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Temperature modulates the interaction between fungicide pollution and disease: evidence from a Daphnia-microparasitic yeast model

  • Ana P. Cuco (a1) (a2), Bruno B. Castro (a3), Fernando Gonçalves (a1) (a2), Justyna Wolinska (a4) (a5) and Nelson Abrantes (a2) (a6)...
Abstract

Temperature is expected to modulate the responses of organisms to stress. Here, we aimed to assess the influence of temperature on the interaction between parasitism and fungicide contamination. Specifically, using the cladoceran Daphnia as a model system, we explored the isolated and interactive effects of parasite challenge (yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata) and exposure to fungicides (copper sulphate and tebuconazole) at two temperatures (17 and 20 °C), in a fully factorial design. Confirming a previous study, M. bicuspidata infection and copper exposure caused independent effects on Daphnia life history, whereas infection was permanently suppressed with tebuconazole exposure. Here, we show that higher temperature generally increased the virulence of the parasite, with the hosts developing signs of infection earlier, reproducing less and dying at an earlier age. These effects were consistent across copper concentrations, whereas the joint effects of temperature (which enhanced the difference between non-infected and infected hosts) and the anti-parasitic action of tebuconazole resulted in a more pronounced parasite × tebuconazole interaction at the higher temperature. Thus, besides independently influencing parasite and contaminant effects, the temperature can act as a modulator of interactions between pollution and disease.

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Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Bruno B. Castro, E-mail: brunocastro@bio.uminho.pt
References
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