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Input Optimisation: phonology and morphology*

  • Michael Hammond (a1)
Abstract

In this paper, I provide a unified account of three frequency effects in phonology. First, typologically marked elements are underrepresented. Second, phonological changes are underrepresented. Third, morphologically conditioned phonological changes are overrepresented. These effects are demonstrated with corpus data from English and Welsh. I show how all three effects follow from a simple conception of phonological complexity. Further, I demonstrate how this notion of complexity makes predictions about other phenomena in these languages, and that these predictions are borne out. I model this with traditional Optimality Theory, but the proposal is consistent with any constraint-based formalism that weights constraints in some way.

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Corresponding author
E-mail: hammond@u.arizona.edu.
Footnotes
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Thanks to Adam Albright, Elise Bell, Ricardo Bermúdez-Otero, Amy Fountain, Chris Golston, S. J. Hannahs, Lionel Mathieu, Diane Ohala and Maggie Tallerman for useful discussion. Thanks also to audiences at Manchester and Arizona and to the members of my 2015 Linguistics 514 class. Finally, thanks to three anonymous reviewers, an associate editor and the editors for additional feedback. All errors are my own.

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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Ricardo Bermúdez-Otero (1998). Prosodic optimization: the Middle English length adjustment. English Language and Linguistics 2. 169197.

Dwight L. Bolinger (1962). Binomials and pitch accent. Lingua 11. 3444.

Andries W. Coetzee & Joe Pater (2011). The place of variation in phonological theory. In John Goldsmith , Jason Riggle & Alan Yu (eds.) The handbook of phonological theory. 2nd edn. Malden, Mass. & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 401431.

Stefan A. Frisch , Nathan R. Large & David B. Pisoni (2000). Perception of wordlikeness: effects of segment probability and length on the processing of nonwords. Journal of Memory and Language 42. 481496.

Anthony D. Green (2006). The independence of phonology and morphology: the Celtic mutations. Lingua 116. 19461985.

Joseph H. Greenberg (1974). Language typology: a historical and analytic overview. The Hague & Paris: Mouton.

Gregory R. Guy (1991). Explanation in a variable phonology: an exponential model of morphological constraints. Language Variation and Change 3. 122.

Michael Hammond (1999). Lexical frequency and rhythm. In Michael Darnell , Edith Moravcsik , Frederick Newmeyer , Michael Noonan & Kathleen Wheatley (eds.) Functionalism and formalism in linguistics. Vol. 1: General papers. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. 329358.

Michael Hammond (2003). Phonotactics and probabilistic ranking. In Andrew Carnie , Heidi Harley & MaryAnn Willie (eds.) Formal approaches to function in grammar: in honor of Eloise Jelinek. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. 319332.

Michael Hammond , Edith Moravcsik & Jessica Wirth (1988). Language typology and linguistic explanation. In Michael Hammond , Edith Moravcsik & Jessica Wirth (eds.) Studies in syntactic typology. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. 122.

S. J. Hannahs (2013). The phonology of Welsh. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Roman Jakobson (1968). Child language, aphasia and phonological universals. The Hague: Mouton.

Ian Maddieson (1984). Patterns of sounds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Joe Pater (2009). Weighted constraints in generative linguistics. Cognitive Science 33. 9991035.

Alan Prince & Paul Smolensky (2004). Optimality Theory: constraint interaction in generative grammar. Malden, Mass. & Oxford: Blackwell.

Bert Vaux & Bridget Samuels (2005). Laryngeal markedness and aspiration. Phonology 22. 395436.

Arnold M. Zwicky (1987). Suppressing the Zs. JL 23. 133148.

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Phonology
  • ISSN: 0952-6757
  • EISSN: 1469-8188
  • URL: /core/journals/phonology
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