Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Testing the role of phonetic knowledge in Mandarin tone sandhi*

  • Jie Zhang (a1) and Yuwen Lai (a2)
Abstract

Phonological patterns often have phonetic bases. But whether phonetic substance should be encoded in synchronic phonological grammar is controversial. We aim to test the synchronic relevance of phonetics by investigating native Mandarin speakers' applications of two exceptionless tone sandhi processes to novel words: the contour reduction 213→21/—T (T≠213), which has a clear phonetic motivation, and the perceptually neutralising 213→35/—213, whose phonetic motivation is less clear. In two experiments, Mandarin subjects were asked to produce two individual monosyllables together as two different types of novel disyllabic words. Results show that speakers apply the 213→21 sandhi with greater accuracy than the 213→35 sandhi in novel words, indicating a synchronic bias against the phonetically less motivated pattern. We also show that lexical frequency is relevant to the application of the sandhis to novel words, but cannot account alone for the low sandhi accuracy of 213→35.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Albright, Adam (2002). Islands of reliability for regular morphology: evidence from Italian. Lg 78. 684709.
Albright, Adam, Andrade, Argelia & Hayes, Bruce (2001). Segmental environments of Spanish diphthongization. UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics 7: Papers in Phonology 5. 117151.
Albright, Adam & Hayes, Bruce (2003). Rules vs. analogy in English past tenses: a computational/experimental study. Cognition 90. 119161.
Anderson, Stephen R. (1981). Why phonology isn't ‘natural’. LI 12. 493539.
Archangeli, Diana & Pulleyblank, Douglas (1994). Grounded phonology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Baayen, R. Harald (1992). Quantitative aspects of morphological productivity. Yearbook of Morphology 1991. 109149.
Baayen, R. Harald (1993). On frequency, transparency, and productivity. Yearbook of Morphology 1992. 181208.
Bach, Emmon & Harms, Robert T. (1972). How do languages get crazy rules? In Stockwell, Robert P. & Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (eds.) Linguistic change and generative theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 121.
Berko, Jean (1958). The child's learning of English morphology. Word 14. 150177.
Blevins, Juliette (2004). Evolutionary Phonology: the emergence of sound patterns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blevins, Juliette (2006). A theoretical synopsis of Evolutionary Phonology. Theoretical Linguistics 32. 117166.
Blevins, Juliette & Garrett, Andrew (1998). The origins of consonant–vowel metathesis. Lg 74. 508556.
Bley-Vroman, Robert (1988). The fundamental character of foreign language learning. In Rutherford, William E. & Smith, Michael Sharwood (eds.) Grammar and second language teaching: a book of readings. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. 1930.
Boersma, Paul (1998). Functional phonology: formalizing the interactions between articulatory and perceptual drives. PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam.
Boersma, Paul & Weenink, David (2003). Praat: a system for doing phonetics by computer. http://www.praat.org/.
Buckley, Eugene (1999). On the naturalness of unnatural rules. UCSB Working Papers in Linguistics 9. 1629.
Buckley, Eugene (2002). Rule naturalness and the acquisition of phonology. Paper presented at the 2nd North American Phonology Conference, Concordia University, Montreal.
Buckley, Eugene (2003). Children's unnatural phonology. BLS 29. 523534.
Bybee, Joan (1985). Morphology: a study of the relation between meaning and form. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Bybee, Joan (2000). The phonology of the lexicon: evidence from lexical diffusion. In Barlow, Michael & Kemmer, Suzanne (eds.) Usage-based models of language. Stanford: CSLI. 65–85.
Bybee, Joan (2001). Phonology and language use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bybee, Joan (2006). Frequency of use and the organization of language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bybee, Joan & Pardo, Elly (1981). On lexical and morphological conditioning of alternations: a nonce-probe experiment with Spanish verbs. Linguistics 19. 937968.
Chambers, Kyle E., Onishi, Kristine H. & Fisher, Cynthia (2003). Infants learn phonotactic regularities from brief auditory experience. Cognition 87. B69B77.
Chao, Yuen Ren (1948). Mandarin primer: an intensive course in spoken Chinese. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Chao, Yuen Ren (1968). A grammar of spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Charles-Luce, Jan (1985). Word-final devoicing in German: effects of phonetic and sentential contexts. JPh 13. 309324.
Chen, Jenn-Yeu, Chen, Train-Min & Dell, Gary S. (2002). Word-form encoding in Mandarin Chinese as assessed by the implicit priming task. Journal of Memory and Language 46. 751781.
Chen, Matthew Y. (2000). Tone sandhi: patterns across Chinese dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chomsky, Noam (1986). Knowledge of language: its nature, origin, and use. New York: Praeger.
Chomsky, Noam & Halle, Morris (1968). The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.
Coetzee, Andries W. (2008). Grammaticality and ungrammaticality in phonology. Lg 84. 218257.
Coetzee, Andries W. & Pater, Joe (2008). Weighted constraints and gradient restrictions on place co-occurrence in Muna and Arabic. NLLT 26. 289337.
Cohn, Abigail C. (1993). Nasalisation in English: phonology or phonetics. Phonology 10. 4381.
Cook, Vivian J. (1969). The analogy between first and second language learning. International Review of Applied Linguistics 7. 207216.
Cook, Vivian J. (1994). The metaphor of access to Universal Grammar in L2 learning. In Ellis, Nick C. (ed.) Implicit and explicit learning of languages. San Diego: Academic Press. 477502.
Court, Christopher (1985). Observations on some cases of tone sandhi. In Thurgood, Graham, Matisoff, James A. & Bradley, David (eds.) Linguistics of the Sino-Tibetan area: the state of the art. Canberra: Australian National University. 125137.
Cutler, Anne & Chen, Hsuan-Chih (1995). Phonological similarity effects in Cantonese word recognition. In Elenius, Kjell & Branderud, Peter (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of the Phonetic Sciences. Vol. 1. Stockholm: KTH & Stockholm University. 106109.
Cutler, Anne & Chen, Hsuan-Chih (1997). Lexical tone in Cantonese spoken-word processing. Perception and Psychophysics 59. 165179.
Da, Jun (1998). Chinese text computing: bigrams and statistical measures. Available (December 2009) at http://lingua.mtsu.edu/chinese-computing/old-version1/statistics/mi.html.
Da, Jun (2004). Chinese text computing: syllable frequencies with tones. Available (December 2009) at http://lingua.mtsu.edu/chinese-computing/phonology/syllabletone.php.
Dell, Gary S., Reed, Kristopher D., Adams, David R. & Meyer, Antje S. (2000). Speech errors, phonotactic constraints, and implicit learning: a study of the role of experience in language production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 26. 13551367.
Dinnsen, Daniel A. (1984). A re-examination of phonological neutralization. JL 21. 265279.
Duanmu, San (2000). The phonology of Standard Chinese. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dulay, Heidi, Burt, Marina & Krashen, Stephen (1982). Language two. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, Rod (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ernestus, Mirjam & Baayen, R. Harald (2003). Predicting the unpredictable: interpreting neutralized segments in Dutch. Lg 79. 5–38.
Ernestus, Mirjam, Lahey, Mybeth, Verhees, Femke & Baayen, R. Harald (2006). Lexical frequency and voice assimilation. JASA 120. 10401051.
Fleischhacker, Heidi (2001). Cluster-dependent epenthesis asymmetries. UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics 7: Papers in Phonology 5. 71–116.
Flemming, Edward (2001). Scalar and categorical phenomena in a unified model of phonetics and phonology. Phonology 18. 7–44.
Frisch, Stefan A. & Zawaydeh, Bushra Adnan (2001). The psychological reality of OCP-place in Arabic. Lg 77. 91–106.
Goldstein, Louis, Whalen, D. H. & Best, Catherine T. (eds.) (2006). Laboratory Phonology 8. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hale, Mark & Reiss, Charles (2000). ‘Substance abuse’ and ‘dysfunctionalism’: current trends in phonology. LI 31. 157169.
Hansson, Gunnar Ólafur (2001). Theoretical and typological issues in consonant harmony. PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
Hansson, Gunnar Ólafur (2008). Diachronic explanations of sound patterns. Language and Linguistics Compass 2. 859893.
Hayes, Bruce & Londe, Zsuzsa Cziráky (2006). Stochastic phonological knowledge: the case of Hungarian vowel harmony. Phonology 23. 59–104.
Hayes, Bruce, Kirchner, Robert & Steriade, Donca (eds.) (2004). Phonetically based phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hayes, Bruce & Steriade, Donca (2004). Introduction: the phonetic bases of phonological markedness. In Hayes et al. (2004). 133.
Hayes, Bruce (1999). Phonetically driven phonology: the role of Optimality Theory and inductive grounding. In Darnell, Michael, Moravcsik, Edith, Newmeyer, Frederick, Noonan, Michael & Wheatley, Kathleen (eds.) Functionalism and formalism in linguistics. Vol. 1: General papers. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. 243285.
Hou, Jing-Yi (1980). Pingyao fangyan de liandu biandiao. [Tone sandhi in the Pingyao dialect.] Fangyan [Dialects] 80. 114.
Hsieh, Hsin-I (1970). The psychological reality of tone sandhi rules in Taiwanese. CLS 6. 489503.
Hsieh, Hsin-I (1975). How generative is phonology? In Koerner, E. F. K. (ed.) The transformational-generative paradigm and modern linguistic theory. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 109144.
Hsieh, Hsin-I (1976). On the unreality of some phonological rules. Lingua 38. 119.
Hume, Elizabeth & Johnson, Keith (eds.) (2001). The role of speech perception in phonology. San Diego: Academic Press.
Hyman, Larry M. (2001). The limits of phonetic determinism in phonology: *NC revisited. In Hume & Johnson (2001). 141–185.
Hyman, Larry M. (2007). Universals of tone rules: 30 years later. In Riad, Tomas & Gussenhoven, Carlos (eds.) Tones and tunes. Vol. 1: Typological studies in word and sentence prosody. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 134.
Jun, Jongho (1995). Perceptual and articulatory factors in place assimilation: an Optimality-theoretic approach. PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Jun, Jongho (2004). Place assimilation. In Hayes et al. (2004). 58–86.
Jurafsky, Daniel, Bell, Alan, Gregory, Michelle & Raymond, William D. (2001). Probabilistic relations between words: evidence from reduction in lexical production. In Bybee, Joan & Hopper, Paul (eds.) Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. 229254.
Jusczyk, Peter W., Smolensky, Paul, Arnold, Karen & Moreton, Elliott (2003). Acquisition of nasal place assimilation by 4·5-month-old infants. In Houston, Derek, Seidl, Amanda, Hollich, George J., Johnson, Elisabeth & Jusczyk, Ann Marie (eds.) Jusczyk lab final report. Available (December 2009) at http://hincapie.psych.purdue.edu/Jusczyk/pdf/Nasal.pdf.
Kang, Yoonjung (2003). Perceptual similarity in loanword adaptation: English postvocalic word-final stops in Korean. Phonology 20. 219273.
Keating, Patricia A. (1984). Phonetic and phonological representation of stop consonant voicing. Lg 60. 286319.
Keating, Patricia A. (1990). Phonetic representations in a generative grammar. JPh 18. 321334.
Kenstowicz, Michael (2007). Salience and similarity in loanword adaptation: a case study from Fijian. Language Sciences 29. 316340.
Kingston, John & Diehl, Randy L. (1994). Phonetic knowledge. Lg 70. 419454.
Kiparsky, Paul (1982). Lexical morphology and phonology. In The Linguistic Society of Korea (ed.) Linguistics in the morning calm. Seoul: Hanshin. 391.
Kiparsky, Paul (1985). Some consequences of Lexical Phonology. Phonology Yearbook 2. 85–138.
Kiparsky, Paul (2006). The amphichronic program vs. Evolutionary Phonology. Theoretical Linguistics 32. 217236.
Kirchner, Robert (2000). Geminate inalterability and lenition. Lg 76. 509545.
Kirchner, Robert (2001). An effort-based approach to consonant lenition. New York & London: Routledge.
Kirchner, Robert (2004). Consonant lenition. In Hayes et al. (2004). 313–345.
Lee, Chao-Yang (2007). Does horse activate mother? Processing lexical tone in form priming. Language and Speech 50. 101123.
Li, Charles N. & Thompson, Sandra A. (1981). Mandarin Chinese: a functional reference grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lin, Yen-Hwei (2007). The sounds of Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
MacWhinney, Brian (1978). The acquisition of morphophonology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Mei, Tsu-lin (1977). Tones and tone sandhi in 16th century Mandarin. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 5. 237260.
Menn, Lise & Stoel-Gammon, Carol (1995). Phonological development. In Fletcher, Paul & MacWhinney, Brian (eds.) The handbook of child language. Oxford: Blackwell. 335359.
Mohanan, K. P. (1982). Lexical Phonology. PhD dissertation, MIT. Distributed by Indiana University Linguistics Club.
Mohanan, K. P. (1993). Fields of attraction in phonology. In Goldsmith, John (ed.) The last phonological rule: reflections on constraints and derivations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 61–116.
Moore, Corinne B. & Jongman, Allard (1997). Speaker normalization in the perception of Mandarin Chinese tones. JASA 102. 18641877.
Moreton, Elliott (2008). Analytic bias and phonological typology. Phonology 25. 83–127.
Myers, James (2002). An analogical approach to the Mandarin syllabary. Chinese Phonology 11. 163190.
Oakes, Michael P. (1998). Statistics for corpus linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Ohala, John J. (1981). The listener as a source of sound change. In Masek, C. S., Hendrick, R. A. & Miller, M. F. (eds.) Papers from the parasession on language and behavior. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 178203.
Ohala, John J. (1990). The phonetics and phonology of aspects of assimilation. In Kingston, John & Beckman, Mary E. (eds.) Papers in laboratory phonology I: between the grammar and physics of speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 258275.
Ohala, John J. (1993). Coarticulation and phonology. Language and Speech 36. 155170.
Ohala, John J. (1997). The relation between phonetics and phonology. In Hardcastle, William J. & Laver, John (eds.) The handbook of phonetic sciences. Oxford & Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell. 674694.
Onishi, Kristine H., Chambers, Kyle E. & Fisher, Cynthia (2002). Learning phonotactic constraints from brief auditory experience. Cognition 83. B13B23.
Patterson, David & Connine, Cynthia M. (2001). Variant frequency in flap production: a corpus analysis of variant frequency in American English flap production. Phonetica 58. 254275.
Peng, Shu-Hui (2000). Lexical versus ‘phonological’ representations of Mandarin sandhi tones. In Broe, Michael B. & Pierrehumbert, Janet B. (eds.) Papers in laboratory phonology V: acquisition and the lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 152167.
Peperkamp, Sharon & Dupoux, Emmanuel (2007). Learning the mapping from surface to underlying representations in an artificial language. In Cole, Jennifer & Hualde, José Ignacio (eds.) Laboratory phonology 9. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 315338.
Peperkamp, Sharon, Skoruppa, Katrin & Dupoux, Emmanuel (2006). The role of phonetic naturalness in phonological rule acquisition. In Bamman, David, Magnitskaia, Tatiana & Zaller, Colleen (eds.) Proceedings of the 30th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Somerville, Mass.: Cascadilla Press. 464475.
Pierrehumbert, Janet B. (1990). Phonological and phonetic representation. JPh 18. 375394.
Pierrehumbert, Janet B. (2003). Probabilistic phonology: discrimination and robustness. In Bod, Rens, Hay, Jennifer & Jannedy, Stefanie (eds.) Probabilistic linguistics. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 177228.
Pierrehumbert, Janet B. (2006). The statistical basis of an unnatural alternation. In Goldstein, et al. (2006). 81–106.
Port, Robert F. & Crawford, Penny (1989). Incomplete neutralization and pragmatics in German. JPh 17. 257282.
Prince, Alan & Smolensky, Paul (1993). Optimality Theory: constraint interaction in generative grammar. Ms, Rutgers University & University of Colorado, Boulder. Published 2004, Malden, Mass. & Oxford: Blackwell.
Pycha, Anne, Nowak, Pawel, Shin, Eurie & Shosted, Ryan (2003). Phonological rule-learning and its implications for a theory of vowel harmony. WCCFL 22. 423435.
Qian, Zeng-Yi & Zhu, Guang-Qi (1998). Jinanhua yindang. [A record of the Jinan dialect.] Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaoyu Chubanshe.
Reber, Arthur S. (1967). Implicit learning of artificial grammars. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6. 855863.
Reber, Arthur S. (1989). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118. 219235.
Redington, Martin & Chater, Nick (1996). Transfer in artificial grammar learning: a reevaluation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 125. 123138.
Seidl, Amanda & Buckley, Eugene (2005). On the learning of arbitrary phonological rules. Language Learning and Development 1. 289316.
Shen, Xiaonan Susan & Lin, Maocan (1991). A perceptual study of Mandarin Tones 2 and 3. Language and Speech 34. 145156.
Shen, Xiaonan Susan, Lin, Maocan & Yan, Jingzhu (1993). F0 turning point as an F0 cue to tonal contrast: a case study of Mandarin tones 2 and 3. JASA 93. 22412243.
Shih, Chilin (1997). Mandarin third tone sandhi and prosodic structure. In Jialing, Wang & Smith, Norval (eds.) Studies in Chinese phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 81–123.
Silverman, Daniel (2006a). A critical introduction to phonology: of sound, mind, and body. London: Continuum.
Silverman, Daniel (2006b). The diachrony of labiality in Trique, and the functional relevance of gradience and variation. In Goldstein, et al. (2006). 133152.
Slobin, Dan I. (1985). Crosslinguistic evidence for the language-making capacity. In Slobin, Dan I. (ed.) The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition. Vol. 2: Theoretical issues. Hillsdale: Erlbaum. 11571256.
Slowiaczek, Louisa M. & Dinnsen, Daniel A. (1985). On the neutralizing status of Polish word-final devoicing. JPh 13. 325341.
Stampe, David (1979). A dissertation on Natural Phonology. New York & London: Garland.
Steriade, Donca (1999). Phonetics in phonology: the case of laryngeal neutralization. UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics 2: Papers in Phonology 3. 25–146.
Steriade, Donca (2001). Directional asymmetries in place assimilation: a perceptual account. In Hume & Johnson (2001). 219–250.
Steriade, Donca (2008). The phonology of perceptibility effects: the P-map and its consequences for constraint organization. In Hanson, Kristin & Inkelas, Sharon (eds.) The nature of the word: studies in honor of Paul Kiparsky. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 151179.
Steriade, Donca & Zhang, Jie (2001). Context-dependent similarity and the Romanian semi-rime. Paper presented at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago.
Taft, Marcus & Chen, Hsuan-Chih (1992). Judging homophony in Chinese: the influence of tones. In Chen, Hsuan-Chih & Tzeng, Ovid J. L. (eds.) Language processing in Chinese. Amsterdam: North-Holland. 151172.
Thatte, Victoria Anne (2007). Phonetic motivation as a learning bias in phonological acquisition: an experimental study. MA thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.
Wang, H. Samuel (1993). Taiyu biandiao de xinli texing. [On the psychological status of Taiwanese tone sandhi.] Tsinghua Xuebao [Tsinghua Journal of Chinese Studies] 23. 175192.
Warner, Natasha, Jongman, Allard, Sereno, Joan & Kemps, Rachèl (2004). Incomplete neutralization and other sub-phonemic durational differences in production and perception: evidence from Dutch. JPh 32. 251276.
Wen, Duan-Zheng & Shen, Ming (1999). Taiyuanhua yindang. [A record of the Taiyuan dialect.] Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaoyu Chubanshe.
Wilson, Colin (2003). Experimental investigation of phonological naturalness. WCCFL 22. 533546.
Wilson, Colin (2006). Learning phonology with substantive bias: an experimental and computational study of velar palatalization. Cognitive Science 30. 945982.
Yang, Zi-Xiang, Guo, He-Tong & Shi, Xiang-Dong (1999). Tianjinhua yindang. [A record of the Tianjin dialect.] Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaoyu Chubanshe.
Ye, Yun & Connine, Cynthia M. (1999). Processing spoken Chinese: the role of tone information. Language and Cognitive Processes 14. 609630.
Yip, Michael C. W. (2001). Phonological priming in Cantonese spoken-word processing. Psychologia 44. 223229.
Yip, Michael C. W., Leung, Po-Yee & Chen, Hsuan-Chih (1998). Phonological similarity effects in Cantonese spoken-word processing. Proceedings of ICSLP ’98. Vol. 5. Sydney. 21392142.
Yu, Alan C. L. (2004). Explaining final obstruent voicing in Lezgian: phonetics and history. Lg 80. 7397.
Yue-Hashimoto, Anne O. (1987). Tone sandhi across Chinese dialects. In Chinese Language Society of Hong Kong (ed.) Wang Li memorial volumes: English volume. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Co. 445474.
Zhang, Jie (2002). The effects of duration and sonority on contour tone: typological survey and formal analysis. New York & London: Routledge.
Zhang, Jie (2004). The role of contrast-specific and language-specific phonetics in contour tone distribution. In Hayes et al. (2004). 157–190.
Zhang, Jie (2007). A directional asymmetry in Chinese tone sandhi systems. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 16. 259302.
Zhang, Jie & Lai, Yuwen (2008). Phonological knowledge beyond the lexicon in Taiwanese double reduplication. In Hsiao, Yuchau E., Hsu, Hui-Chuan, Wee, Lian-Hee & Ho, Dah-An (eds.) Interfaces in Chinese phonology: Festschrift in honor of Matthew Y. Chen on his 70th birthday. Taiwan: Academia Sinica. 183222.
Zhang, Jie, Lai, Yuwen & Sailor, Craig (2009a). Opacity, phonetics, and frequency in Taiwanese tone sandhi. In Current issues in unity and diversity of languages: collection of papers selected from the 18th International Congress of Linguists. Linguistic Society of Korea. 3019–3038.
Zhang, Jie, Lai, Yuwen & Sailor, Craig (2009b). Effects of phonetics and frequency on the productivity of Taiwanese tone sandhi. CLS 43:1. 273286.
Zhang, Ning (1997). The avoidance of the third tone sandhi in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 6. 293338.
Zue, Victor W. & Laferriere, Martha (1979). Acoustical study of medial /t,d/ in American English. JASA 66. 10391050.
Zuraw, Kie (2000). Patterned exceptions in phonology. PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Zuraw, Kie (2007). The role of phonetic knowledge in phonological patterning: corpus and survey evidence from Tagalog infixation. Lg 83. 277316.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Phonology
  • ISSN: 0952-6757
  • EISSN: 1469-8188
  • URL: /core/journals/phonology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed