Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Revisiting the role of dissimilarity of host communities in driving dissimilarity of ectoparasite assemblages: non-linear vs linear approach

  • LUTHER VAN DER MESCHT (a1) (a2), IRINA S. KHOKHLOVA (a2), ELIZABETH M. WARBURTON (a1) and BORIS R. KRASNOV (a1)

Summary

We revisited the role of dissimilarity of host assemblages in shaping dissimilarity of flea assemblages using a non-linear approach. Generalized dissimilarity models (GDMs) were applied using data from regional surveys of fleas parasitic on small mammals in four biogeographical realms. We compared (1) model fit, (2) the relative effects of host compositional and phylogenetic turnover and geographic distance on flea compositional and phylogenetic turnover, and (3) the rate of flea turnover along gradients of host turnover and geographic distance with those from earlier application of a linear approach. GDMs outperformed linear models in explaining variation in flea species turnover and host dissimilarity was the best predictor of flea dissimilarity, irrespective of scale. The shape of the relationships between flea compositional turnovers along host compositional turnover was similar in all realms, whereas turnover along geographic distance differed among realms. In contrast, the rate of flea phylogenetic turnover along gradients of host phylogenetic turnover differed among realms, whereas flea phylogenetic turnover did not depend on geographic distance in any realm. We demonstrated that a non-linear approach (a) explained spatial variation in parasite community composition better than and (b) revealed patterns that were obscured by earlier linear analyses.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Mitrani Department of Desert Ecology, Swiss Institute for Dryland Environmental and Energy Research, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede-Boqer Campus, 84990 Midreshet Ben-Gurion, Israel. E-mail: vanderme@post.bgu.ac.il

