Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Initial laryngeal neutralisation in Tyrolean

  • Alessandro Vietti (a1), Birgit Alber (a2) and Barbara Vogt (a3)
Abstract

In the Southern Bavarian variety of Tyrolean, laryngeal contrasts undergo a typologically interesting process of neutralisation in word-initial position. We undertake an acoustic analysis of Tyrolean stops in word-initial, word-medial intersonorant and word-final contexts, as well as in obstruent clusters, investigating the role of the acoustic parameters VOT, prevoicing, closure duration and F0 and H1–H2* on following vowels in implementing contrast, if any. Results show that stops contrast word-medially via [voice] (supported by the acoustic cues of closure duration and F0), and are neutralised completely in word-final position and in obstruent clusters. Word-initially, neutralisation is subject to inter- and intraspeaker variability, and is sensitive to place of articulation. Aspiration plays no role in implementing laryngeal contrasts in Tyrolean.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Initial laryngeal neutralisation in Tyrolean
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Initial laryngeal neutralisation in Tyrolean
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Initial laryngeal neutralisation in Tyrolean
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
E-mail: alessandro.vietti@unibz.it, birgit.alber@univr.it, bvogt@units.it.
Footnotes
Hide All

The authors would like to thank audiences at the Ferrara International Phonology Meeting 2014 and the DGfS-Jahrestagung 2015, Leipzig for feedback. They also thank Dinah Baer-Henney, Franz Lanthaler and Ruben van de Vijver for helpful and interesting discussions. Comments from the anonymous reviewers of Phonology were essential in helping us to give the paper its current (and, we hope) improved shape.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Alber, Birgit (2013). Aspetti fonologici del mòcheno. In Bidese, Ermenegildo & Cognola, Federica (eds.) Introduzione alla linguistica del mòcheno. Turin: Rosenberg & Sellier. 1535.
Alber, Birgit (2014). Obstruent systems of Northern Italy. L'Italia dialettale 75. 1336.
Alber, Birgit, Rabanus, Stefan & Tomaselli, Alessandra (2014). Continuum linguistico e contatto fra varietà germaniche e romanze. In Pezze, Francesca Dalle, Beni, Matteo De & Miotti, Renzo (eds.) Quien lengua ha a Roma va: studi di lingua e traduzione per Carmen Navarro. Mantua: Universitas Studiorum. 936.
Alphen, Petra M. van & Smits, Roel (2004). Acoustical and perceptual analysis of the voicing distinction in Dutch initial plosives: the role of prevoicing. JPh 32. 455491.
Baayen, R. H., Davidson, D. J. & Bates, D. M. (2008). Mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. Journal of Memory and Language 59. 390412.
Bannert, Robert (1976). Mittelbairische Phonologie auf akustischer und perzeptorischer Grundlage. Lund: Gleerup.
Bates, Douglas, Mächler, Martin, Bolker, Benjamin M. & Walker, Steven C. (2015). Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software 67. 148.
Bauer, Eva (2011). Das Phonemsystem des Burggräfler Dialektes. MA thesis, University of Verona.
Beckman, Jill (1998). Positional faithfulness. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Beckman, Jill, Jessen, Michael & Ringen, Catherine (2006). Phonetic variation and phonological theory: German fricative voicing. WCCFL 25. 7686.
Beckman, Jill, Jessen, Michael & Ringen, Catherine (2009). German fricatives: coda devoicing or positional faithfulness? Phonology 26. 231268.
Beckman, Jill, Jessen, Michael & Ringen, Catherine (2013). Empirical evidence for laryngeal features: aspirating vs. true voice languages. JL 49. 259284.
Benincà, Paola, Parry, Mair & Pescarini, Diego (2016). The dialects of northern Italy. In Ledgeway, Adam & Maiden, Martin (eds.) The Oxford guide to the Romance languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 185205.
Bertinetto, Pier Marco & Loporcaro, Michele (2005). The sound pattern of Standard Italian, as compared with the varieties spoken in Florence, Milan and Rome. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35. 131151.
Boersma, Paul & Weenink, David (2013). Praat: doing phonetics by computer (version 5.3.56). http://www.praat.org.
Chapin Ringo, Carol (1988). Enhanced amplitude of the first harmonic as a correlate of voicelessness in aspirated consonants. (Abstract.) JASA 83. S70.
Cho, Taehong & Ladefoged, Peter (1999). Variation and universals in VOT: evidence from 18 languages. JPh 27. 207229.
Coetzee, Andries W., Beddor, Patrice Speeter, Shedden, Kerby, Styler, Will & Wissing, Daan (2018). Plosive voicing in Afrikaans: differential cue weighting and tonogenesis. JPh 66. 185216.
Cohn, Abigail C., Ham, William H. & Podesva, Robert J. (1999). The phonetic realization of singleton–geminate contrasts in three languages of Indonesia. In Ohala, John J., Hasegawa, Yoko, Ohala, Manjari, Granville, Daniel & Bailey, Ashlee C. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Berkeley: Department of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley. 587590.
Davidson, Lisa (2016). Variability in the implementation of voicing in American English obstruents. JPh 54. 3550.
Docherty, Gerard J., Foulkes, Paul, Milroy, James, Milroy, Lesley & Walshaw, David (1997). Descriptive adequacy in phonology: a variationist perspective. JL 33. 275310.
Forrest, Karen, Weismer, Gary, Milenkovic, Paul & Dougall, Ronald N. (1988). Statistical analysis of word-initial voiceless obstruents: preliminary data. JASA 84. 115123.
Fuchs, Susanne (2005). Articulatory correlates of the voicing contrast in alveolar obstruent production in German. ZAS Papers in Linguistics 41.
Hamzah, Mohd Hilmi, Fletcher, Janet & Hajek, John (2016). Closure duration as an acoustic correlate of the word-initial singleton/geminate consonant contrast in Kelantan Malay. JPh 58. 135151.
Hanson, Helen M. (1997). Glottal characteristics of female speakers: acoustic correlates. JASA 101. 466481.
Harris, John (2009). Why final obstruent devoicing is weakening. In Nasukawa, Kuniya & Backley, Phillip (eds.) Strength relations in phonology. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 945.
Honda, Kiyoshi, Hirai, Hiroyuki & Kusakawa, Naoki (1993). Modeling vocal tract organs based on MRI and EMG observations and its implication on brain function. Annual Bulletin of the Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics 27. 3749.
Honeybone, Patrick (2005). Diachronic evidence in segmental phonology: the case of obstruent laryngeal specifications. In van Oostendorp, Marc & van de Weijer, Jeroen (eds.) The internal organization of phonological segments. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 317351.
Hoole, Phil, Honda, Kiyoshi, Murano, Emi, Fuchs, Susanne & Pape, Daniel (2006). Go with the flow: between automaticity and enhancement in control of segmental F0. In Yehia, Hani Camille, Demolin, Didier & Laboissière, Rafael (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Seminar on Speech Production. Belo Horizonte: CEFALA. 357360.
Hopfgartner, Hubert (1970). Lautlehre der Mundart des Ahrntales in Südtirol. PhD dissertation, University of Vienna.
Iverson, Gregory K. & Salmons, Joseph C. (2011). Final devoicing and final laryngeal neutralization. In van Oostendorp, Marc, Ewen, Colin J., Hume, Elizabeth & Rice, Keren (eds.) The Blackwell companion to phonology. Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell. 16221643.
Jessen, Michael (1998). Phonetics and phonology of tense and lax obstruents in German. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Jessen, Michael & Ringen, Catherine (2002). Laryngeal features in German. Phonology 19. 189218.
Kawahara, Hideki, de Cheveigné, Alain & Patterson, Roy D. (1998). An instantaneous-frequency-based pitch extraction method for high-quality speech transformation: revised TEMPO in the STRAIGHT-suite. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing. Vol. 4. 1367–1370.
Kingston, John & Diehl, Randy L. (1994). Phonetic knowledge. Lg 70. 419454.
Kirby, James P. & Ladd, D. Robert (2015). Stop voicing and F0 perturbations: evidence from French and Italian. In The Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015 (ed.) Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Glasgow: University of Glasgow.
Kleiner, Stefan (2011–17). Atlas zur Aussprache des deutschen Gebrauchsstandards (AADG). Available at http://prowiki.ids-mannheim.de/bin/view/AADG/.
Kohler, Klaus J. (1977). Einführung in die Phonetik des Deutschen. Berlin: Schmidt.
Kohler, Klaus J. (1985). F0 in the perception of lenis and fortis plosives. JASA 78. 2132.
Kong, Eun Jong, Beckman, Mary E. & Edwards, Jan (2012). Voice onset time is necessary but not always sufficient to describe acquisition of voiced stops: the cases of Greek and Japanese. JPh 40. 725744.
Krähenmann, Astrid (2001). Swiss German stops: geminates all over the word. Phonology 18. 109145.
Kranzmayer, Eberhard (1956). Historische Lautgeographie des gesamtbairischen Dialektraumes. Vienna: Böhlaus.
Kuijpers, Cecile T. L. (1996). Perception of the voicing contrast by Dutch children and adults. JPh 24. 367382.
Kulikov, Vladimir (2012). Voicing and voice assimilation in Russian stops. PhD dissertation, University of Iowa.
Kuzla, Claudia, Ernestus, Mirjam & Mitterer, Holger (2010). Compensation for assimilatory devoicing and prosodic structure in German fricative perception. In Fougeron, Cécile, Kühnert, Barbara, D'Imperio, Mariapaola & Vallée, Nathalie (eds.) Laboratory phonology 10. Berlin & New York: De Gruyter Mouton. 731757.
Kuznetsova, Alexandra, Brockhoff, Per Bruun & Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen (2014). lmerTest: tests in linear mixed effects models. R package (version 2.0-20). https://cran.r-project.org/package=lmerTest.
Lanthaler, Franz (1997). Varietäten des Deutschen in Südtirol. In Stickel, Gerhard (ed.) Varietäten des Deutschen: Regional- und Umgangssprachen. Berlin & New York: de Gruyter. 364383.
Lanthaler, Franz (2001). Zwischenregister der deutschen Sprache in Südtirol. In Egger, Kurt & Lanthaler, Franz (eds.) Die deutsche Sprache in Südtirol: Einheitssprache und regionale Vielfalt. Vienna & Bozen: Folio. 137152.
Lisker, Leigh (1957). Closure duration and the intervocalic voiced–voiceless distinction in English. Lg 33. 4249.
Lisker, Leigh & Abramson, Arthur S. (1964). A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: acoustical measurements. Word 20. 384422.
Local, John (2003). Variable domains and variable relevance: interpreting phonetic exponents. JPh 31. 321339.
Local, John, Kelly, J. & Wells, W. H. G. (1986). Towards a phonology of conversation: turn-taking in urban Tyneside speech. JL 22. 411437.
Lombardi, Linda (1996). Restrictions on the direction of voicing assimilation: an OT account. Ms, University of Maryland. Available as ROA-246 from the Rutgers Optimality Archive.
Lombardi, Linda (1999). Positional faithfulness and voicing assimilation in Optimality Theory. NLLT 17. 267302.
Moosmüller, Sylvia & Ringen, Catherine (2004). Voice and aspiration in Austrian German plosives. Folia Linguistica 38. 4362.
Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe & Gobl, Christer (1997). Voice source variation. In Hardcastle, William J. & Laver, John (eds.) The handbook of phonetic sciences. Oxford & Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell. 427461.
Ohala, John J. (1983). The origin of sound patterns in vocal tract constraints. In MacNeilage, Peter F. (ed.) The production of speech. New York: Springer. 189216.
Payne, Elinor M. (2005). Phonetic variation in Italian consonant gemination. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35. 153181.
Ramers, Karl-Heinz (1998). Einführung in die Phonologie. Munich: Fink.
Ringen, Catherine & Kulikov, Vladimir (2012). Voicing in Russian stops: cross-linguistic implications. Journal of Slavic Linguistics 20. 269286.
Rowley, Anthony R. (1986). Fersental (Val Fèrsina bei Trient/Oberitalien): Untersuchung einer Sprachinselmundart. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Rowley, Anthony R. (2003). Liacht as de sproch: grammatica della lingua mòchena/Grammatik des Deutsch-Fersentalerischen. Palù del Fèrsina: Istituto culturale mòcheno-cimbro/Kulturinsitut Bersntol-Lusérn.
Schatz, Joseph (1897). Die Mundart von Imst: Laut- und Flexionslehre. Strasbourg: Trübner.
Schatz, Josef (1955–56). Wörterbuch der Tiroler Mundarten. Innsbruck: Universitätsverlag Wagner.
Scheutz, Hannes (2016). Lautgeografisches und Lautgeschichtliches. In Scheutz, Hannes (ed.) Insre Sproch: Deutsche Dialekte in Südtirol. Bozen: Athesia. 3561.
Schmidt, Jürgen Erich & Herrgen, Joachim (2011). Sprachdynamik: eine Einführung in die moderne Regionalsprachenforschung. Berlin: Schmidt.
Shue, Yen-Liang Patricia Keating, Vicenik, Chad & Yu, Kristine (2011). VoiceSauce: a program for voice analysis. In Lee, Wai-Sum & Zee, Eric (eds.) Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Hong Kong 2011. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong. 18461849.
Shultz, Amanda A., Francis, Alexander L. & Llanos, Fernando (2012). Differential cue weighting in perception and production of consonant voicing. JASA 132. EL95EL101.
Simpson, Adrian (2014). Ejectives in English and German: linguistic, sociophonetic, interactional, epiphenomenal? In Celata, Chiara & Calamai, Silvia (eds.) Advances in sociophonetics. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 189204.
Sjölander, Kåre (2004). Snack sound toolkit. KTH Stockholm, Sweden. http://www.speech.kth.se/snack.
Smith, Jennifer L. (2002). Phonological augmentation in prominent positions. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Stevens, Kenneth N. & Hanson, Helen M. (1995). Classification of glottal vibration from acoustic measurements. In Fujimura, Osamu & Hirano, Minoru (eds.) Vocal fold physiology: voice quality control. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group. 147170.
Wetzels, W. Leo & Mascaró, Joan (2001). The typology of voicing and devoicing. Lg 77. 207244.
Wiese, Richard (1996). The phonology of German. Oxford: Clarendon.
Wiesinger, Peter (1983). Die Einteilung der deutschen Dialekte. In Besch, Werner, Knoop, Ulrich, Putschke, Wolfgang & Wiegand, Herbert Ernst (eds.) Dialektologie: Ein Handbuch zur deutschen und allgemeinen Dialektforschung. Vol. 2. Berlin & New York: de Gruyter. 807900.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Phonology
  • ISSN: 0952-6757
  • EISSN: 1469-8188
  • URL: /core/journals/phonology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Vietti et al. supplementary material
Vietti et al. supplementary material 1

 PDF (75 KB)
75 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed