Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Natural and experimental hosts of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, with comments on the genetics of speciation in the genus Echinococcus

  • J. D. Smyth (a1) and Mildred M. Smyth (a1)
Extract

Within recent years, problems of host-parasite relationships have been receiving increasing attention from parasitologists. This is particularly true in the study of the cestodes Echinococcus spp., where predilection for different hosts—when considered with the morphology of the adult and the growth and development of the larva—seemed sufficiently significant to lead to the establishment of the two species, E. granulosus and E. multilocularis. Much experimental and field work has been carried out on a variety of vertebrate hosts and a number of new, naturally infected and laboratory hosts have been reported. A survey of intermediate and definitive hosts has been undertaken in this laboratory as part of a study to investigate whether factors of morphological, physiological or biochemical origin were concerned in host specificity. These data, together with some genetical considerations, form the basis of the present paper.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Allen, A.M. (1957). Pulmonary hydatid disease in a rhesus monkey. Arch. Path. 64, 148–51.
Ambo, H., Ichikawa, K., Iida, H. & Abe, N. (1954). On Echinococcus alveolaris endemic Parasitosis on Rebun Island. Spec. Rep. Hokkaido Inst. Publ. Hlth, 4, 119.
Arcos, Porras. P. de (1951). Un caso raro de quiste hidatidico. Medicamenta, Madr. 9, 29.
Berberian, D. A. (1957). Host specificity and the effect of digestive juices on ova of E. granulosus. Ann. (10th) Rep. Orient Hosp. Beirut, pp. 3343.
Blood, B. D., Lelijveld, J. L. & Lord, R. D. (1963). Nota Preliminar sobre Equinococosis en el Zorro Gris Pampeano Dusicyon gymnocercus. Biol. Ofic. sanit. pan-amer. 54, 127.
Boko, F. & Gavez, E. (1958). O nalazima alveolarnog ehinokoka u Bosni. Vet. Glasn. 12, 259–65.
Brumpt, M. F. & Joyeux, C. (1924). Quoted by Cameron & Webster (1961).
Cameron, T. W. M. (1926). Observations on the genus Echinococcus Rudolphi, 1801. J. Helminth, 4, 1322.
Cameron, T. W. M. (1960 a). The development and experimental pathology of Echinococcus multilocularis and alveolar hydatid. Parassitologia, 2, 371–80.
Cameron, T. W. M. (1960 b) The incidence and diagnosis of hydatid cyst in Canada. Echinococcus granulosus var. canadensis. Parassitologia, 2, 381–90.
Cameron, T. W. M. & Webster, G. A. (1961). The Ecology of Hydatidosis. In Studies in Disease Ecology, vol. 2, ch. 7, 141–60. New York: American Geographic Society.
Choquette, L. P. E. (1956). Observations on experimental infection of dogs with Echinococcus. Canad. J. Zool. 34, 190–92.
Chun-Syun, F. & Alekseev, V. K. (1960). Alveolar hydatid in Rhombomys opimus in Kazakhstan. Med. Parasit., Moscow, 29, 482.
Clunies Ross, I. (1929). Observations on the hydatid parasite and the control of hydatid disease in Australia. Bull. Coun. sci. industr. Res. Aust. no. 40.
Clunies Ross, I. (1936). A note on the development of Echinococcus granulosus. J. Coun. sci. industr. Res. Aust. 9, 67–8.
Corsalini, T. (1959). On the incidence of hydatidosis in animals of different species slaughtered in Bari. Vet. ital. 10, 644–7.
Cowan, I. McT. (1951). Diseases and parasites of big game mammals of Western Canada. Proc. 5th Ann. B. C. Game Conv. pp. 3964.
Dévé, F. (1933). De l'existence de formes de transition entre l'échinococcose hydatique et l'échinococcose alveolaire chez l'homme. C.R. Soc. Biol., Paris, 113, 223–34.
Dévé, F. (1949). L'Échinococcose Primitive (Maladie Hydatique). Paris: Masson et cie.
Dew, H. R. (1953). Hydatid disease in Australia. Arch. int. Hidatid. 13, 319–32.
Dissanaike, A. S. (1958). On hydatid infection in a Ceylon toque monkey Macaca sinica. Ceylon vet. J. 6, 33–5.
