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Resistance towards monensin is proposed to be acquired in a Toxoplasma gondii model by reduced invasion and egress activities, in addition to increased intracellular replication



Monensin (Mon) is an anticoccidial polyether ionophore widely used to control coccidiosis. The extensive use of polyether ionophores on poultry farms resulted in widespread resistance, but the underlying resistance mechanisms are unknown in detail. For analysing the mode of action by which resistance against polyether ionophores is obtained, we induced in vitro Mon resistance in Toxoplasma gondii-RH strain (MonR-RH) and compared it with the sensitive parental strain (Sen-RH). The proteome assessment of MonR-RH and Sen-RH strains was obtained after isotopic labelling using stable isotope labelling by amino acid in cell culture. Relative proteomic quantification between resistant and sensitive strains was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Overall, 1024 proteins were quantified and 52 proteins of them were regulated. The bioinformatic analysis revealed regulation of cytoskeletal and transmembrane proteins being involved in transport mechanisms, metal ion-binding and invasion. During invasion, actin and microneme protein 8 (MIC8) are seem to be important for conoid extrusion and forming moving junction with host cells, respectively. Actin was significantly upregulated, while MIC8 was downregulated, which indicate an invasion reduction in the resistant strain. Resistance against Mon is not a simple process but it involves reduced invasion and egress activity of T. gondii tachyzoites while intracellular replication is enhanced.


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*Corresponding author: Department of Veterinary Sciences, WSVL, 1174 Snowy Range Rd, 82070 Laramie, WY, USA. E-mail:


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