References

Hide All
Bell, K. L., Heard, T. A., Manion, G., Ferrier, S. and Klinken, R. D. (2013). The role of geography and environment in species turnover: phytophagous arthropods on a Neotropical legume. Journal of Biogeography 40, 17551766.
Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P., Cardillo, M., Jones, K. E., MacPhee, R. D. E., Beck, R. M. D., Grenyer, R., Price, S. A., Vos, R. A., Gittleman, J. L. and Purvis, A. (2007). The delayed rise of present-day mammals. Nature 446, 507512.
Borcard, D., Legendre, P. and Drapeau, P. (1992). Partialling out the spatial component of ecological variation. Ecology 73, 10451055.
Bray, J. R. and Curtis, J. T. (1957). An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27, 325349.
Brooks, D. R., León-Règagnon, V., McLennan, D. A. and Zelmer, D. (2006). Ecological fitting as a determinant of the community structure of platyhelminth parasites of anurans. Ecology 87, S76S85.
Bryant, J. A., Lamanna, C., Morlon, H., Kerkhoff, A. J., Enquist, B. J. and. Green, J. L. (2008). Microbes on mountainsides: contrasting elevational patterns of bacterial and plant diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 1150511511.
Cavender-Bares, J., Kozak, K. H., Fine, P. V. and Kembel, S. W. (2009). The merging of community ecology and phylogenetic biology. Ecology Letters 12, 693715.
Combes, C. (2001). Parasitism. The Ecology and Evolution of Intimate Interactions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Ferrier, S. (2002). Mapping spatial pattern in biodiversity for regional conservation planning: where to from here? Systematic Biology 51, 331363.
Ferrier, S., Gray, M. R., Cassis, G. A. and Wilkie, L. (1999). Spatial turnover in species composition of ground-dwelling arthropods, vertebrates and vascular plants in north-east New South Wales: implications for selection of forest reserves. In The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates (ed. Ponder, By W. and Lunney, D.), pp. 6876. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
Ferrier, S., Drielsma, M., Manion, G. and Watson, G. (2002). Extended statistical approaches to modelling spatial pattern in biodiversity in north-east New South Wales: II. Community level modelling. Biodiversity and Conservation 11, 23092338.
Ferrier, S., Manion, G., Elith, J. and Richardson, K. (2007). Using generalized dissimilarity modelling to analyse and predict patterns of beta diversity in regional biodiversity assessment. Diversity and Distributions 13, 252264.
Fitzpatrick, M. C., Sanders, N. J., Normand, S., Svenning, J-C., Ferrier, S., Gove, A. D. and Dunn, R. R. (2013). Environmental and historical imprints on beta diversity: insights from variation in rates of species turnover along gradients. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280, 20131201.
Gaston, K. J. (2000). Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature 405, 220227.
Hadfield, J. D., Krasnov, B. R., Poulin, R. and Nakagawa, S. (2014). A tale of two phylogenies: comparative analyses of ecological interactions. American Naturalist 183, 174187.
Hoberg, E. P. and Brooks, D. R. (2010). Beyond vicariance: integrating taxon pulses, ecological fitting, and oscillation in evolution and historical biogeography. In The Biogeography of Host-Parasite Interactions (ed. Morand, S. and Krasnov, B. R.), pp. 720. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Janzen, D. H. (1985). On ecological fitting. Oikos 45, 308310.
Jones, M. M., Ferrier, S., Condit, R., Manion, G., Aguilar, S. and Perez, R. (2013). Strong congruence in tree and fern community turnover in response to soils and climate in central Panama. Journal of Ecology 101, 506516.
Kembel, S. W., Cowan, P. D., Helmus, M. R., Cornwell, W. K., Morlon, H., Ackerly, D. D., Blomberg, S. P. and Webb, C. O. (2010). Picante: R tools for integrating phylogenies and ecology. Bioinformatics 26, 14631464.
Kottek, M., Grieser, J., Beck, C., Rudolf, B. and Rubel, F. (2006). World map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 15, 259263.
Krasnov, B. R. and Shenbrot, G. I. (2002). Coevolutionary events in history of association of jerboas (Rodentia: Dipodidae) and their flea parasites. Israel Journal of Zoology 48, 331350.
Krasnov, B. R., Shenbrot, G. I., Medvedev, S. G., Vatschenok, V. S. and Khokhlova, I. S. (1997). Host–habitat relation as an important determinant of spatial distribution of flea assemblages (Siphonaptera) on rodents in the Negev Desert. Parasitology 114, 159173.
Krasnov, B. R., Khokhlova, I. S., Fielden, L. J. and Burdelova, N. V. (2001). Effect of air temperature and humidity on the survival of pre-imaginal stages of two flea species (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 38, 629637.
Krasnov, B. R., Burdelova, N. V., Shenbrot, G. I. and Khokhlova, I. S. (2002 a). Annual cycles of four flea species in the central Negev Desert. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 16, 266276.
Krasnov, B. R., Khokhlova, I. S., Fielden, L. F. and Burdelova, N. V. (2002 b). The effect of substrate on survival and development of two species of desert fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Parasite 9, 135142.
Krasnov, B. R., Shenbrot, G. I., Khokhlova, I. S. and Poulin, R. (2007). Geographic variation in the ‘bottom-up’ control of diversity: fleas and their small mammalian hosts. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16, 179186.
Krasnov, B. R., Mouillot, D., Shenbrot, G. I., Khokhlova, I. S., Vinarski, M. V., Korallo-Vinarskaya, N. P. and Poulin, R. (2010). Similarity in ectoparasite faunas of Palaearctic rodents as a function of host phylogenetic, geographic or environmental distances: which matters the most? International Journal for Parasitology 40, 807817.
Krasnov, B.R., Poulin, R. and Mouillot, D. (2011). Scale-dependence of phylogenetic signal in ecological traits of ectoparasites. Ecography 34, 114122.
Krasnov, B. R., Mouillot, D., Khokhlova, I. S., Shenbrot, G. I. and Poulin, R. (2012). Compositional and phylogenetic dissimilarity of host communities drives dissimilarity of ectoparasite assemblages: geographical variation and scale-dependence. Parasitology 139, 338347.
Krasnov, B. R., Kiefer, D., Warburton, E. M. and Khokhlova, I. S. (2016 a). Szidat's rule re-tested: relationships between flea and host phylogenetic clade ranks in four biogeographic realms. Parasitology 143, 723731.
Krasnov, B. R., Shenbrot, G. I., Khokhlova, I. S. and Degen, A. A. (2016 b). Trait-based and phylogenetic associations between parasites and their hosts: a case study with small mammals and fleas in the Palearctic. Oikos 125, 2938.
Legendre, P. and Legendre, L. (1998). Numerical Ecology, 2nd English Edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Legendrè, P., Borcard, D. and Peres-Neto, P. R. (2005). Analyzing beta diversity: partitioning the spatial variation of community composition data. Ecological Monographs 75, 435450.
Lichstein, J. W. (2007). Multiple regression on distance matrices: a multivariate spatial analysis tool. Plant Ecology 188, 117131.
Lu, L. and Wu, H. (2005). Morphological phylogeny of Geusibia Jordan, 1932 (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae) and the host-parasite relationships with pikas. Systematic Parasitology 61, 6578.
Manion, G., Lisk, M., Ferrier, S., Nieto-Lugilde, D. and Fitzpatrick, M. C. (2016). gdm: Functions for Generalized Dissimilarity Modeling. R package version 1.2.3. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=gdm.
Manly, B. F. (1986). Randomization and regression methods for testing for associations with geographical, environmental and biological distances between populations. Research in Population Ecology 28, 201218.
Medvedev, S. G. (1996). Geographical distribution of families of fleas (Siphonaptera). Entomological Review 76, 978992.
Medvedev, S. G. (2005). An Attempted System Analysis of the Evolution of the Order of Fleas (Siphonaptera). Lectures in Memoriam N. A. Kholodkovsky, No. 57. Russian Entomological Society and Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia (in Russian).
Medvedev, S. G. (2014). The Palaearctic centers of taxonomic diversity of fleas (Siphonaptera). Entomological Review 94, 345358.
Medvedev, S. G. and Kotti, B. K. (2012). Patterns of formation of the flea (Siphonaptera) fauna in the Caucasus. Entomological Review 92, 409421.
Medvedev, S. G. and Kotti, B. K. (2013). Host associations and origin in the formation of the Caucasian fauna of fleas (Siphonaptera). Entomological Review 93, 293308.
Nekola, J. C. and White, P. S. (1999). The distance decay of similarity in biogeography and ecology. Journal of Biogeography 26, 867878.
Oksanen, J., Blanchet, F. G., Friendly, M., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., McGlinn, D., Minchin, P. R., O'Hara, R. B., Simpson, G. L., Solymos, P., Stevens, M. H. H., Szoecs, E. and Wagner, H. (2016). vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.4–1. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan.
Poulin, R. (2007). Evolutionary Ecology of Parasites: from Individuals to Communities, 2nd Edn. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
Poulin, R. and Morand, S. (1999). Geographical distances and the similarity among parasite communities of conspecific host populations. Parasitology 119, 369374.
R Development Core Team (2015). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, http://www.R-project.org/.
Ricklefs, R. E. (1987). Community diversity: relative roles of local and regional processes. Science 235, 167171.
Ricklefs, R. E. (2004). A comprehensive framework for global patterns in biodiversity. Ecology Letters 7, 115.
Rosauer, D. F., Ferrier, S., Williams, K. J., Manion, G., Keogh, J. S. and Laffan, S. W. (2014). Phylogenetic generalised dissimilarity modelling: a new approach to analysing and predicting spatial turnover in the phylogenetic composition of communities. Ecography 37, 2132.
Soininen, J., McDonald, R. and Hillebrand, H. (2007). The distance decay of similarity in ecological communities. Ecography 30, 312.
Stegen, J. C. and Hurlbert, A. H. (2011). Inferring ecological processes from taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional trait beta-diversity. PLoS ONE 6, e20906.
Traub, R. (1980). The zoogeography and evolution of some fleas, lice and mammals. In Fleas. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fleas, Ashton Wold, Peterborough, UK, 21–25 June 1977 (ed. Traub, R. and Starke, H.), pp. 93172. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Traub, R. (1985). Coevolution of fleas and mammals. In Coevolution of Parasitic Arthropods and Mammals (ed. Kim, K. C.), pp. 295437. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.
Tuomisto, H. and Roukolainen, K. (2006). Analyzing or explaining beta diversity? Understanding the targets of different methods of analysis. Ecology 87, 26972708.
Vinarski, M. V., Korallo, N. P., Krasnov, B. R., Shenbrot, G. I. and Poulin, R. (2007). Decay of similarity of gamasid mite assemblages parasitic on Palaearctic small mammals: geographic distance, host-species composition or environment. Journal of Biogeography 34, 16911700.
Whiting, M. F., Whiting, A. S., Hastriter, M. W. and Dittmar, K. (2008). A molecular phylogeny of fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera): origins and host associations. Cladistics 24, 677707.
Wiens, J. A. (1989). The Ecology of Bird Communities. Foundations and Patterns. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Zhu, Q., Hastriter, M. W., Whiting, M. F. and Dittmar, K. (2015). Fleas (Siphonaptera) are Cretaceous, and evolved with Theria. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 90, 129139.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Van Der Mescht supplementary material
Appendix 1-2

 Word (232 KB)
232 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed