Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 19
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Avcioglu, Hamza Guven, Esin Balkaya, Ibrahim Kirman, Ridvan Bia, Mohammed Mebarek and Gulbeyen, Hatice 2016. First Molecular Characterization ofEchinococcus multilocularisin Turkey. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases,

    Hegglin, Daniel and Deplazes, Peter 2013. Control of Echinococcus multilocularis: Strategies, feasibility and cost–benefit analyses. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 43, Issue. 5, p. 327.

    Piarroux, Martine Piarroux, Renaud Knapp, Jenny Bardonnet, Karine Dumortier, Jérôme Watelet, Jérôme Gerard, Alain Beytout, Jean Abergel, Armand Bresson-Hadni, Solange and Gaudart, Jean 2013. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 19, Issue. 5, p. 721.

    Barnes, T.S. Deplazes, P. Gottstein, B. Jenkins, D.J. Mathis, A. Siles-Lucas, M. Torgerson, P.R. Ziadinov, I. and Heath, D.D. 2012. Challenges for diagnosis and control of cystic hydatid disease. Acta Tropica, Vol. 123, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Davidson, Rebecca K. Romig, Thomas Jenkins, Emily Tryland, Morten and Robertson, Lucy J. 2012. The impact of globalisation on the distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis. Trends in Parasitology, Vol. 28, Issue. 6, p. 239.

    Deplazes, Peter van Knapen, Frans Schweiger, Alexander and Overgaauw, Paul A.M. 2011. Role of pet dogs and cats in the transmission of helminthic zoonoses in Europe, with a focus on echinococcosis and toxocarosis. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 182, Issue. 1, p. 41.

    Kim, Su-Jin Kim, Jong-Han Han, Sang-Young Kim, Young-Hoon Cho, Jin-Han Chai, Jong-Yil and Jeong, Jin-Sook 2011. Recurrent Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis: Report of The First Case in Korea with Unproven Infection Route. The Korean Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 49, Issue. 4, p. 413.

    Torgerson, Paul R. and Macpherson, Calum N.L. 2011. The socioeconomic burden of parasitic zoonoses: Global trends. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 182, Issue. 1, p. 79.

    König, Andreas and Romig, Thomas 2010. Fox tapewormEchinococcus multilocularis,an underestimated threat: a model for estimating risk of contact. Wildlife Biology, Vol. 16, Issue. 3, p. 258.

    Nakao, Minoru Yanagida, Tetsuya Okamoto, Munehiro Knapp, Jenny Nkouawa, Agathe Sako, Yasuhito and Ito, Akira 2010. State-of-the-art Echinococcus and Taenia: Phylogenetic taxonomy of human-pathogenic tapeworms and its application to molecular diagnosis. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 10, Issue. 4, p. 444.

    Craig, Philip S McManus, Donald P Lightowlers, Marshall W Chabalgoity, Jose A Garcia, Hector H Gavidia, Cesar M Gilman, Robert H Gonzalez, Armando E Lorca, Myriam Naquira, Cesar Nieto, Alberto and Schantz, Peter M 2007. Prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 7, Issue. 6, p. 385.

    2007. Opinion of the Panel on additives and products or substances used in animal feed (FEEDAP) on the safety and efficacy of the product Bonvital, a preparation of Enterococcus faecium, as a feed additive for piglets and pigs for fattening in accordance with R. EFSA Journal, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 440.

    2007. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW) regarding the assessment of the risk of Echinococcosis introduction into the UK, Ireland, Sweden, Malta and Finland as a consequence of abandoning national rules. EFSA Journal, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 441.

    Craig, P.S. and Larrieu, E. 2006. Control of Human Parasitic Diseases.

    Craig, Philip S. 2006. Epidemiology of human alveolar echinococcosis in China. Parasitology International, Vol. 55, p. S221.

    Heath, David Yang, Wen Li, Tiaoying Xiao, Yongfu Chen, Xingwang Huang, Yan Yang, Yun Wang, Qian and Qiu, Jiamin 2006. Control of hydatidosis. Parasitology International, Vol. 55, p. S247.

    TORGERSON, P. R. 2006. Canid immunity to Echinococcus spp.: impact on transmission. Parasite Immunology, Vol. 28, Issue. 7, p. 295.

    Zhang, Yalou Bart, Jean-Mathieu Giraudoux, Patrick Craig, Philip Vuitton, Dominique and Wen, Hao 2006. Morphological and molecular characteristics of Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus mixed infection in a dog from Xinjiang, China. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 139, Issue. 1-3, p. 244.

    Jenkins, D.J. Romig, T. and Thompson, R.C.A. 2005. Emergence/re-emergence of Echinococcus spp.—a global update. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 35, Issue. 11-12, p. 1205.


Perspective on control options for Echinococcus multilocularis with particular reference to Japan

  • A. ITO (a1), T. ROMIG (a2) and K. TAKAHASHI (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 October 2003

Following a brief introduction of recent advances in molecular and immunological technology for detection of persons and animals infected with Echinococcus multilocularis and an overview of the current situation of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Japan, perspectives on control options are discussed with reference to different epidemiological situations. AE is considered the most serious parasitic zoonosis in temperate and arctic regions of the northern hemisphere. The number of human cases differs drastically among regions. While high numbers of patients are apparently associated with high E. multilocularis prevalence in domestic dogs, e.g. in parts of Alaska and western China, the number of cases is moderate or low in areas where the parasite is mainly transmitted by wild canid species (e.g. in central Europe or temperate North America). However, the severity of the disease, the absence of curative treatment for most cases, the high cost of long-term chemotherapy and the anxiety caused for the population in highly endemic areas call for the development of preventive strategies even in regions where human AE is rare. Furthermore, in view of (1) drastically increasing numbers and infection rates of foxes involved in transmission of E. multilocularis, and (2) increasingly close contact between humans and foxes e.g. in Europe and Japan, there is considerable concern that AE incidences may in future increase in these regions. Control options depend on a variety of factors including the species of canid principally responsible for transmission and the socio-economic situation in the region. Where domestic dogs (stray or owned) are the principal hosts for E. multilocularis, control options can include those applicable to E. granulosus, i.e. reduction of the number of stray dogs, registration and regular preventive chemotherapy of owned dogs, and information campaigns for the population promoting low-risk behaviour for man and dogs. Where E. multilocularis is mainly transmitted by wild canids, the situation is far more difficult with preventive strategies still being in trial stage. Integrated control measures could include prevention information campaigns, restricting access of pet animals (dogs and cats) to rodents, chemotherapy of foxes on local or regional scales, and strategies to minimize contacts between people and foxes.

Corresponding author
Tel: +81 166 68 2420. Fax: +81 166 68 2429. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *