Skip to main content

Engendering Political Science: An Immodest Proposal

  • Mary Hawkesworth (a1)

Since its emergence in the 1970s, feminist scholarship has claimed to be corrective and transformative. Through original research about the experiences of the majority of the world's population, that is, women, feminist scholars have sought to correct omissions and distortions that permeate political science. Through the use of gender as an analytical tool, they have illuminated social and political relations neglected by mainstream accounts, advanced alternative explanations of political phenomena, demonstrated the defects of competing hypotheses, and debunked opposing views. Despite such impressive accomplishments, feminist political science has not become a dominant paradigm within the discipline. Few doctoral programs allow students to develop areas of concentration in feminist approaches to political studies. Few routinely include feminist scholarship in proseminars in American politics, comparative politics, international relations, political theory, public law, or public policy. None requires familiarity with leading feminist scholarship as a criterion of professional competence.

Hide All


Abramovitz, Mimi. 1996. Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare from Colonial Times to the Present. Boston: South End Press.
Acker, Joan. 1989. “Hierarchies, Job Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations.” Gender and Society 4 (June): 13958.
Acker, Joan. 1992. “Gendered Institutions: From Sex Roles to Gendered Institutions.” Contemporary Sociology 21 (September): 56569.
Alvarez, Sonia. 1990. Engendering Democracy in Brazil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Amundsen, Kirsten. 1971. The Silenced Majority. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Anderson, Margaret. 1983. Thinking About Women. New York: Macmillan.
Barrett, Michele. 1980. Women's Oppression Today. London: Verso.
Bartky, Sandra Lee. 1988. “The Feminine Body.” In Feminism and Foucault: Reflections on Resistance, ed. Irene Diamond and Lee Quinby. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Basu, Amrita, ed. 1995. The Challenge of Local Feminisms: Women's Movements in Global Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Bem, Sandra. 1974. “The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 42 (2): 15562.
Bem, Sandra. 1983. “Gender Schematic Theory and Its Implications for Child Development.” Signs 8 (4): 598616.
Bem, Sandra. 1993. Lenses of Gender. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Boneparth, Ellen, and Emily Stoper, eds. 1988. Women, Power and Policy: Towards the Year 2000. New York: Pergamon.
Brooks, Ethel. forthcoming. The Empire's New Clothes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York and London: Routledge.
Chappell, Louise. 2002. Gendering Government. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Chodorow, Nancy, 1978. The Reproduction of Mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Collins, Patricia Hill. 1990. Black Feminist Thought. New York: Harper Collins.
Connell, R. W. 1987. Gender and Power. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Corbett, Greville J. 1991. Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cornell, Drucilla, and Adam Thurschwell. 1986. “Feminism, Negativity, Intersubjectivity.” Praxis International 5 (4): 484504.
Dahl, Robert. 1957. “The Concept of Power.” Behavioral Science 2 (3): 20115.
Daly, Mary. 1978. GYN/Ecology. Boston: Beacon.
Davis, Angela. 1981. Women, Race, and Class. New York: Random House.
de Lauretis, Teresa. 1984. Alice Doesn't: Feminism, Semiotics, Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
de Lauretis, Teresa. 1987. Technologies of Gender. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Devor, Holly. 1989. Gender Blending: Confronting the Limits of Duality. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Di Stefano, Christine. 1991. Configurations of Masculinity. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Doane, Mary Ann. 1987. The Desire to Desire. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Dodson, Debra, and Susan Carroll. 1991. Reshaping the Agenda: Women in State Legislatures. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for American Women and Politics.
Dodson, Debra, et al. 1995. Voices, Views, and Votes: The Impact of Women in the 103rd Congress. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for American Women and Politics.
Duerst-Lahti, Georgia, and Rita Mae Kelly, eds. 1995. Gender Power, Leadership and Governance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Eisenstein, Zillah. 1979. Capitalist Patriarchy and the Case for Socialist Feminism. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Enloe, Cynthia. 1990. Bananas, Beaches, and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Enloe, Cynthia. 1993. The Morning After: Sexual Politics at the End of the Cold War. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Enloe, Cynthia. 2000. Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women's Lives. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Epperson, Sharon. 1988. “Studies Link Subtle Sex Bias in Schools with Women's Behavior in the Workplace,” Wall Street Journal, 16 September, p. 19.
Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs. 1971. Woman's Place. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Firestone, Shulamith. 1970. The Dialectic of Sex. New York: William Morrow.
Flammang, Janet. 1997. Women's Political Voice. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Fraser, Nancy. 1989. “Women, Welfare, and the Politics of Need Interpretation.” In her Unruly Practices. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Freeman, Jo. 2000. One Room at a Time. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Friedan, Betty. 1963. The Feminine Mystique. New York: W. W. Norton.
Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gordon, Linda. 1988. Heroes of Their Own Lives: The Politics and History of Family Violence. New York: Viking.
Grant, Judith. 1993. Fundamental Feminism. New York: Routledge.
Gunnell, John. 1998. The Orders of Discourse: Philosophy, Social Science and Politics. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Haney Lopez, Ian. 1996. White by Law. New York: New York University Press.
