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Variation and opacity in Singapore English consonant clusters*

  • Arto Anttila (a1), Vivienne Fong (a1), Štefan Beňuš (a2) and Jennifer Nycz (a3)

Singapore English consonant clusters undergo phonological processes that exhibit variation and opacity. Quantitative evidence shows that these patterns are genuine and systematic. Two main conclusions emerge. First, a small set of phonological constraints yields a typological structure (T-order) that captures the quantitative patterns, independently of specific assumptions about how the grammar represents variation. Second, the evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that phonological opacity has only one source: the interleaving of phonology and morphology.

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