Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Nothing is perfect! Trouble-shooting in immunological and molecular studies of cestode infections

  • AKIRA ITO (a1)

This personal review focuses on ways to approach and overcome some of the more common issues encountered while studying cestode zoonoses. The information presented here is based on the author's own experiences with immunological and molecular approaches for the detection of these parasites. There are many incongruities between immunological and molecular studies due to biased work. Nothing is perfect. Indirect approaches using either immunological, or even molecular tools, are limited without confirmation from direct evidence of infection. The dilemma of whether developing countries should develop their own diagnostic tests or rely on commercially available kits is also discussed.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Department of Parasitology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa 078-8510, Japan. Tel: +81 166 68 2686. Fax: +81 166 68 2429. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. C. Allan and P. S. Craig (2006). Coproantigens in taeniasis and echinococcosis. Parasitology International 55, S75S80.

R. A. Baird , S. Wiebe , J. R. Zunt , J. J. Halperin , G. Gronseth and K. L. Roos (2013). Evidence-based guideline: treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 80, 14241429.

J. M. Bart , M. Piarroux , Y. Sako , F. Grenouillet , S. Bresson-Hadni , R. Piarroux and A. Ito (2007). Comparison of several commercial kits and Em18 serology for detection of human alveolar echinococcosis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 59, 9395.

J. M. Bethony , R. N. Cole , X. Guo , S. Kamhawi , M. W. Lightowlers , A. Loukas , W. Petri , S. Reed , J. G. Valenzuela and P. J. Hotez (2011). Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases. Immunological Reviews 239, 237270.

K. Brehm , K. Jensen , P. Frosch and M. Frosch (1999). Characterization of the genomic locus expressing the ERM-like protein of Echinococcus multilocularis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 100, 147152.

S. Bresson-Hadni , O. Blagosklonov , J. Knapp , F. Grenouillet , Y. Sako , E. Delabrousse , M. P. Brientini , C. Richou , A. Minello , A. T. Antonino , M. Gillet , A. Ito , G. A. Mantion and D. A. Vuitton (2011). Should possible recurrence forbid liver transplantation in patients with end-stage alveolar echinococcosis? A 20-yr follow up. Liver Transplantation 17, 855865.

S. Bresson-Hadni , E. Delabrousse , O. Blagosklonov , B. Bartholomot , S. Koch , J. P. Miguet , G. A. Mantion and D. A. Vuitton (2006). Imaging aspects and non-surgical interventional treatment in human alveolar echinococcosis. Parasitology International 55, S267S272.

E. Brunetti , P. Kern , D. A. Vuitton and Writing Panel for the WHO-IWGE. (2010). Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in humans. Acta Tropica 114, 116.

C. M. Budke , P. Deplazes and P. R. Torgerson (2006). Global socioeconomic impact of cystic echinococcosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12, 296303.

C. M. Budke , A. C. White Jr. and H. H. Garcia (2009). Zoonotic larval cestode infections: neglected, neglected tropical disease? PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 3, e319.

J. F. Carod , M. Randrianarison , J. Razafinahefa , R. M. Ramahefarisoa , M. Rakotondrazaka , M. Debruyne , M. Dautigny , P. Cazal , M. L. Andriantseheno and E. R. Charles (2012). Evaluation of the performance of 5 commercialized enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium antibodies and for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 72, 8589.

P. S. Craig , C. M. Budke , P. M. Schantz , T. Li , J. Qiu , Y. Yang , E. Zeyhle , M. T. Rogan and A. Ito (2007). Human echinococcosis: a neglected disease? Tropical Medicine and Health 35, 283292.

P. S. Craig , M. T. Rogan and J. C. Allan (1996). Detection, screening and community epidemiology of taeniid cestode zoonoses. Advances in Parasitology 38, 169250.

N. Deckers and P. Dorny (2010). Immunodiagnosis of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis. Trends in Parasitology 26, 137144.

C. De Giorgio , C. Heck , S. Bunch , J. Britton , P. Green , M. Lancman , J. Murphy , P. Olejniczak , J. Shih , S. Arrambide and J. Soss (2005). Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy: randomized comparison of three stimulation paradigms. Neurology 65, 317319.

