Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 37
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    2015. Modelling Interactions Between Vector-Borne Diseases and Environment Using GIS.

    Burri, Christian Chappuis, François and Brun, Reto 2014. Manson's Tropical Infectious Diseases.

    Klong-klaew, Tunwadee Sukontason, Kom Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan Moophayak, Kittikhun Irvine, Kim N. Kurahashi, Hiromu Prangkio, Chira Sanit, Sangob and Sukontason, Kabkaew L. 2014. Impact of abiotic factor changes in blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in northern Thailand. Parasitology Research, Vol. 113, Issue. 4, p. 1353.

    Rogers, David J. Suk, Jonathan E. and Semenza, Jan C. 2014. Using global maps to predict the risk of dengue in Europe. Acta Tropica, Vol. 129, p. 1.

    Nakato, Teddy Jegede, O. O. Ayansina, Ayanlade Olaleye, V. F. and Olufemi, Bolarin 2013. Geographic Information Systems.

    Moore, S. Shrestha, S. Tomlinson, K. W. and Vuong, H. 2012. Predicting the effect of climate change on African trypanosomiasis: integrating epidemiology with parasite and vector biology. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol. 9, Issue. 70, p. 817.

    Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan Moophayak, Kittikhun Klong-klaew, Tunwadee Irvine, Kim N. Sukontason, Kabkaew L. Prangkio, Chira Somboon, Pradya and Sukontason, Kom 2011. Do climatic and physical factors affect populations of the blow fly Chrysomya megacephala and house fly Musca domestica?. Parasitology Research, Vol. 109, Issue. 5, p. 1279.

    Michael, Edwin 2010. Environmental Medicine.

    Nakato, Teddy Jegede, O. O. Ayansina, Ayanlade Olaleye, V. F. and Olufemi, Bolarin 2010. Mapping the Distribution of Tsetse Flies in Eastern Uganda. International Journal of ICT Research and Development in Africa, Vol. 1, Issue. 2, p. 19.

    Touray, K. Adetifa, I. M. Jallow, A. Rigby, J. Jeffries, D. Cheung, Y. B. Donkor, S. Adegbola, R. A. and Hill, P. C. 2010. Spatial analysis of tuberculosis in an Urban West African setting: is there evidence of clustering?. Tropical Medicine & International Health, Vol. 15, Issue. 6, p. 664.

    Michael, Edwin Malecela‐Lazaro, Mwele N. and Kazura, James W. 2007. Advances in Parasitology Volume 65.

    Symeonakis, Elias Robinson, Tim and Drake, Nick 2007. GIS and multiple-criteria evaluation for the optimisation of tsetse fly eradication programmes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 124, Issue. 1-3, p. 89.

    Nikolskaia, Olga V. Kim, Yuri V. Kovbasnjuk, Olga Kim, Kee Jun and Grab, Dennis J. 2006. Entry of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense into microvascular endothelial cells of the human blood–brain barrier. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 36, Issue. 5, p. 513.

    Odiit, Martin Bessell, Paul R. Fèvre, Eric M. Robinson, Tim Kinoti, Jennifer Coleman, Paul G. Welburn, Susan C. McDermott, John and Woolhouse, Mark E.J. 2006. Using remote sensing and geographic information systems to identify villages at high risk for rhodesiense sleeping sickness in Uganda. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 100, Issue. 4, p. 354.

    Berrang-Ford, Lea Waltner-Toews, David Charron, Dominique Odiit, Martin McDermott, John and Smit, Barry 2005. Sleeping Sickness in Southeastern Uganda: A SystemsApproach. EcoHealth, Vol. 2, Issue. 3, p. 183.

    Jianping Guo, Yong Xue, Chunxiang Cao, Wuchun Cao, Shaobo Zhong, Guoyin Cai, Xiaowen Li, and Liqun Fang, 2005. Proceedings. 2005 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2005. IGARSS '05.. Vol. 5, Issue. , p. 3599.

    Nyarko, Elvis Hara, Tatsuru Grab, Dennis J Habib, Ahsan Kim, Yuri Nikolskaia, Olga Fukuma, Toshihide and Tabata, Masaaki 2004. In vitro toxicity of palladium(II) and gold(III) porphyrins and their aqueous metal ion counterparts on Trypanosoma brucei brucei growth. Chemico-Biological Interactions, Vol. 148, Issue. 1-2, p. 19.

    Molyneux, David H. 2003. Common themes in changing vector-borne disease scenarios. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 97, Issue. 2, p. 129.

    Boelaert, Arbyn, and Van der Stuyft, 2002. Editorial: Geographical Information Systems (GIS), gimmick or tool for health district management?. Tropical Medicine & International Health, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 163.

    Robinson, T. P. Harris, R. S. Hopkins, J. S. and Williams, B. G. 2002. An example of decision support for trypanosomiasis control using a geographical information system in eastern Zambia.. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 16, Issue. 4, p. 345.


Monitoring trypanosomiasis in space and time

  • D. J. Rogers (a1) and B. G. Williams (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 August 2011

The paper examines the possible contributions to be made by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to studies on human and animal trypanosomiasis in Africa. The epidemiological characteristics of trypanosomiasis are reviewed in the light of the formula for the basic reproductive rate or number of vector-borne diseases. The paper then describes how important biological characteristics of the vectors of trypanosomiasis in West Africa may be monitored using data from the NOAA series of meteorological satellites. This will lead to an understanding of the spatial distribution of both vectors and disease. An alternative, statistical approach to understanding the spatial distribution of tsetse, based on linear discriminant analysis, is illustrated with the example of Glossina morsitans in Zimbabwe, Kenya and Tanzania. In the case of Zimbabwe, a single climatic variable, the maximum of the mean monthly temperature, correctly predicts the pre-rinderpest distribution of tsetse over 82% of the country; additional climatic and vegetation variables do not improve considerably on this figure. In the cases of Kenya and Tanzania, however, another variable, the maximum of the mean monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, is the single most important variable, giving correct predictions over 69 % of the area; the other climatic and vegetation variables improve this to 82 % overall. Such statistical analyses can guide field work towards the correct biological interpretation of the distributional limits of vectors and may also be used to make predictions about the impact of global change on vector ranges. Examples are given of the areas of Zimbabwe which would become climatically suitable for tsetse given mean temperature increases of 1, 2 and 3 °Centigrade. Five possible causes for sleeping sickness outbreaks are given, illustrated by the analysis of field data or from the output of mathematical models. One cause is abiotic (variation in rainfall), three are biotic (variation in vectorial potential, host immunity, or parasite virulence) and one is historical (the impact of explorers, colonizers and dictators). The implications for disease monitoring, in order to anticipate sleeping sickness outbreaks, are briefly discussed. It is concluded that present data are inadequate to distinguish between these hypotheses. The idea that sleeping sickness outbreaks are periodic (i.e. cyclical) is only barely supported by hard data. Hence it is even difficult to conclude whether the major cause of sleeping sickness outbreaks is biotic (which, in model situations, tends to produce cyclical epidemics) or abiotic. The conclusions emphasize that until we understand more about the variation in space and time of tsetse and trypanosomiasis distribution and abundance we shall not be in a position to benefit from the advances made by GIS. The potential is there, however, to re-introduce the spatial and temporal elements into epidemiological studies that are currently often neglected.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R. M. Anderson & R. M. May (1991). Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

H. Fairbairn & A. T. Culwick (1950). Some climatic factors influencing populations of Glossina swynnertoni. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology 44, 2733.

L. Jenni , S. Marti , J. Schweitzer , B. Betschart , R. W. F. Le Page , J. M. Wells , A. Tait , P. Paindovoine , E. Pays & M. Steinert (1986). Hybrid formation between African trypanosomes during cyclical transmission. Nature 322, 173–5.

C. O Justice (ed.) (1986). Monitoring the grasslands of semi-arid Africa using NOAA-AVHRR data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 7, issue 11. London: Taylor & Francis.

I. Maudlin (1991). Transmission of African trypanosomiasis: interactions among tsetse immune system, symbionts and parasites. Advances in Disease Vector Research 7, 117–48.

K. R. S. Morris (1960). Studies on the epidemiology of sleeping sickness in East Africa. III. The endemic area of Lakes Edward and George in Uganda. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 54, 212–24.

A. F. Mulla & L. R. Rickman (1988). How do African game animals control trypanosomiasis infections ? Parasitology Today 4, 352–4.

D. J. Rogers (1979). Tsetse population dynamics and distribution: a new analytical approach. Journal of Animal Ecology 48, 825–9.

D. J. Rogers (1988a). The dynamics of vector-transmitted diseases in human communities. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 321, 513–39.

D. J. Rogers (1991). Satellite imagery, tsetse and trypanosomiasis in Africa. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 11, 201–20.

D. J. Rogers & S. E. Randolph (1986). Distribution and abundance of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). Journal of Animal Ecology 55, 1007–25.

D. J. Rogers & s. E. Randolph (1991). Mortality rates and population density of tsetse flies correlated with satellite imagery. Nature 351, 739–41.

K. C. Willett (1965). Some observations on the recent epidemiology of sleeping sickness in Nyanza Region and its relation to the general epidemiology of Gambian and Rhodesian sleeping sickness in Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 59, 374–86.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *