Abdulai-Saiku, Samira and Vyas, Ajai 2017. Loss of predator aversion in female rats after Toxoplasma gondii infection is not dependent on ovarian steroids. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Vol. 65, p. 95.
Wang, Zi T. Verma, Shiv K. Dubey, Jitender P. Sibley, L. David and Knoll, Laura J 2017. The aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes AAH1 and AAH2 in Toxoplasma gondii contribute to transmission in the cat. PLOS Pathogens, Vol. 13, Issue. 3, p. e1006272.
2017. Neurophysiological Changes Induced by Chronic Toxoplasma gondii Infection. Pathogens, Vol. 6, Issue. 2, p. 19.
Flegr, Jaroslav 2017. Does Toxoplasma infection increase sexual masochism and submissiveness? Yes and no. Communicative & Integrative Biology, p. 00.
Mahami Oskouei, Mahmoud Hamidi, Faezeh Talebi, Mahnaz Farhoudi, Mehdi Taheraghdam, Ali Akbar Kazemi, Tohid Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun and Fallah, Esmaeil 2016. The correlation between Toxoplasma gondii infection and Parkinson’s disease: a case-control study. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, Vol. 40, Issue. 3, p. 872.
Naemat, Abida Elsheikha, Hany M. Boitor, Radu A. and Notingher, Ioan 2016. Tracing amino acid exchange during host-pathogen interaction by combined stable-isotope time-resolved Raman spectral imaging. Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue. 1,
Xiao, Jianchun Li, Ye Prandovszky, Emese Kannan, Geetha Viscidi, Raphael P. Pletnikov, Mikhail V. Yolken, Robert H. and Taylan Ozkan, Aysegul 2016. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol. 10, Issue. 4, p. e0004674.
Dubey, Jitender P. Ferreira, Leandra R. Alsaad, Mohammad Verma, Shiv K. Alves, Derron A. Holland, Gary N. McConkey, Glenn A. and Knoll, Laura J 2016. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Rats Induced Orally with Eleven Strains of Toxoplasma gondii of Seven Genotypes: Tissue Tropism, Tissue Cyst Size, Neural Lesions, Tissue Cyst Rupture without Reactivation, and Ocular Lesions. PLOS ONE, Vol. 11, Issue. 5, p. e0156255.
Elsheikha, Hany M. Büsselberg, Dietrich and Zhu, Xing-Quan 2016. The known and missing links between Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia. Metabolic Brain Disease, Vol. 31, Issue. 4, p. 749.
Flegr, Jaroslav 2015. Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Consequences of Chronic Toxoplasma Infection. Current Clinical Microbiology Reports, Vol. 2, Issue. 4, p. 163.
Martin, H.L. Alsaady, I. Howell, G. Prandovszky, E. Peers, C. Robinson, P. and McConkey, G.A. 2015. Effect of parasitic infection on dopamine biosynthesis in dopaminergic cells. Neuroscience, Vol. 306, p. 50.
Celik, Tuncay Gokcen, Cem Aytas, Ozgur Ozcelik, Aysima Celik, Mustafa and Coban, Nurdan 2015. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in stutterers is higher than in the control group. Folia Parasitologica, Vol. 62,
Mahbodfar, Hamid Reza Razin, Ehsan Yousefi- Saki, Jasem Rafiei, Abdollah and Khademvata, Shahram 2015. Study of Latent Toxoplasma gondii Role in Level of Testosterone, DHEA, Cortisol and Prolactin Hormones of Young Persons. Asian Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 8, Issue. 3, p. 64.
Celik, Tuncay Kartalci, Sukru Aytas, Ozgur Akarsu, Gulay Aral Gozukara, Harika and Unal, Suheyla 2015. Association between latent toxoplasmosis and clinical course of schizophrenia - continuous course of the disease is characteristic for Toxoplasma gondii-infected patients. Folia Parasitologica, Vol. 62,
Sutterland, A. L. Fond, G. Kuin, A. Koeter, M. W. J. Lutter, R. van Gool, T. Yolken, R. Szoke, A. Leboyer, M. and de Haan, L. 2015. Beyond the association.Toxoplasma gondiiin schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and addiction: systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 132, Issue. 3, p. 161.
Mahmoudvand, Hossein Ziaali, Naser Aghaei, Iraj Sheibani, Vahid Shojaee, Saeideh Keshavarz, Hossein and Shabani, Mohammad 2015. The possible association betweenToxoplasma gondiiinfection and risk of anxiety and cognitive disorders in BALB/c mice. Pathogens and Global Health, Vol. 109, Issue. 8, p. 369.
Flegr, Jaroslav 2015. Schizophrenia andToxoplasma gondii: an undervalued association?. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, Vol. 13, Issue. 7, p. 817.
Daniels, Brian P. Sestito, Stephanie R. and Rouse, Susan T. 2015. An expanded task battery in the Morris water maze reveals effects of Toxoplasma gondii infection on learning and memory in rats. Parasitology International, Vol. 64, Issue. 1, p. 5.
Eells, Jeffrey B. Varela-Stokes, Andrea Guo-Ross, Shirley X. Kummari, Evangel Smith, Holly M. Cox, Erin Lindsay, David S. and Wilson, Emma H. 2015. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-Null Heterozygous Mice Exacerbates Elevated Open Field Activity. PLOS ONE, Vol. 10, Issue. 4, p. e0119280.
Toxoplasma gondii, a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite, is known to induce behavioural alterations in rodents and may exert an effect on human personality and behaviour. The mechanism of parasite-induced alterations in host behaviour has not been described, but it was hypothesized that development of Toxoplasma tissue cysts in the brain could affect the dopaminergic neuromodulatory system. In this study, we tested the effect of latent Toxoplasma infection on mouse behaviour associated with activity of the dopaminergic system, i.e. locomotion in a novel environment and exploration test. Additionally, we examined the behavioural response of Toxoplasma-infected mice to a selective dopamine uptake inhibitor, GBR 12909. In both genders, Toxoplasma infection decreased locomotion in the open field. Infected females displayed an increased level of exploration in the holeboard test. GBR 12909 induced suppression in holeboard-exploration in the infected males, but had an opposite effect on the controls. These results suggest an association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and changes in the dopaminergic neuromodulatory system.
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