O. H. Del Brutto (2012). Neurocysticercosis: a review. Scientific World Journal 2012, 159821.

P. Deplazes , P. Alther , I. Tanner , R. C. Thompson and J. Eckert (1999). Echinococcus multilocularis coproantigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in fox, dog and cat population. Journal of Parasitology 85, 115121.

P. Dorny , I. K. Phiri , J. Vercruysse , S. Gabriel , A. L. Willingham III, J. Brandt , B. Victor , N. Speybroeck and D. Berkvens (2004). A Bayesian approach for estimating values for prevalence and diagnostic test characteristics of porcine cysticercosis. International Journal for Parasitology 34, 569576.

P. Dorny and N. Praet (2007). Taenia saginata in Europe. Veterinary Parasitology 149, 2224.

K. S. Eom (2006). What is Asian Taenia? Parasitology International 55, S137S141.

K. S. Eom and H. J. Rim (1993). Morphologic descriptions of Taenia asiatica sp.n. Korean Journal of Parasitology 31, 16.

P. C. Fan (1988). Taiwan Taenia and taeniasis. Parasitology Today 4, 8688.

P. M. Frosch , M. Frosch , T. Pfister , V. Schaad and D. Bitter-Suemann (1991). Cloning and characterization of an immunodominant major surface antigen of Echinococcus multilocularis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 48, 121130.

K. Furuya , M. Kawanaka , K. Yamano , N. Sato and H. Honma (2004). Laboratory evaluation of commercial immunoblot assay kit for serodiagnosis of Echinococcus infections using sera from patients with alveolar hydatidosis in Hokkaido. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 78, 320326 (in Japanese).

H. H. Garcia , A. E. Gonzalez , C. Gavidia , N. Falcon , T. Bernal , M. Verastegui , S. Rodriguez , V. C. Tsang , R. H. Gilman and Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. (2003). Seroincidence of porcine T. solium infection in the Peruvian highlands. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 57, 227236.

C. Gauci , C. Jayashi and M. W. Lightowlers (2013). Vaccine development against the Taenia solium parasite: The role of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. Bioengineered 4, 168171.

A. Goto , H. Kouguchi , K. Yamano and Y. Sawada (2013). Molecular cloning and characterization of major vault protein of Echinococcus multilocularis. Experimental Parasitology 134, 102108.

B. Gottstein (1992). Molecular and immunological diagnosis of echinococcosis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 5, 248261.

S. Handali , M. Klarman , A. N. Gaspard , X. F. Dong , R. LaBorde , J. Noh , Y. Lee , S. Rodriguez , A. E. Gonzalez , H. H. Garcia , R. H. Gilman , V. C. W. Tsang and P. Wilkins (2010). Development and evaluation of a magnetic immunochromatographic test to detect Taenia solium which causes taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17, 631637.

S. Hartnack , C. M. Budke , P. S. Craig , Q. Jiamin , B. Boufana , M. Campos-Ponce and P. R. Torgerson (2013). Latent-class methods to evaluate diagnostics tests for Echinococcus infections in dogs. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7, e2068.

L. Hemmings and D. P. McManus (1991). The diagnostic value and molecular characterization of an Echinococcus multilocularis antigen gene clone. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 44, 5662.

M. Hüttner , M. Nakao , T. Wassermann , L. Siefert , J. D. F. Boomker , A. Dinkel , Y. Sako , U. Mackenstedt , T. Romig and A. Ito (2008). Genetic characterization and phylogenetic position of Echinococcus felidis Ortlepp, 1937 (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from the African lion. International Journal for Parasitology 38, 861868.

S. Iopposo , S. Notargiacomo , E. Profumo , C. Franchi , E. Ortona , R. Rigano and A. Siracusano (1996). Immunological responses to antigen B from Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid in hydatid patients. Parasite Immunology 18, 571578.

Y. Ishikawa , Y. Sako , S. Itoh , T. Ohtake , Y. Kohgo , T. Matsuno , Y. Ohsaki , N. Miyokawa , M. Nakao , K. Nakaya and A. Ito (2009). Serological monitoring of progression of alveolar echinococcosis with multi-organ involvement using recombinant Em18. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47, 31913196.

A. Ito (1992). Cysticercosis in Asia-Pacific region. Parasitology Today 8, 182.

A. Ito (2002). Serologic and molecular diagnosis of zoonotic larval cestode infections. Parasitology International 51, 221235.

A. Ito and P. S. Craig (2003). Short review: immunodiagnostic and molecular approaches for the detection of taeniid cestode infections. Trends in Parasitology 19, 377381.

A. Ito , L. Ma , M. Paul , J. Stefaniak and Z. S. Pawlowski (1998 a). Evaluation of Em18-, Em16-, Antigen B-Western blots, Em2plus-ELISA and four other tests for differential serodiagnosis of alveolar and cystic echinococcosis patients in Poland. Parasitology International 47, 9599.

A. Ito , M. Nakao , Y. Ito , I. Yuzawa , H. Morishima , N. Kawano and K. Fujii (1999 b). Neurocysticercosis case with a single cyst in the brain showing dramatic drop in specific antibody titers within 1 year after curative surgical resection. Parasitology International 48, 9599.

A. Ito , M. Nakao , H. Kutsumi , M. W. Lightowlers , M. Itoh and S. Sato (1993 a). Serodiagnosis of alveolar hydatid disease by western blotting. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 87, 170172.

A. Ito , M. Nakao and Y. Sako (2007). Echinococcosis: serological detection of patients and molecular identification of parasites. Future Microbiology 2, 439449.

A. Ito , M. Nakao and T. Wandra (2003 b). Rapid review: human taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia. Lancet 362, 19181920.

A. Ito , M. Okamoto , T. Li , T. Wandra , N. S. Dharmawan , K. I. Swastika , P. Dekumyoy , T. Kusolsuk , A. Davaajav , A. Davaasuren , T. Dorjsuren , S. M. Meconnen , Z. H. Negasi , T. Yanagida , Y. Sako , M. Nakao , K. Nakaya , A. J. Lavikainen , A. Nkouawa and T. Mohammadzadeh (2011 b). The first workshop on towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa. Parasites and Vectors 4, 114.

A. Ito , Y. Sako , H. Yamasaki , W. Mamuti , K. Nakaya , M. Nakao and Y. Ishikawa (2003 d). Development of Em18-immunoblot and Em18-ELISA for specific diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. Acta Tropica 85, 173182.

A. Ito , C. Urbani , J. M. Qiu , D. A. Vuitton , D. C. Qiu , D. D. Heath , P. S. Craig , Z. Feng and P. M. Schantz (2003 a). Control of echinococcosis and cysticercosis: a public health challenge to international cooperation in China. Acta Tropica 86, 317.

A. Ito , H. Wen , P. S. Craig , L. Ma , M. Nakao , T. Horii , X. L. Pang , M. Okamoto , M. Itoh , Y. Osawa , X. G. Wang and Y. H. Liu (1997). Antibody responses against Em18 and Em16 serodiagnostic markers in alveolar and cystic echinococcosis patients from northwest China. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 50, 1926.

A. Ito , N. Xiao , M. Liance , M. O. Sato , Y. Sako , W. Mamuti , Y. Ishikawa , M. Nakao , H. Yamasaki , K. Nakaya , K. Bardonnet , S. Bresson-Hadni and D. A. Vuitton (2002 b). Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with affinity-purified Em18 and ELISA with recombinant Em18 for differential diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis: results of a blind test. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40, 41614165.

L. Jiang , H. Wen and A. Ito (2001). Immunodiagnostic differentiation of alveolar and cystic echinococcosis using ELISA test with 18-kDa antigen extracted from Echinococcus protoscoleces. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 95, 285288.

L. Jiang , Y. G. Zhang , M. X. Liu and Z. Feng (2012). Analysis of the reactivity of five subunits of antigen B family in serodiagnosis of echinococcosis. Experimental Parasitology 131, 8591.

U. Jongwietiwes , T. Yanagida , A. Ito and S. Kline (2011). Isolated intradural-extramedullary spinal cysticercosis: a case report. Journal of Travel Medicine 18, 284287.

H. Jung-Cook (2012). Pharmacokinetic variability of anthelmintics: implications for the treatment of neurocysticercosis. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 5, 2130.

Y. Kaji , H. Taniyama , K. Matsukawa , H. Okada , S. Tsunoda , M. Tagami and H. Akita (1993). First incidence of multilocular echinococcosis in a race horse in Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 55, 869870.

H. Kawakami , M. Kuwatani and N. Sakamoto (2013). Hepatobiliary alveolar echinococcosis infiltration of the hepatic hilum diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration. Digestive Endoscopy 25, 339340.

P. Kern , P. Frosch , M. Helbig , J. G. Wechsler , S. Usadel , K. Beckh , R. Kunz , R. Lucius and M. Frosch (1995). Diagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis infection by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gastroenterology 109, 596600.

J. Knapp , M. Chirica , C. Simonnet , F. Grenouillet , J. M. Bart , Y. Sako , S. Itoh , M. Nakao , A. Ito and L. Millon (2009). Echinococcus vogeli infection in a hunter, French Guyana. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15, 20292031.

J. Knapp , M. Nakao , T. Yanagida , M. Okamoto , U. Saarma , A. Lavikainen and A. Ito (2011). Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): an inference from nuclear protein-coding genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61, 628638.

K. Kobayashi , F. Nakamura-Uchiyama , T. Nishiguchi , K. Isoda , Y. Kokubo , K. Ando , M. Katurahara , Y. Sako , T. Yanagida , A. Ito , S. Iwabuchi and K. Ohnishi (2013). Rare case of disseminated cysticercosis and taeniasis in a Japanese traveler after returning from India. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, published online April 29, 2013.

L. M. Kumaratilake , R. C. Thompson , J. Eckert and A. D'Alessandro (1986). Sperm transfer in Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae). Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde 72, 265269.

Y. M. Lee , S. Handali , K. Hancock , S. Pattabhi , V. A. Kovalenko , A. Levin , S. Lin , C. M. Scheel , A. E. Gonzalez , R. H. Gilman , H. H. Garcia and V. C. Tsang (2011). Serologic diagnosis of human Taenia solium cysticercosis by using recombinant and synthetic antigens in QuickELISA™. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84, 587593.

J. Li , W. B. Zhang , M. Wilson , A. Ito and D. P. McManus (2003). A novel recombinant antigen for immunodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 188, 19511960.

T. Li , X. Chen , R. Zhen , J. Qiu , D. Qiu , N. Xiao , A. Ito , H. Wang , P. Giraudoux , Y. Sako , M. Nakao and P. S. Craig (2010 a). Widespread co-endemicity of human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis on the eastern Tibetan plateau, northwest Sichuan/southeast Qinghai, China. Acta Tropica 113, 248256.

T. Li , A. Ito , X. Chen , Y. Sako , J. Qiu , N. Xiao , D. Qiu , M. Nakao , T. Yanagida and P. S. Craig (2010 b). Specific IgG responses to recombinant antigen B and Em18 in cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in China. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17, 470475.

M. W. Lightowlers (2010 b). Fact or hypothesis: Taenia crassiceps as a model for Taenia solium, and the S3Pvac vaccine. Parasite Immunology 32, 701709.

M. W. Lightowlers (2010 c). Eradication of Taenia solium cysticercosis: a role for vaccination of pigs. International Journal for Parasitology 40, 11831192.

M. W. Lightowlers (2013). Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: past practices and new possibilities. Parasitology 140, in press.

A. J. Lymbery , R. P. Hobbs and R. C. Thompson (1989). The dispersion of Echinococcus granulosus in the intestine of dogs. Journal of Parasitology 75, 562570.

W. Mamunti , Y. Sako , J. M. Bart , M. Nakao , X. Ma , H. Wen and A. Ito (2007). Molecular characterization of a novel gene encoding an 8-kDa-subunit of antigen B from Echinococcus granulosus genotypes 1 and 6. Parasitology International 56, 313316.

A. M. J. McFadden , D. D. Heath , C. M. Morley and P. Dorny (2011). Investigation of an outbreak of Taenia saginata cysts (cysticercus bovis) in dairy cattle from two farms. Veterinary Parasitology 176, 177184.

T. Mohammadzadeh , Y. Sako , S. M. Sadjjadi , B. Sarkari and A. Ito (2012). Comparison of the usefulness of hydatid cyst fluid, native antigen B and recombinant antigen B8/1 for serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 106, 371375.

A. Montresor and K. Palmer (2006). Taeniasis/cysticercosis trend worldwide and rational for control. Parasitology International 55, S301S303.

N. Morel , G. Lasssabe , S. Elola , M. Bondard , S. Herrera , C. Mari , J. A. Last , O. Jensen and G. Gonzalez-Sapienza (2013). A monoclonal antibody-based copro-ELISA kit for canine echinococcosis to support the PAHO effort for hydatid disease control in South America. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease 7, e1967.

K. E. Mwape , I. K. Phiri , N. Praet , N. Speyboreck , J. B. Muma , P. Dorny and S. Gabriël (2013). The incidence of human cysticercosis in a rural community of eastern Zambia. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7, e2142.

M. Nakao , A. Lavikainen , T. Iwaki , V. Haukisalmi , S. Konyaev , Y. Oku , M. Okamoto and A. Ito (2013 b). Molecular phylogeny of the genus Taenia (Cestoda: Taeniidae): Proposals for the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 and the creation of a new genus Versteria. International Journal for Parasitology 43, 427437.

M. Nakao , Y. Sako and A. Ito (2003). Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite loci from the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 3, 159163.

M. Nakao , N. Xiao , M. Okamoto , T. Yanagida , Y. Sako and A. Ito (2009). Geographic pattern of genetic variation in the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasitology International 58, 384389.

M. Nakao , T. Yanagida , S. Konyaev , A. Lavikainen , V. Ondokurtsev , V. Zaikov and A. Ito (2013 a). Mitochondrial phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae) with emphasis on relationships among Echinococcus canadensis genotypes. Parasitology 140, in press.

M. Nakao , T. Yanagida , M. Okamoto , J. Knapp , A. Nkouawa , Y. Sako and A. Ito (2010). State-of-the-Art Echinococcus and Taenia: phylogenetic taxonomy and its application to molecular diagnosis. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 10, 444452.

T. E. Nash and H. H. Garcia (2011). Diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis. Nature Reviews. Neurology 7, 584594.

N. Nirmalan and P. S. Craig (1997). Immunoblot evaluation of the species-specificity of Em18 and Em16 antigens for serodiagnosis of human alveolar echinococcosis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91, 484486.

A. Nkouawa , Y. Sako , T. Li , X. Chen , M. Nakao , T. Yanagida , M. Okamoto , P. Giraudoux , F. Raoul , K. Nakaya , N. Xiao , J. Qiu , D. Qiu , P. S. Craig and A. Ito (2012). Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for a differential identification of Taenia tapeworms from human: application to a field survey. Parasitology International 61, 723725.

A. Nkouawa , Y. Sako , T. Li , X. Chen , T. Wandra , K. Swastika , M. Nakao , T. Yanagida , K. Nakaya , D. Qiu and A. Ito (2010). Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method using fecal specimens for differential detection of Taenia species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 48, 33503352.

A. Nkouawa , Y. Sako , M. Nakao , K. Nakaya and A. Ito (2009). Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for differentiation and rapid detection of Taenia species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47, 168174.

N. Nonaka , M. Iida , K. Yagi , T. Ito , H. K. Ooi , Y. Oku and M. Kamiya (1996). Time course of coproantigen excretion in Echinococcus multilocularis infections in foxes and an alternative definitive host, golden hamsters. International Journal for Parasitology 26, 12711278.

G. Obal , A. L. Ramos , V. Silva , A. Lima , C. Battyany , M. I. Bessio , F. Ferreira , G. Salinas and A. M. Ferreira (2012). Characterisation of the native lipid moiety of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6, e1642.

M. Okamoto , M. Nakao , D. Blair , M. T. Anantaphruti , J. Waikagul and A. Ito (2010). Evidence of hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Parasitology International 59, 7074.

Z. S. Pawlowski (2006). Role of chemotherapy of taeniasis in prevention of neurocysticercosis. Parasitology International 55, S105S109.

F. Raoul , P. Deplazes , N. Nonaka , R. Piarroux , D. A. Vuitton and P. Giraudoux (2001). Assessment of the epidemiological status of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes in France using ELISA coprotests on fox faeces collected in the field. International Journal for Parasitology 31, 15791588.

Y. Sako , M. Nakao , K. Nakaya , H. Yamasaki , B. Gottstein , M. W. Lightowlers , P. M. Schantz and A. Ito (2002). Alveolar echinococcosis: characterization of diagnostic antigen Em18 and serological evaluation of recombinant Em18. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40, 27602765.

Y. Sako , D. Tappe , K. Fukuda , Y. Kobayashi , S. Itoh , M. Frosch , B. Grüner , P. Kern and A. Ito (2011). An immunochromatographic test with recombinant Em18 antigen for the follow-up study of alveolar echinococcosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 18, 13021305.

Y. Sako , S. Itoh , M. Okamoto , K. Nakaya and A. Ito (2013). Simple and reliable preparation of immunodiagnostic antigens from Taenia solium cyst fluids. Parasitology 140, in press.

S. J. Santivañez , P. Arias , M. Portocarrero , S. Rodriguez , A. E. Gonzalez , R. H. Gilman , C. M. Gavidia and H. H. Garcia (2012). Serological diagnosis of lung cystic hydatid disease using the synthetic p176 peptide. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 19, 944947.

G. B. Santos , M. de C. P. Soares , E. M. de F. Brito , A. L. Rodrigues , N. G. Siqueira , M. S. Gomes-Gouvêa , M. M. Alves , L. A. Carneiro , A. P. Malheiros , M. M. Póvoa , A. Zaha and K. L. Haag (2012). Motochondrial and nuclear sequence polymorphisms reveal geographic structuring in Amazonian populations of Echinococcus vogeli (Cestoda: Taeniidae). International Journal for Parasitology 42, 11151118.

M. O. Sato , H. Yamasaki , Y. Sako , M. Nakao , K. Nakaya , A. Plancarte , A. A. Kassuku , P. Dorny , S. Geerts , W. Benitz-Orgiz , Y. Hashiguchi and A. Ito (2003). Evaluation of tongue inspection and serology for diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine: usefulness of ELISA using purified glycoproteins and recombinant antigen. Veterinary Parasitology 111, 309322.

P. M. Schantz (2006). Progress in diagnosis, treatment and elimination of echinococcosis and cysticercosis. Parasitology International 55, S7S13.

J. A. Serpa , E. A. Graviss , J. S. Kass and A. C. White Jr. (2011). Neurocysticercosis in Houston, Texas: an update. Medicine (Baltimore) 90, 8186.

M. M. Siles-Lucas and B. Gottstein (2001). Molecular tools for the diagnosis of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis. Tropical Medicine and International Health 6, 463475.

G. M. Simanjuntak , S. S. Margono , M. Okamoto and A. Ito (1997). Taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia as an emerging disease. Parasitology Today 13, 321323.

V. Snabel , N. Altintas , S. D'Amelio , M. Nakao , T. Romig , A. Yolasigmaz , K. Gunes , M. Turk , M. Busi , D. Huttner , D. Sevcova , A. Ito , N. Altintas and P. Dubinsky (2009). Cystic echinococcosis in Turkey: genetic variability and first record of the pig strain (G7) in the country. Parasitology Research 105, 145154.

F. Sorvillo , P. Wilkins , S. Shafir and M. Ebenbard (2011). Public health implications of cysticercosis acquired in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17, 16.

R. Subahar , A. Hamid , W. Purba , T. Wandra , C. Karma , Y. Sako , S. S. Margono , P. S. Craig and A. Ito (2001). Taeniasis solium infection in Irian Jaya (West Papua), Indonesia: a pilot serological survey of human and porcine cysticercosis in Jayawijaya District. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 95, 388390.

K. Swastika , C. I. Dewiyani , T. Yanagida , Y. Sako , M. Sudamaja , P. Sutisna , T. Wandra , N. S. Dharmawan , K. Nakaya , M. Okamoto and A. Ito (2012). An ocular cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia caused by Taenia solium Asian genotype. Parasitology International 61, 378380.

O. M. Takayanagui , N. S. Odashima , P. S. Bonato , J. E. Lima and V. L. Lanchote (2011). Medical management of neurocysticercosis. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 12, 28452856.

D. Tappe , B. Grüner , P. Kern and M. Frosch (2008). Evaluation of a commercial Echinococcus western blot assay for serological follow-up of patients with alveolar echinococcosis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 15, 16331637.

D. Tappe , Y. Sako , S. Itoh , M. Frosch , B. Grüner , P. Kern and A. Ito (2010). Immunoglobulin G subclass responses to recombinant Em18 in the follow-up of patients with alveolar echinococcosis in different clinical stages. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 17, 944948.

V. C. Tsang , J. A. Brand and A. E. Boyer (1989). An enzyme-linked immunoelectro transfer blot assay and glycoprotein antigens for diagnosing human cysticercosis (Taenia solium). Journal of Infectious Diseases 159, 5059.

R. C. Thompson and J. Eckert (1983). Observation on Echinococcus multilocularis in the definitive host. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde 69, 335345.

M. Ueno , N. Kuroda , K. Yahagi , T. Ohtaki and M. Kawanaka (2012). Analysis of antibody responses by commercial western blot assay in horses infected with alveolar echinococcosis. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Science 74, 813815.

T. Wandra , R. Subahar , G. M. Simanjuntak , S. S. Margono , T. Suroso , M. Okamoto , M. Nakao , Y. Sako , K. Nakaya , P. M. Schantz and A. Ito (2000). Resurgence of cases of epileptic seizures and burns associated with cysticercosis in Assologaima, Jayawijaya, Irian Jaya, Indonesia, 1991–95. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94, 4650.

T. Wandra , A. Ito , K. Swastika , N. S. Dharmawan , Y. Sako and M. Okamoto (2013). The past and present situation of taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia. Parasitology 140, in press.

N. Xiao , W. Mamuti , H. Yamasaki , Y. Sako , M. Nakao , K. Nakaya , B. Gottstein , P. M. Schantz , M. W. Lightowlers , P. S. Craig and A. Ito (2003). Evaluation of use of recombinant Em18 and affinity-purified Em18 for serological differentiation of alveolar echinococcosis from cystic echinococcosis and other parasitic infections. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 41, 33513353.

N. Xiao , J. Qiu , M. Nakao , T. Li , W. Yang , X. Chen , P. M. Schantz , P. S. Craig and A. Ito (2005). Echinococcus shiquicus n. sp., a taeniid cestode from Tibetan foxes and plateau pikas in China. International Journal for Parasitology 35, 693701.

K. Yamane , Y. Suzuki , E. Tachi , T. Y. Li , X. W. Chen , M. Nakao , A. Nkouawa , T. Yanagida , Y. Sako , A. Ito , H. Sato and M. Okamoto (2012). Recent hybridization between Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. Parasitology International 61, 351355.

K. Yamane , T. Yanagida , T. Li , X. Chen , P. Dekumyoy , J. Waikagul , A. Nkouawa , M. Nakao , Y. Sako , A. Ito , H. Sato and M. Okamoto (2013). Complicated relationships between Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica and their hybrids. Parasitology 140, in press.

H. Yamasaki (2013). Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Korean Journal of Parasitology 51, 1929.

H. Yamasaki , J. C. Allan , M. O. Sato , M. Nakao , Y. Sako , K. Nakaya , D. C. Qiu , W. Mamuti , P. S. Craig and A. Ito (2004). DNA differential diagnosis of taeniasis/cysticercosis by multiplex PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42, 548553.

T. Yanagida , I. Yuzawa , D. D. Joshi , Y. Sako , M. Nakao , K. Nakaya , N. Kawano , H. Oka , K. Fujii and A. Ito (2010). Neurocysticercosis: assessing where the infection was acquired? Journal of Travel Medicine 17, 206208.

T. Yanagida , Y. Sako , M. Nakao , K. Nakaya and A. Ito (2012). Mini review: taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan. Parasites and Vectors 5, 18.

Y. R. Yang , P. S. Craig , A. Ito , D. A. Vuitton , P. Giraudoux , T. Sun , G. M. Williams , Z. Huang , Z. Li , Y. Wang , J. Teng , Y. Li , L. Huang , H. Wen , M. K. Jones and D. P. McManus (2007). A correlative studies of ultrasound with serology in an area in China co-endemic for human alveolar and cystic echinococcosis. Tropical Medicine and International Health 12, 637646.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 6 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 85 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.