The Spanish scholar, Ramón Menéndez Pidal, who has of late been engaged in the work of resurrecting Spanish epic matter of the Middle Ages, has several times called attention to a curious form of lay communion recorded in certain traditions examined by him. Thus, in the tragic account of the seven Infantes of Lara which we find in the chronicle called the Estoria de los Godos, it is stated that the seven brothers, before beginning their last sad battle, “gave communion and confessed all their sins, one to another” (comulgaron e confesaron todos sus pecados unos á otros). On this passage Menéndez Pidal comments as follows (Leyenda de los Infantes de Lara, Madrid, 1896, p. 36): “This sort of priestly function, which, in default of clergy, relatives exercised one for another, was a very orthodox doctrine for the minstrels (juglares), and it even existed as a real custom during the Middle Ages.” He cites the noted instance in the chanson de geste Aliscans, according to which Count William not only heard the confession of his dying nephew, Vivian, but also gave him by way of communion some “pain benoït,” which the Count is said to have brought with him in his scrip (vv. 826 ff.). For other Old French examples of this lay administration of the most august of sacraments, Menéndez Pidal refers to Leon Gautier, La chevalerie (Paris, 1890, pp. 44 ff.), where, in fact, no few are mentioned, in all of which, however, the species of the communion is symbolical, being either grass or leaves.