Skip to main content Accessibility help

Vowel system universals and typology: prologue to theory*

  • Roger Lass (a1)


Considering all the work done on vowel system typology and universals in the past half-century (Trubetzkoy 1929, 1939; Hockett Sedlak 1969; Crothers 1978), my title may seem rather arrogant. There are after all theories of vocalic organisation about, or at least models and taxonomies; there are even attempts to explain why certain implicational universals seem to hold (from Jakobson's [laws of solidarity] (1968) to the more sophisticated treatments in Liljencrants & Lindblom 1972; Kim 1973; etc.).



Hide All
Abercrombie, D., MacCarthy, P. A. D., Scott, N. C., Fry, D. B. & Trim, J. L. M. (eds.) (1964). In honour of Daniel Jones. Papers contributed on the occasion of his eightieth birthday. London: Longman.
Allen, W. S. (1951). Some prosodic aspects of retroflexion and aspiration in Sanskrit. BSOAS 13. 939946.
Anderson, J. M. & Jones, C. (eds.) (1974.). Historical linguistics. Vol. a. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Ántonsen, E. H. (1972). The proto-Germanic syllabics (vowels). In van Coetsem & Kufner (1972). 117140.
Árnason, K. (1977). Quantity in Icelandic: a historical and comparative study. PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh.
Árnason, K. (1980). Quantity in historical phonology: Icelandic and related cases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Austin, P. (1981). A grammar of Diyari, South Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bhat, D. N. S. (1967). Descriptive analysis of Tulu. Poona: Deccan College.
Bloomfield, L. (1933). Language. New York: Holt.
Boyd, R. (1979). Metaphor and theory change: what is ‘metaphor’ a metaphor for? In Ortony (1979b). 356408.
Bruce, G. (1970). Diphthongization in the Malmö dialect. Working Papers in Linguistics, Lund University 3. 120.
Campbell, A. (1959). Old English grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chomsky, N. & Halle, M. (1968). The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.
Coetsem, F. van & Kufner, H. L. (eds.) (1972).Toward a grammar of Proto-Germanic. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Comrie, B. (1981). Language universals and linguistic typology. Oxford: Blackwell. Crothers, J. (1978). Typology and universals of vowel systems. In Greenberg et al. (1978). 93152.
Davenport, M., Hansen, E. & Nielsen, H. F. (eds.) (1983). Current topics in English historical linguistics. Odense: Odense University Press.
Doke, C. (1960). Textbook of Zulu grammar. 6th edn. Cape Town: Longman.
Einarsson, S. (1945). Icelandic. Grammar, texts, glossary. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Elert, C. C. (1964). Phonologic studies of quantity in Swedish. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Ewen, C. J. (1980). Aspects of phonological structure, with particular reference to English and Dutch. PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh.
Gimson, A. C. (1962). An introduction to the pronunciation of English. Leeds: Arnold.
Gleason, H. A. (1961). Introduction to descriptive linguistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Goyvaerts, D. & Pullum, G. K. (eds.) (1975). Essays on the Sound Pattern of English. Ghent: E. Story-Scientia.
Greenberg, J., Ferguson, C. A. & Moravcsik, E. (eds.) (1978). Universals of human language. Vol. 2: Phonology. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Gussenhoven, C. & Broeders, A. (1976). The pronunciation of English: a coursefor Dutch learners. Nijmegen: Wolters-Noordhoff-Longman.
Hari, A. M. (1979). An investigation of the tones of Lhasa Tibetan. (Language Data, Asian-Pacific Series 13). Huntington Beach, Ca: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Harrington, J. (1982). The implication of stuttering for speech production. Cambridge Papers in Phonetics and Experimental Linguistics I.
Hawkins, J. (1979). Implicational universals as predictors of word-order change. Lg 55. 618648.
Hockett, C. F. A manual of phonology. Baltimore: Waverley Press.
Honikman, B. (1964). Articulatory settings. In Abercrombie et al. (1964). 7384.
Hulst, H. van der & Smith, N. (eds.) (1982). The structure of phonological representations. 2 vols. Dordrecht: Foris.
Jakobson, R. (1968). Child language, aphasia, and phonological universals. The Hague: Mouton.
Jakobson, R. & Halle, M. (1956). Fundamentals of language. The Hague: Mouton.
Jeffery, C. (1982). Review of Lanham & Macdonald (1982). The standard in South African English and its social history. Folia Linguistica Historica 3. 251263.
Jones, D. (1950). The phoneme: its nature and use. Cambridge: Heffer.
Kachru, B. et al. (eds.) Issues in linguistics. Papers in honor of Henry and Renée Kahane. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Keller, R. E. (1961). German dialects. Phonology and morphology. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Kim, C.-W. (1973). Opposition and complement in phonology. In Kachru et al. (1973). 409417.
Koestler, A. (1978). Janus, a summing up. London: Hutchinson.
Ladefoged, P. (1966). Three areas of experimental phonetics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Labov, W. et al. (1972). A quantitative study of sound change in progress. Philadelphia: U.S. Regional Survey.
Lass, R. (1974.). Linguistic orthogenesis? Scots vowel quantity and the English length conspiracy. In Anderson & Jones (1974). 311352.
Lass, R. (1975). How intrinsic is content? Markedness, sound change, and ‘family universals’. In Goyvaerts & Pullum (1975) 475504.
Lass, R. (1976). English phonology and phonological theory. Synchronic and diachronic studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lass, R. (1977). Internal reconstruction and generative phonology. Transactions of the Philological Society. 125.
Lass, R. (1980a). On explaining language change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lass, R. (1980b). On some possible weaknesses of strong naturalness. In Thrane et al. (1980). 93102.
Lass, R. (1983a). Velar /r/ and the history of English. In Davenport et al. (1983). 6794.
Lass, R. (1983b). Quantity, resolution and syllable geometry. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics 10. 3366. Revised version in Folia Linguistica Historica 4. 151180.
Lass, R. (1984). Phonology. An introduction to basic concepts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lass, R. & Anderson, J. M. (1975). Old English phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Laver, J. (1980). The phonetic description of voice quality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lehiste, I. (1970). Suprasegmentals. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Lightfoot, D. (1979a). Review of C. Li (1977), Mechanisms of syntactic change. Lg 55. 381395.
Lightfoot, D. (1979b). Principles of diachronic syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Liljencrants, J. & Lindblom, B. (1972). Numerical simulation of vowel quality systems: the role of perceptual contrast. Lg 48. 839862.
Lindau, M. (1975). [Features] for vowels. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 30.
McCawley, J. D. (1967). Le rôle d'un système de traits phonologiques dans une téorie du langage. Languages 8. 112123.
McCawley, J. D. (1970). English as a VSO language. Lg 46. 286299.
Makkai, V. B. (1972a). Vowel harmony in Hungarian reexamined in the light of recent developments in phonological theory. In Makkai (1972b). 634647.
Makkai, V. B. (ed.) (1972b). Phonological theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Minkova, D. (1982). The environment for open syllable lengthening in Middle English. Folia Linguistica Historica 3. 2958.
Ortony, A. (1979a). Metaphor: a multidimensional problem. In (1979b). 118.
Ortony, A. (ed.) (1979b). Metaphor and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peterson, G. E. & Lehiste, I. (1960). Duration of syllable nuclei in English. JASA 32. 693703.
Pike, K. L. (1943). Phonetics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Robins, R. H. (1957). Aspects of prosodic analysis. Proceedings of the University of Durham Philosophical Society I, Series B, I. 112.
Sebeok, T. (1943). Notes on Hungarian vowel phonemes. Lg 19. 161164.
Sedlak, P. (1969). Typological considerations of vowel quality systems. Stanford Working Papers on Language Universals I.
Selkirk, E. (1982). The syllable. In van der Hulst & Smith (1982: vol. 2). 337385.
Sigurd, B. (1961). The code shift in Old Norse. Studia Linguistica 15. 1021.
Sommerstein, A. H. (1977). Modern phonology. London: Edward Arnold.
Stanley, R. (1967). Redundancy rules in phonology. Lg 43. 393435.
Stewart, A. H. (1976). Graphic representation of models in linguistic theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Stockwell, R. P. & Barritt, C. W. (1951). Some Old English graphemic-phonemic correspondences. Studies in Linguistics, Occasional Papers 4.
Thomas, A. R. (1966). Systems in Welsh phonology. Studia Celtica I. 93127.
Thrane, T. et al. (eds.) (1980). Typology and genetics of language. Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Copenhague 20.
Trager, G. & Smith, H. L. (1951). An outline of English structure. Studies in Linguistics, Occasional Papers 3.
Trubetzkoy, N. S. (1929). Zur allgemeinen Theorie der phonologischen Vokalsysteme. Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague I. 3967. Reprinted in Vachek (1964b).
Trubetzkoy, N. S. (1939). Grundzüge der Phonologie. Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague 7.
Vachek, J. (1964a). On some basic principles of ‘classical’ phonology. Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung 17. 409435.
Vachek, J. (ed.) (1964b). A Prague School reader in linguistics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Wells, J. C. (1982). Accents of English.: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wood, S. (1974). The articulatory description of vowels. Lingvistiska Månadsmeddelanden, Juni-Juli 1974. Lund: Department of General Linguistics, Lund University.
Wood, S. (1975). The weakness of the tongue-arching model of vowel articulation. Working Papers in Linguistics, Lund University 11. 55507.
Wood, S. (1979). A radiographic analysis of constriction locations for vowels. Journal of Phonetics 7. 2543.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed