Skip to main content

Interacting processes in phonological theory

  • Külli Prillop (a1)

This article introduces basic principles of a generative theory of phonology that unifies aspects of parallel constraint-based theories and serial rule-based theories. In the core of the grammar are phonological processes that consist of a markedness constraint and a repair. Processes are universal, but every language activates a different set, and applies them in different orders. Phonological processes may be in bleeding or feeding relations. These two basic relations are sufficient to define more complicated interactions, such as blocking, derived and non-derived environment effects, chain shifts and allophony.

Corresponding author
Hide All
Albright, Adam, Magri, Giorgio & Michaels, Jennifer (2008). Modeling doubly marked lags with a split additive model. In Chan, Harvey, Jacob, Heather & Kapia, Enkeleida (eds.) Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Somerville, Mass.: Cascadilla. 3647.
Anttila, Arto & Shapiro, Naomi Tachikawa (2017). The interaction of stress and syllabification: parallel or serial? WCCFL 34. 5261.
Árnason, Kristján (2011). The phonology of Icelandic and Faroese. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Baković, Eric (1995). Geminate shortening in Fula. In Akinlabi, Akinbiyi (ed.) Theoretical approaches to African linguistics. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press. 239254.
Baković, Eric (2000). Harmony, dominance and control. PhD dissertation, Rutgers University.
Baković, Eric (2007). A revised typology of opaque generalisations. Phonology 24. 217259.
Baković, Eric (2011). Opacity and ordering. In Goldsmith, John, Riggle, Jason & Yu, Alan (eds.) The handbook of phonological theory. 2nd edn. Malden, Mass. & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 4067.
Baković, Eric (2013). Blocking and complementarity in phonological theory. Sheffield & Bristol, Conn.: Equinox.
Beckman, Jill N. (1998). Positional faithfulness. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Benua, Laura (1997). Transderivational identity: phonological relations between words. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Bermúdez-Otero, Ricardo (1999). Constraint interaction in language change: quantity in English and Germanic. PhD dissertation, University of Manchester & University of Santiago de Compostela.
Blevins, Juliette (2004). Evolutionary Phonology: the emergence of sound patterns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Broselow, Ellen, Chen, Su-I & Huffman, Marie (1997). Syllable weight: convergence of phonology and phonetics. Phonology 14. 4782.
Burzio, Luigi (2001). Zero derivations. LI 32. 658677.
Butska, Luba (1998). Faithfulness to [voice] in Ukrainian: an analysis of voicing alternations in Optimality Theory. In Artstein, Ron & Holler, Madeleine (eds.) RuLing Papers 1: Working Papers from Rutgers University. New Brunswick: Department of Linguistics, Rutgers University. 5973.
Calabrese, Andrea (2005). Markedness and economy in a derivational model of phonology. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Casali, Roderic F. (1996). Resolving hiatus. PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Farris-Trimble, Ashley W. (2008). Cumulative faithfulness effects: opaque or transparent? Indiana University Working Papers in Linguistics 6. 119145.
Goldrick, Matthew (2000). Turbid output representations and the unity of opacity. NELS 30. 231245.
Golston, Chris (1996). Direct optimality theory: representation as pure markedness. Lg 72. 713748.
Gouskova, Maria (2003). Deriving economy: syncope in Optimality Theory. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Gress-Wright, Jonathan (2010). Opacity and transparency in phonological change. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Gussenhoven, Carlos & Jacobs, Haike (2011). Understanding phonology. 3rd edn. Great Britain: Hodder Arnold.
Hale, Kenneth (1973). Deep–surface canonical disparities in relation to analysis and change: an Australian example. In Sebeok, Thomas (ed.) Current trends in linguistics. Vol. 11. The Hague: Mouton. 401458.
Halle, Morris & Idsardi, William J. (1997). r, hypercorrection, and the Elsewhere Condition. In Roca, Iggy (ed.) Derivations and constraints in phonology. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 331348.
Hauser, Ivy, Hughto, Coral & Somerday, Megan (2015). Faith-UO: counterfeeding in Harmonic Serialism. In Albright, Adam & Fullwood, Michelle A. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Meeting on Phonology.
Hyman, Larry M. (2001). On the limits of phonetic determinism in phonology: *NC revisited. In Hume, Elizabeth & Johnson, Keith (eds.) The role of speech perception in phonology. San Diego: Academic Press. 141185.
Idsardi, William J. (2000). Clarifying opacity. The Linguistic Review 17. 337350.
Ito, Junko & Mester, Armin (2003). On the sources of opacity in OT: coda processes in German. In Féry, Caroline & van de Vijver, Ruben (eds.) The syllable in Optimality Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 271303.
Jesney, Karen (2011). Positional faithfulness, non-locality, and the Harmonic Serialism solution. NELS 39. 429440.
Kager, René (1999). Optimality Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kager, René, van der Hulst, Harry & Zonneveld, Wim (eds.) (1999). The prosody–morphology interface. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kavitskaya, Darya & Staroverov, Peter (2010). When an interaction is both opaque and transparent: the paradox of fed counterfeeding. Phonology 27. 255288.
Keller, Frank (2006). Linear optimality theory as a model of gradience in grammar. In Fanselow, Gisbert, Féry, Caroline, Vogel, Ralf & Schlesewsky, Matthias (eds.) Gradience in grammar: generative perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 270287.
Kenstowicz, Michael & Kisseberth, Charles (1979). Generative phonology: description and theory. New York: Academic Press.
Kiparsky, Paul (1968). Linguistic universals and linguistic change. In Bach, Emmon & Harms, Robert T. (eds.) Universals in linguistic theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 170202.
Kiparsky, Paul (1973a). Phonological representations. In Fujimura, Osamu (ed.) Three dimensions of linguistic theory. Tokyo: TEC. 3135.
Kiparsky, Paul (1973b). ‘Elsewhere’ in phonology. In Anderson, Stephen R. & Kiparsky, Paul (eds.) A Festschrift for Morris Halle. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 93106.
Kiparsky, Paul (1982). Explanation in phonology. Dordrecht: Foris.
Kiparsky, Paul (2000). Opacity and cyclicity. The Linguistic Review 17. 351365.
Kirchner, Robert (1996). Synchronic chain shifts in Optimality Theory. LI 27. 341350.
Kirchner, Robert (1997). Contrastiveness and faithfulness. Phonology 14. 83111.
Kosecka, Justyna (2014). Coronal palatalization in Kashubian. Studies in Polish Linguistics 9. 137161.
Lombardi, Linda (2001). Why Place and Voice are different: constraint-specific alternations in Optimality Theory. In Lombardi, Linda (ed.) Segmental phonology in Optimality Theory: constraints and representations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1345.
Łubowicz, Anna (2012). The phonology of contrast. Sheffield & Bristol, Conn.: Equinox.
McCarthy, John J. (1999). Sympathy and phonological opacity. Phonology 16. 331399.
McCarthy, John J. (2000). Harmonic serialism and parallelism. NELS 30. 501524.
McCarthy, John J. (2003). Comparative markedness. Theoretical Linguistics 29. 151.
McCarthy, John J. (2008). The gradual path to cluster simplification. Phonology 25. 271319.
McCarthy, John J. (2010a). An introduction to Harmonic Serialism. Language and Linguistics Compass 4. 10101018.
McCarthy, John J. (2010b). Studying Gen. Journal of the Phonetic Society of Japan 13:2. 312.
McCarthy, John J. (2016). The theory and practice of Harmonic Serialism. In McCarthy & Pater (2016). 4787.
McCarthy, John J. & Pater, Joe (eds.) (2016). Harmonic Grammar and Harmonic Serialism. Sheffield & Bristol, Conn.: Equinox.
McCarthy, John J. & Prince, Alan (1995). Faithfulness and reduplicative identity. In Beckman, Jill N., Dickey, Laura Walsh & Urbanczyk, Suzanne (eds.) Papers in Optimality Theory. Amherst: GLSA. 249384.
McCarthy, John J. & Prince, Alan (1999). Faithfulness and identity in Prosodic Morphology. In Kager et al. (1999). 218–309.
Morén, Bruce (2000). The puzzle of Kashmiri stress: implications for weight theory. Phonology 17. 365396.
Newton, B. E. (1971). Ordering paradoxes in phonology. JL 7. 3153.
Paradis, Carole (1988). On constraints and repair strategies. The Linguistic Review 6. 7197.
Pater, Joe (1999). Austronesian nasal substitution and other NC̥ effects. In Kager et al. (1999). 310–343.
Pater, Joe (2009). Weighted constraints in generative linguistics. Cognitive Science 33. 9991035.
Piggott, Glyne L. (1999). At the right edge of words. The Linguistic Review 16. 143185.
Prince, Alan & Smolensky, Paul (2004). Optimality Theory: constraint interaction in generative grammar. Malden, Mass. & Oxford: Blackwell.
Pullum, Geoffrey K. (1976). The Duke of York gambit. JL 12. 83102.
Rubach, Jerzy (2003). Duke-of-York derivations in Polish. LI 34. 601629.
Russell, Kevin (1997). Optimality Theory and morphology. In Archangeli, Diana & Terry Langendoen, D. (eds.) Optimality Theory: an overview. Cambridge, Mass. & Oxford: Blackwell. 102133.
Samek-Lodovici, Vieri (1994). A unified analysis of crosslinguistic morphological gemination. In Ackema, Peter & Schoorlemmer, Maaike (eds.) ConSole I proceedings. The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics. 265283.
Shrofel, Salina (1980). Mutual bleeding: a case from Island Lake Ojibwa. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 1. 141155.
Steriade, Donca (2009). The phonology of perceptibility effects: the P-map and its consequences for constraint organization. In Hanson, Kristin & Inkelas, Sharon (eds.) The nature of the word: studies in honor of Paul Kiparsky. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 151179.
Tesar, Bruce & Smolensky, Paul (1998). Learnability in Optimality Theory. LI 29. 229268.
Torres-Tamarit, Francesc (2016). Compensatory and opaque vowel lengthening in Harmonic Serialism. In McCarthy & Pater (2016). 301–326.
Viitso, Tiit-Rein (2003). Rise and development of the Estonian language. In Erelt, Mati (ed.) Estonian language. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publishers. 130230.
Wilson, Colin (2001). Consonant cluster neutralisation and targeted constraints. Phonology 18. 147197.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0952-6757
  • EISSN: 1469-8188
  • URL: /core/journals/phonology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed