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Aspects of pitch realisation in Yoruba*

  • Bruce Connell (a1) and D. Robert Ladd (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 20 October 2008

A great many languages of the world exhibit phenomena of FO DOWNTREND – phenomena whereby, other things being equal, the fundamental frequency (Fo) of the speaking voice declines over the course of an utterance. That much is uncontroversial; further details are either simply unknown or the subject of considerable debate. The purpose of the study reported here was to shed light on some of these unknown or uncertain matters by the controlled investigation of pitch realisation in Yoruba.

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A. Cohen , R. Collier & J. 't Hart (1982). Declination: construct or intrinsic feature of speech pitch? Phonetica 39. 254273.

A. Cohen & J. 't Hart (1967). On the anatomy of intonation. Lingua 19. 177192.

D. R. Ladd (1988). Declination ‘reset’ and the hierarchical organization of utterances. JASA 84. 530544.

Y. Laniran (1989). Phonetic implementation rules for tones in Yoruba. JASA 85. S99.

J. J. Ohala & W. Ewan (1973). Speed of pitch change. JASA 53. 345.

D. Pulleyblank (1986). Tone in Lexical Phonology. Dordrecht: Reidel.

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