Dissanaike, A. S. & Paramananthan, D. C. (1960). On the occurrence of Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786) in a Ceylon Jackal. Ceylon vet. J. 8, 82–7.
Dissanaike, A. S. & Paramanathan, D. C. (1962). On the occurrence and significance of hydatid cysts in the Ceylon Sambhur Rusa unicolor unicolor. Ceylon J. med. Sci. (D), 9, 17.
Drežančić, I. & Wikerhauser, T. (1956). Prilog aksperimentalnoj invaziji mačke i lisice s Echinococcus granulosus. Vet. Arhiv. 26, 179–82.
Durie, P. H. & Riek, R. F. (1952). The role of the dingo and wallaby in the infestation of cattle with hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786) (Rudolphi, 1805)) in Queensland. Aust. vet. J. 28, 249–54.
Euzěby, J. (1950). À Propos de l'Échinococcose Larvaire. Données nouvelles concernant la form alveolaire de l'Échinococcose. Existence d'un foyer Savoyard de la maladie. Rev. Hyg. Méd. soc. 8, 428–38.
Euzéby, J. (1962). Les Cestodes du genre Echinococcus: Taxonomie, Biologie, Action pathogène pour l'Homme. Epidémiologie de l'Échinococcose larvaire humaine. Rev. Méd. vét. 113, 111–28.
Freeman, R. S., Adorjan, A. & Pimlott, D. H. (1961). Cestodes of wolves, coyotes, and coyote-dog hybrids in Ontario. Canad. J. Zool. 39, 527–32.
Gallo, C. (1955). L'echinococcosi e la distomatosi negli equini in Sicilia. Atti Soc. ital. Sci. vet. 9, 689–91.
Gemmell, M. A. (1959). Hydatid disease in Australia. VI. Observations on the carnivora of New South Wales as definitive hosts of Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786), (Rudolphi, 1801), and their role in the spread of hydatidiasis in domestic animals. Aust. vet. J. 35, 450–5.
Gemmell, M. A. (1961). An analysis of the incidence of Hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus) in domestic food animals in New Zealand, 1958–1959. N.Z. vet. J. 9, 2937.
Gemmell, M. A. & Brydon, P. (1960). Hydatid disease in Australia. V. Observations in cattle and pigs in New South Wales and the economic loss caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786) (Rudolphi, 1801) in food animals in Australia. Aust. vet. J. 36, 73–8.
Gibbs, H. C. (1957). On the role of rodents in the epidemiology of hydatid disease in the Mackenzie River basin. Canad. J. comp. Med. 21, 287–9.
Halawani, A. (1956). Hydatid disease in Egypt. Arch. int. Hidatid. 15, 374–5.
Harper, T. A., Ruttan, R. A. & Benson, W. A. (1955). Hydatid disease (Echinococcus granulosus) in Saskatchewan big game. Trans. N. Amer. Wildl. Conf. no. 20, pp. 198207.
Heller, E. B. (1923). A treatise on Echinococcus disease. Incorporating a report of a second case of the disease to be revealed in the ape Cynocephalus procarius. Int. Clin. 4, 253–98.
Hinshaw, H. C. (1937). Hydatid disease in the Near East. Proc. Mayo Clin. 12, 422–3.
Hsü-Li, (1941). Helminths of dogs in Peiping. Peking Nat. Hist. Bull. 15, 201–3.
Hutchison, W. F. & Bryan, M. W. (1960). Studies on the hydatid worms, Echinococcus granulosus. I. Species identification of the parasite found in Mississippi. Amer. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 9, 606–11.
Inukai, T., Yamashita, J. & Mori, H. (1955). Most probable route of introduction of Echinococcus into the Island of Rebun. J. Fac. Agric. Hokkaido Univ. 50, 134–9.
Jansen, J. (1961). Echinococcus granulosus bij het edelhert (Cervus elaphus). Tijdschr. Diergeneesk, 86, 82–4.
Jore, d'Arces P. (1953). L'échinococcose en Algérie. Bull. Off. int. Epiz. 40, 4551.
Khaziev, G. Z. (1956). Echinococcus infection in elk. Veterinariya, 33, 47.
La Barrera, J. M. de (1948). Echinococcus granulosus en Microcavia australis. Arch. int. Hidatid. 7, 175–6.
Lubinsky, G. (1959) Echinococcus granulosus in domestic animals in Western Pakistan. Canad. J. Zool. 37, 83.
Lubinsky, G. (1960 a). The variability of the number of rostellar hooks in two species of Echinococcus from North America. Canad. J. Zool. 38, 605–12.
Lubinsky, G. (1960 b). The maintenance of Echinococcus multilocularis sibiricensis without the definitive host. Canad. J. Zool. 38, 149–51.
Lubinsky, G. (1960 c). A vegetatively propagated strain of larval Echinococcus multilocularis. Canad. J. Zool. 38, 1118–25.
Lukashenko, N. P. (1960 a). Pathogenetic study of experimental alveolar echinococcosis. Report I. On the possibility of a secondary (intraperitoneal) infection with alveolar echinococcosis. Med. Parasit., Moscow, 29, 601–6.
Lukashenko, N. P. (1960 b). A laboratory model of alveolar echinococcosis. Med. Parasit., Moscow, 29, 154–7.
Lukashenko, N. P. (1961). The study of alveococcus (alveolar Echinococcus) on an experimental model. Paper presented at the Conference on Disease in Countries with hot climates, 09, 1961, Tashkent. Ministry of Health, U.S.S.R. pp. 16.
Lukashenko, N. P. & Zorikhina, V. I. (1961). Epidemiology, of alveolar echinococcosis in central districts of the Barabinsk Forest-Steppe Region of the Novosibirsk Oblast. Med. Parasit., Moscow, 30, 159–68.
McCarthy, D. D. (1957). The epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus in New Zealand. N.Z. med. J. 56, 206–12.
McDonald, F. E. & Campbell, A. R. (1963). A case of cystic hydatids in the cat. N.Z. vet. J. 11, 131–2.
Magath, T. B. (1954). The importance of sylvatic hydatid disease. J. Amer. vet. med. Ass. 125, 411–14.
Manedov, M. M. (1960). Natural foci of alveolar hydatid in the Turukhansk district of the Krasnoyarsk territory. Med. Parasit, Moscow., 29, 157–61.
Maplestone, P. A. (1933). The frequency of hydatid disease in India. Indian med. Gaz. 68, 377–9.
Matoff, K. & Jantscheff, J. (1954). Kann Echinococcus granulosus im Darm des Fuchses (Canis vulpes) sich zur Geschlechtsreife entwickeln? Acta vet. hung. 4, 411–8.
Mendheim, H. (1955). Ein Fuchs, Vulpes v. crucigera (Bechstein, 1798), mit Massenbefall von Echinococcus. Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen, 3, 10–2.
Merkusheva, I. V. (1958). Evidence that rodents are natural carriers of trichinelliasis and echinococcosis in Byelorussian S.S.R.) Dokladi Akademii Nauk BSSR. Minsk, 2, 134–5.
Miller, M. J. (1953). Hydatid infection in Canada. Canad. med. Ass. J. 68, 423–4.
Nájera, L. E. (1950). El soporte biologico del Echinococcus granulosus y la epidemiologia de la hidatidosis. An. Med. Pública., Santa Fé, 2, 571–93.
Nelson, G. S. & Rausch, R. L. (1963). Echinococcus infections in man and animals in Kenya. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 57, 136–49.
Norman, L. & Kagan, I. G. (1961). The maintenance of Echinococcus multilocularis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) by intraperitoneal inoculation. J. Parasit. 47, 870–4.
Nicoll, W. (1918). On the occurrence of hydatid cysts in monkeys. Parasitology, 10, 228.
Ortlepp, R. J. (1934). Echinococcus in dogs from Pretoria and vicinity. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci. 3, 97108.
Ortlepp, R. J. (1937). South African Helminths. I. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci. 9, 311–36.
Ovsyukova, N. I. (1961). A natural focus of alveolar echinococcosis in Chukot Peninsula. Med. Parasit., Moscow, 30, 226.
Ratcliffe, H. L. (1942). Death following rupture of an Echinococcus cyst of the lung. Rep. Penrose Res. Lab. p. 21.
Rausch, R. (1953). The taxonomic value and variability of certain structures in the cestode genus Echinococcus (Rud., 1801) and a review of recognised species. Tharpar Commemoration Volume, Lucknow (ed. Dayal, J. & Singh, K. S.), pp. 233–46.
Rausch, R. (1956). Studies on the helminth fauna of Alaska. XXX. The occurrence of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, on the mainland of Alaska. Amer. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 5, 1086–92.
Rausch, R. (1958). Echinococcus multilocularis infection. Proc. 6th Int. Congr. Trop. Med. & Mal. 2, 597610.
Rausch, R. L. & Nelson, G. S. (1963). A review of the genus Echinococcus Rudolphi, 1801. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 57, 127–35.
Rausch, R. & Schiller, E. L. (1951). Hydatid disease (Echinococcosis) in Alaska and the importance of rodent intermediate hosts. Science, 113, 57–8.
Rausch, R. & Schiller, E. L. (1954). Studies on the helminth fauna of Alaska. XXIV. Echinococcus sibiricensis n.sp. from St Lawrence Island. J. Parasit. 40, 659–62.
Rausch, R. & Schiller, E. L. (1956). Studies on the helminth fauna of Alaska. XXV. The ecology and public health significance of Echinococcus sibiricensis Rausch & Schiller, 1954, on St Lawrence Island. Parasitology, 46, 395419.
Rausch, R. & Williamson, F. S. L. (1959). Studies on the helminth fauna of Alaska. XXXIV. The parasites of wolves, Canis lupus L. J. Parasit. 35, 395403.
Rico, C. M. & Vita, L. A. (1959). Experiencias Hidaticas en aves Carnivoras y Omnivoras. Int. vet., Congr. (16th), Madrid, 11, 717–21.
Riley, W. A. (1939). Maintenance of Echinococcus in U.S.A. J. Amer. vet med. Ass. 95, 170–2.
Róman, C. (1956) Nota sobre incidencia de hidatidosis en alpacas y ovinos de la sierra del Perú. Rev. Med. exp. Lima, 10, 85–7.
Romanov, I. V. (1958). Distribution of echinococcosis in wild foxes in Krasnoyarsk territory. Zool. Zh. 37, 1136–42.
Sadun, E. H., Norman, L., Allain, D. S. & King, N. M. (1957). Observations on the susceptibilities of cotton rats to Echinococcus multilocularis (Leuckart, 1863). J. infect. Dis. 100, 273–7.
Santivanex, M. J. & Cuba, C. A. (1949). Quiste hidatico en Lama glama pacos o alpaca. Rev. Fac. Med. vet., Lima, 4, 22–4.
Schulte, F. (1950). Echinococcus alveolaris in der Leber eines Sumpfbibers. Berl. Münch. tierärztl. Wschr. 2, 2930.
Schwabe, C. W., Schinazi, L. A. & Kilejian, A. (1959). Host-parasite relationships in Echinococcus. II. Age resistance to secondary echinococcosis in the white mouse. Amer. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 8, 2936.
Shumakovich, E. E. & Nikitin, F. F. (1959). Occurrence of Echinococcus granulosus in Vulpes corsac. Byulleten Nauchno-Technicheskoi Informatsii Gelmintologii im K. I. Skryabina, 5, 98–9.
Simpson, G. G. (1945). The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 85, 1.
Smyth, J. D. (1962 a). Lysis of Echinococcus granulosus by surface-active agents in bile and the role of this phenomenon in determining host specificity in helminths. Proc. roy. Soc. B, 156, 553–72.
Smyth, J. D. (1962 b). The chromosome number of Echinococcus granulosus. J. Parasit, 48, 544.
Smyth, J. D. & Haslewood, G. A. D. (1963). The biochemistry of bile as a factor in determining host specificity in intestinal parasites, with particular reference to Echinococcus granulosus. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 113, 234–60.
Stunkard, H. W. (1957). Intraspecific variation in parasitic flatworms. System. Zool. 6, 718.
Sweatman, G. K. (1952). Distribution and incidence of Echinococcus granulosus in man and other animals with special reference to Canada. Canad. J. publ. Hlth., 43, 480–6.
Sweatman, G. K. & Williams, R. J. (1962). Wild animals in New Zealand as hosts of Echinococcus granulosus and other taeniid tapeworms. Trans. roy. Soc. N.Z. (Zoology), 2, 221–50.
Sweatman, G. K. & Williams, R. J. (1963). Comparative studies on the biology and morphology of Echinococcus granulosus from domestic livestock, moose and reindeer. Parasitology, 53, 339–90.
Szidat, L. (1960). Echinococcus patagonicus sp.nov. Parásito del zorro Dusicyon culpaeus culpaeus. Neotrópica (Buenos Aires,) 6, 1316.
Tagle, V. I., Fernandez, E. & Alvarez, M. (1953). Hidatidosis en el Ganado de Abasto. Arch. int. Hidatid. 13, 311–13.
Tagle, I., Rivera, G. & Neghme, A. (1956). Ensayos de infección experimental de Octodon degus degus, Molina, con Echinococcus granulosus. Bol. Chileno Parasit. 11, 33–4.
Thomas, L. J., Babero, B. B., Gallichio, V. & Lacey, R. V. (1954). Echinococcosis on St Lawrence Island, Alaska. Science, 120, 1102–3.
Urbain, P. A. (1932). Sur un cas d'échinococcose secondaire chez un magot. Bull. Acad. vét. Fr. 5, 138.
Verster, A. (1961). Helminth research in S. Africa. V. Echinococcus in S. Africa. J.S. Afr. vet. med. Ass. 32, 181–5.
Vibe, P. P. (1959). The role of farm animals in the life-cycle of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 129, 471–2.
Vogel, H. (1955 a). Über den Entwicklungszyklus und die Artzugehörigkeit des europäischen Alveolarechinococcus. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 80, 931–2.
Vogel, H. (1955 b). Beobachtungen über einen alveolären Echinococcus bei süddeutschen Wildtieren. Rev. Ibér. Parasit. (Tomo Extraordinario), pp. 443–9.
Vogel, H. (1957). Über den Echinococcus multilocularis Süddeutschlands. I. Das Bandwurmstadium von Stämmen menschlicher und tierischer Herkunft. Z. Tropenmed. u. Parasit. 8, 404–54.
Waworoentoe, F. K & Mansjoer, M. (1950). Echinococcose bij een aap. Hemera Zoa, 57, 447–56.
Webster, B. & Cameron, T. W. M. (1961) Observations of experimental infections with Echinococcus in rodents. Canad. J. Zool. 39, 877–91.
Wertheim, G. (1957). Observations on Echinococcus in Israel. Arch. int. Hidatid. 16, 267–70.
Whitten, L. K. & Shortridge, E. H. (1961). Three unusual cases of secondary hydatid cysts of the peritoneal cavity of the pig, dog and cat. N.Z. vet. J. 9, 78.
Williams, R. J. & Sweatman, G. K. (1963). On the transmission, biology and morphology of Echinococcus granulosus equinus, a new subspecies of hydatid tapeworm in horses in Great Britain. Parasitology, 53, 391407.
Wilson, G. S. (1955). In The Principles of Microbial Classification—Discussion Meeting of Society of General Microbiology. 1954. J. gen. Microbiol. 12, 321.
Witenberg, G. (1933). Zur Kenntnis der Verbreitung von Echinokokkus und Trichinen in Palästina. Arch. Schiffs -u. Tropenhyg. 37, 3741.
Yamashita, J. (1960). On the susceptibility and histogenesis of Echinococcus multilocularis in the experimental mouse, with the state of echinococcosis in Japan. Parasitologia, 2, 399406.
Yamashita, J., Ohbayashi, M. & Konno, S. (1956). Studies on echinococcosis. IV. Experimental infection of the white mouse. Jap. J. vet. Res. 4, 123–9.
Yamashita, J., Ohbayashi, M. & Konno, S. (1957). Studies on echinococcosis. V. Experimental infection of the sheep. Jap. J. vet. Res. 5, 4350.
Yamashita, J., Ohbayashi, M., Kitamura, Y., Suzuki, K. & Okugi, M. (1958 a). Studies on echinococcosis. VIII. Experimental Echinococcus multilocularis in various rodents; especially on the difference of susceptibility among uniform strains of the mouse. Jap. J. vet. Res. 6, 135–55.
Yamashita, J., Ohbayashi, M. & Kitamura, Y. (1958 b). Studies on echinococcosis. IX. Differences in development of the tape-worm stage between Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1768) and E. multilocularis Leuckart, 1863. Jap. J. vet. Res. 6, 226–9.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Parasitology
  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed