ( 2000). The promise of nucleic acid vaccines. Gene Therapy7, 8992.

Rhee, E. G., Mendez, S., Shah, J. A., Wu, C. Y., Kirman, J. R., Turon, T. N., Davey, D. F., Davis, H., Klinman, D. M., Coler, R. N., Sacks, D. L. and Seder, R. A. ( 2002). Vaccination with heat-killed leishmania antigen or recombinant leishmanial protein and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induces long-term memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and protection against Leishmania major infection. Journal of Experimental Medicine195, 15651573.

Rivier, D., Bovay, P., Shah, R., Didisheim, S. and Mauel, J. ( 1999). Vaccination against Leishmania major in a CBA mouse model of infection: role of adjuvants and mechanism of protection. Parasite Immunology21, 461473.

Roberts, M. T., Stober, C. B., McKenzie, A. N. and Blackwell, J. M. ( 2005). Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10 collude in vaccine failure for novel exacerbatory antigens in murine Leishmania major infection. Infection and Immunity73, 76207628.

Robertson, C. D., Coombs, G. H., North, M. J. and Mottram, J. C. ( 1996). Parasite cysteine proteinases. Perspectives in Drug Discovery and Design6, 99118.

Robertson, I. D., Irwin, P. J., Lymbery, A. J. and Thompson, R. C. ( 2000). The role of companion animals in the emergence of parasitic zoonoses. International Journal for Parasitology30, 13691377.

Rodrigues, M. M., Boscardin, S. B., Vasconcelos, J. R., Hiyane, M. I., Salay, G. and Soares, I. S. ( 2003). Importance of CD8 T cell-mediated immune response during intracellular parasitic infections and its implications for the development of effective vaccines. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências75, 443468.

Rogers, K. A., DeKrey, G. K., Mbow, M. L., Gillespie, R. D., Brodskyn, C. I. and Titus, R. G. ( 2002). Type 1 and type 2 responses to Leishmania major. FEMS Microbiology Letters209, 17.

Russell, D. G. and Alexander, J. ( 1988). Effective immunization against cutaneous leishmaniasis with defined membrane antigens reconstituted into liposomes. Journal of Immunology140, 12741279.

Russell, D. G. and Wright, S. D. ( 1988). Complement receptor type 3 (CR3) binds to an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing region of the major surface glycoprotein, gp63, of Leishmania promastigotes. Journal of Experimental Medicine168, 279292.

Russo, D. M., Burns, J. M.Jr., Carvalho, E. M., Armitage, R. J., Grabstein, K. H., Button, L. L., McMaster, W. R. and Reed, S. G. ( 1991). Human T cell responses to gp63, a surface antigen of Leishmania. Journal of Immunology147, 35753580.

Sakthianandeswaren, A., Elso, C. M., Simpson, K., Curtis, J. M., Kumar, B., Speed, T. P., Handman, E. and Foote, S. J. ( 2005). The wound repair response controls outcome to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA102, 1555115556.

Saravia, N. G., Hazbon, M. H., Osorio, Y., Valderrama, L., Walker, J., Santrich, C., Cortazar, T., Lebowitz, J. H. and Travi, B. L. ( 2005). Protective immunogenicity of the paraflagellar rod protein 2 of Leishmania mexicana. Vaccine23, 984995.

Satti, I. N., Osman, H. Y., Daifalla, N. S., Younis, S. A., Khalil, E. A., Zijlstra, E. E., El Hassan, A. M. and Ghalib, H. W. ( 2001). Immunogenicity and safety of autoclaved Leishmania major plus BCG vaccine in healthy Sudanese volunteers. Vaccine19, 21002106.

Scott, P. ( 2005). Immunologic memory in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cellular Microbiology7, 17071713.

Scott, P., Artis, D., Uzonna, J. and Zaph, C. ( 2004). The development of effector and memory T cells in cutaneous leishmaniasis: the implications for vaccine development. Immunological Reviews201, 318338.

Seder, R. A. and Sacks, D. L. ( 2004). Memory may not need reminding. Nature Medicine10, 10451047.

Sharifi, I., FeKri, A. R., Aflatonian, M. R., Khamesipour, A., Nadim, A., Mousavi, M. R., Momeni, A. Z., Dowlati, Y., Godal, T., Zicker, F., Smith, P. G. and Modabber, F. ( 1998). Randomised vaccine trial of single dose of killed Leishmania major plus BCG against anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bam, Iran. Lancet351, 15401543.

Sharples, C. E., Shaw, M. A., Castes, M., Convit, J. and Blackwell, J. M. ( 1994). Immune response in healthy volunteers vaccinated with BCG plus killed leishmanial promastigotes: antibody responses to mycobacterial and leishmanial antigens. Vaccine12, 14021412.

Silveira, F. T., Blackwell, J. M., Ishikawa, E. A., Braga, R., Shaw, J. J., Quinnell, R. J., Soong, L., Kima, P., McMahon-Pratt, D., Black, G. F. and Shaw, M. A. ( 1998). T cell responses to crude and defined leishmanial antigens in patients from the lower Amazon region of Brazil infected with different species of Leishmania of the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia. Parasite Immunology20, 1926.

Sinha, P. K., Pandey, K. and Bhattacharya, S. K. ( 2005). Diagnosis and management of leishmania/HIV co-infection. Indian Journal of Medical Research121, 407414.

Sjolander, A., Baldwin, T. M., Curtis, J. M., Bengtsson, K. L. and Handman, E. ( 1998a). Vaccination with recombinant Parasite Surface Antigen 2 from Leishmania major induces a Th1 type of immune response but does not protect against infection. Vaccine16, 20772084.

Sjolander, A., Baldwin, T. M., Curtis, J. M. and Handman, E. ( 1998b). Induction of a Th1 immune response and simultaneous lack of activation of a Th2 response are required for generation of immunity to leishmaniasis. Journal of Immunology160, 39493957.

Skeiky, Y. A., Kennedy, M., Kaufman, D., Borges, M. M., Guderian, J. A., Scholler, J. K., Ovendale, P. J., Picha, K. S., Morrissey, P. J., Grabstein, K. H., Campos-Neto, A. and Reed, S. G. ( 1998). LeIF: a recombinant Leishmania protein that induces an IL-12-mediated Th1 cytokine profile. Journal of Immunology161, 61716179.

Soong, L., Chang, C. H., Sun, J., Longley, B. J.Jr., Ruddle, N. H., Flavell, R. A. and McMahon-Pratt, D. ( 1997). Role of CD4+ T cells in pathogenesis associated with Leishmania amazonensis infection. Journal of Immunology158, 53745383.

Soto, J., Toledo, J., Gutierrez, P., Nicholls, R. S., Padilla, J., Engel, J., Fischer, C., Voss, A. and Berman, J. ( 2001). Treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis with miltefosine, an oral agent. Clinical Infectious Diseases33, E5761.

Spath, G. F., Lye, L. F., Segawa, H., Turco, S. J. and Beverley, S. M. ( 2004). Identification of a compensatory mutant (lpg2-REV) of Leishmania major able to survive as amastigotes within macrophages without LPG2-dependent glycoconjugates and its significance to virulence and immunization strategies. Infection and Immunity72, 36223627.

Spitzer, N., Jardim, A., Lippert, D. and Olafson, R. W. ( 1999). Long-term protection of mice against Leishmania major with a synthetic peptide vaccine. Vaccine17, 12981300.

Srivastava, J. K., Misra, A., Sharma, P., Srivastava, B., Naik, S. and Dube, A. ( 2003). Prophylactic potential of autoclaved Leishmania donovani with BCG against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Parasitology127, 107114.

Stager, S., Smith, D. F. and Kaye, P. M. ( 2000). Immunization with a recombinant stage-regulated surface protein from Leishmania donovani induces protection against visceral leishmaniasis. Journal of Immunology165, 70647071.

Stober, C. B., Lange, U. G., Roberts, M. T., Alcami, A. and Blackwell, J. M. ( 2005). IL-10 from regulatory T cells determines vaccine efficacy in murine Leishmania major infection. Journal of Immunology175, 25172524.

Streit, J. A., Recker, T. J., Donelson, J. E. and Wilson, M. E. ( 2000). BCG expressing LCR1 of Leishmania chagasi induces protective immunity in susceptible mice. Experimental Parasitology94, 3341.

Suffia, I., Ferrua, B., Stien, X., Mograbi, B., Marty, P., Rousseau, D., Fragaki, K. and Kubar, J. ( 2000). A novel Leishmania infantum recombinant antigen which elicits interleukin 10 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Infection and Immunity68, 630636.

Sukumaran, B., Tewary, P., Saxena, S. and Madhubala, R. ( 2003). Vaccination with DNA encoding ORFF antigen confers protective immunity in mice infected with Leishmania donovani. Vaccine21, 12921299.

Sundar, S., Jha, T. K., Thakur, C. P., Engel, J., Sindermann, H., Fischer, C., Junge, K., Bryceson, A. and Berman, J. ( 2002). Oral miltefosine for Indian visceral leishmaniasis. New England Journal of Medicine347, 17391746.

Symons, F. M., Murray, P. J., Ji, H., Simpson, R. J., Osborn, A. H., Cappai, R. and Handman, E. ( 1994). Characterization of a polymorphic family of integral membrane proteins in promastigotes of different Leishmania species. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology67, 103113.

Tabbara, K. S., Peters, N. C., Afrin, F., Mendez, S., Bertholet, S., Belkaid, Y. and Sacks, D. L. ( 2005). Conditions influencing the efficacy of vaccination with live organisms against Leishmania major infection. Infection and Immunity73, 47144722.

Tapia, E., Perez-Jimenez, E., Lopez-Fuertes, L., Gonzalo, R., Gherardi, M. M. and Esteban, M. ( 2003). The combination of DNA vectors expressing IL-12+IL-18 elicits high protective immune response against cutaneous leishmaniasis after priming with DNA-p36/LACK and the cytokines, followed by a booster with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing p36/LACK. Microbes and Infection5, 7384.

Tesh, R. B. ( 1995). Control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis: is it time to change strategies? American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene52, 287292.

Tewary, P., Jain, M., Sahani, M. H., Saxena, S. and Madhubala, R. ( 2005). A heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimen using ORFF DNA and recombinant ORFF protein confers protective immunity against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Journal of Infectious Diseases191, 21302137.

Tewary, P., Sukumaran, B., Saxena, S. and Madhubala, R. ( 2004). Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides are potent enhancers of protective immunity in mice immunized with recombinant ORFF leishmanial antigen. Vaccine22, 30533060.

Titus, R. G. and Ribeiro, J. M. ( 1988). Salivary gland lysates from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis enhance Leishmania infectivity. Science239, 13061308.

Tonui, W. K. ( 2003). Vaccination of BALB/c mice with Leishmania donovani derived lipophosphoglycan does not conver cross-protection to L. major infections. East African Medical Journal80, 260263.

Tonui, W. K., Mbati, P. A., Anjili, C. O., Orago, A. S., Turco, S. J., Githure, J. I. and Koech, D. K. ( 2001). Transmission blocking vaccine studies in leishmaniasis: I. Lipophosphoglycan is a promising transmission blocking vaccine molecule against cutaneous leishmaniasis. East African Medical Journal78, 8489.

Tonui, W. K., Mejia, J. S., Hochberg, L., Mbow, M. L., Ryan, J. R., Chan, A. S., Martin, S. K. and Titus, R. G. ( 2004). Immunization with Leishmania major exogenous antigens protects susceptible BALB/c mice against challenge infection with L. major. Infection and Immunity72, 56545661.

Tsagozis, P., Karagouni, E. and Dotsika, E. ( 2004). Dendritic cells pulsed with peptides of gp63 induce differential protection against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology17, 343352.

Uzonna, J. E., Wei, G., Yurkowski, D. and Bretscher, P. ( 2001). Immune elimination of Leishmania major in mice: implications for immune memory, vaccination, and reactivation disease. Journal of Immunology167, 69676974.

Valenzuela, J. G., Belkaid, Y., Garfield, M. K., Mendez, S., Kamhawi, S., Rowton, E. D., Sacks, D. L. and Ribeiro, J. M. ( 2001). Toward a defined anti-Leishmania vaccine targeting vector antigens: characterization of a protective salivary protein. Journal of Experimental Medicine194, 331342.

Vanloubbeeck, Y. and Jones, D. E. ( 2004). The immunology of Leishmania infection and the implications for vaccine development. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences1026, 267272.

Velez, I. D., Gilchrist, K., Arbelaez, M. P., Rojas, C. A., Puerta, J. A., Antunes, C. M., Zicker, F. and Modabber, F. ( 2005). Failure of a killed Leishmania amazonensis vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Transactions of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene99, 593598.

Veras, P., Brodskyn, C., Balestieri, F., Freitas, L., Ramos, A., Queiroz, A., Barral, A., Beverley, S. and Barral-Netto, M. ( 1999). A dhfr-ts- Leishmania major knockout mutant cross-protects against Leishmania amazonensis. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz94, 491496.

von Stebut, E. and Udey, M. C. ( 2004). Requirements for Th1-dependent immunity against infection with Leishmania major. Microbes and Infection6, 11021109.

Waine, G. J. and McManus, D. P. ( 1995). Nucleic acids: vaccines of the future. Parasitology Today11, 113116.

Walker, P. S., Scharton-Kersten, T., Rowton, E. D., Hengge, U., Bouloc, A., Udey, M. C. and Vogel, J. C. ( 1998). Genetic immunization with glycoprotein 63 cDNA results in a helper T cell type 1 immune response and protection in a murine model of leishmaniasis. Human Gene Therapy9, 18991907.

Webb, J. R., Campos-Neto, A., Ovendale, P. J., Martin, T. I., Stromberg, E. J., Badaro, R. and Reed, S. G. ( 1998). Human and murine immune responses to a novel Leishmania major recombinant protein encoded by members of a multicopy gene family. Infection and Immunity66, 32793289.

Webb, J. R., Campos-Neto, A., Skeiky, Y. A. and Reed, S. G. ( 1997). Molecular characterization of the heat-inducible LmSTI1 protein of Leishmania major. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology89, 179193.

Webb, J. R., Kaufmann, D., Campos-Neto, A. and Reed, S. G. ( 1996). Molecular cloning of a novel protein antigen of Leishmania major that elicits a potent immune response in experimental murine leishmaniasis. Journal of Immunology157, 50345041.

Wilson, M. E., Young, B. M., Andersen, K. P., Weinstock, J. V., Metwali, A., Ali, K. M. and Donelson, J. E. ( 1995). A recombinant Leishmania chagasi antigen that stimulates cellular immune responses in infected mice. Infection and Immunity63, 20622069.

Wong, P., Lara-Tejero, M., Ploss, A., Leiner, I. and Pamer, E. G. ( 2004). Rapid development of T cell memory. Journal of Immunology172, 72397245.

Xu, D. and Liew, F. Y. ( 1995). Protection against leishmaniasis by injection of DNA encoding a major surface glycoprotein, gp63, of L. major. Immunology84, 173176.

Xu, D., McSorley, S. J., Chatfield, S. N., Dougan, G. and Liew, F. Y. ( 1995). Protection against Leishmania major infection in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice by gp63 delivered orally in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (AroA- AroD-). Immunology85, 17.

Yang, D. M., Fairweather, N., Button, L. L., McMaster, W. R., Kahl, L. P. and Liew, F. Y. ( 1990). Oral Salmonella typhimurium (AroA-) vaccine expressing a major leishmanial surface protein (gp63) preferentially induces T helper 1 cells and protective immunity against leishmaniasis. Journal of Immunology145, 22812285.

Zijlstra, E., El Hassan, A., Ismael, A. and Ghalib, H. W. ( 1994). Endemic kala-azar in eastern Sudan: a longitudinal study on the incidence of clinical and subclinical infection and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene51, 826836.

Zaph, C., Uzonna, J., Beverley, S. M. and Scott, P. ( 2004). Central memory T cells mediate long-term immunity to Leishmania major in the absence of persistent parasites. Nature Medicine 10, 11041110.

Zavala, F., Rodrigues, M., Rodriguez, D., Rodriguez, J. R., Nussenzweig, R. S. and Esteban, M. ( 2001). A striking property of recombinant poxviruses: efficient inducers of in vivo expansion of primed CD8(+) T cells. Virology 280, 155159.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 49 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 266 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 30th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.