Harding, Sandra. 1986. The Science Question in Feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hawkesworth, Mary. 1990. “The Reification of Difference.” In Beyond Oppression. New York: Continuum.
Hawkesworth, Mary. 1997. “Confounding Gender,Signs 22 (3): 64985.
Hawkesworth, Mary 2003a. “Congressional Enactments of Race-Gender: Toward a Theory of Raced-Gendered Institutions.” American Political Science Review 97 (4): 52950.
Hawkesworth, Mary. 2003b. “Political Science in a New Millennium: Issues of Knowledge and Power.” In Encyclopedia of Government and Politics, 2d ed., ed. Mary Hawkesworth and Maurice Kogan. London: Routledge.
Hobbes, Thomas. [1651] 1971. Leviathan. Hamondsworth: Penquin Books.
Irigaray, Luce. 1985a. Speculum of the Other Woman. Trans. Gillian Gill. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Irigaray, Luce. 1985b. This Sex Which Is Not One. Trans. Catherine Porter. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Isaac, Jeffrey. 1987. Power and Marxist Theory: A Realist View. New York: Cornell University Press.
Isaac, Jeffrey. 2003. “Conceptions of Power.” In Encyclopedia of Government and Politics, 2d ed., ed. Mary Hawkesworth and Maurice Kogan. London: Routledge.
Janeway, Elizabeth. 1971. Man's World, Women's Place. New York: Delta Books.
Jaquette, Jane, ed. 1989. The Women's Movement in Latin America: Feminism and the Transition to Democracy. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
Jaquette, Jane, and Sharon Wolchik, eds. 1998. Women and Democracy: Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Jewell, Malcolm E., and Marcia Lynn Whicker. 1994. Legislative Leadership in the American States. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Jeydel, Alana, and Andrew Taylor. 2003. “Are Women Legislators Less Effective? Evidence from the U.S. House in the 103rd–105th Congress.” Political Research Quarterly 56 (March): 1927.
Kabeer, Naila. 2003. Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought. London: Verso.
Kathlene, Lyn. 1989. “Uncovering the Political Impacts of Gender: An Exploratory Study.” Western Political Quarterly 42 (November): 397421.
Kathlene, Lyn. 1994. “Power and Influence in State Legislative Policymaking: The Interaction of Gender and Position in Committee Hearing Debates.” American Political Science Review 88 (September): 56076.
Kelly, Rita, Jane Bayes, Mary Hawkesworth, and Brigitte Young, eds. 2001. Gender, Globalization and Democratization. Boulder, CO: Rowman and Littlefield.
Kenney, Sally. 1996. “New Research on Gendered Political Institutions.” Political Research Quarterly 49 (June): 44566.
Kessler, Suzanne, and Wendy McKenna. 1978. Gender: An Ethnomethodological Approach. New York: John Wiley.
Lakatos, Imre. 1970. “Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes.” In Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, ed. Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Laqueur, Thomas. 1990. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lasswell, H. 1950. Politics: Who Gets What, When, How. New York: P. Smith.
Lerner, Gerda. 1986. The Creation of Patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Levi-Strauss, Claude. 1969. The Elementary Structures of Kinship. Boston: Beacon Press.
Levi-Strauss, Claude. 1971. “The Family.” In Man, Culture and Society, ed. H. Shapiro. London: Oxford University Press, 34058.
Lopata, Helena, and Barrie Thorne. 1978. “On the Term, ‘Sex Roles.’ Signs 3 (3): 71821.
MacKinnon, Catharine. 1987. Feminism Unmodified. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mazur, Amy. 2002. Theorizing Feminist Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McClintock, Anne. 1995. Imperial Leather. New York: Routledge.
McDonagh, Eileen. 2002. “Political Citizenship and Democratization: The Gender Paradox.” American Political Science Review 96 (30): 53552.
Mink, Gwendolyn. 1995. The Wages of Motherhood: Inequality in the Welfare State. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Moon, D. 1975. “The Logic of Political Inquiry: A Synthesis of Opposed Perspectives.” In Handbook of Political Science, ed. F. Greenstein, N. Polsby, and vol. 1. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Pateman, Carole. 1988. The Sexual Contract. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Peterson, V. Spike. 1992. Gendered States: Feminist (Re)Visions of International Relations Theory. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Peterson, V. Spike. 2003. A Critical Rewriting of Global Political Economy: Integrating Reproductive, Productive, and Virtual Economies. New York: Routledge.
Peterson, V. Spike, and Anne Sisson Runyan. 1999. Global Gender Issues, 2nd Edition. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Popper, Karl. 1972a. Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, 4th ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Popper, Karl. 1972b. Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Riley, Denise. 1988. Am I That Name?: Feminism and the Category of ‘Women’ in History. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Rosenthal, Cindy Simon. 2000. “Gender Styles in State Legislative Committees: Raising Their Voices and Resolving Conflict.” Women and Politics 21 (2): 2145.
Rosenthal, Cindy Simon. 2002. Women Transforming Congress. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Rowbotham, Sheila. 1973. Women's Consciousness, Man's World. London: Penquin.
Rubin, Gayle. 1975. “The Traffic in Women: Notes on the Political Economy of Sex.” In Toward an Anthropology of Women, ed. Rayner Reiter. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Ruddick, Sara. 1980. “Maternal Thinking.” Feminist Studies 6 (2): 34267.
Rule, Wilma, and Joseph Zimmerman, eds. 1994. Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities. Westport, CT.: Greenwood.
Sawicki, Jana. 1991. “Foucault and Feminism: Toward a Politics of Difference.” In Feminist Interpretations and Political Theory, ed. Mary Shanley and Carole Pateman. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Scott, Joan. 1986. “Gender: A Useful Category for Historical Analysis.” American Historical Review 91 (5): 105375.
Shanley, Mary, and Carole Pateman, eds. 1991. Feminist Interpretations and Political Theory. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Siltanen, Janet. 1994. Locating Gender: Occupational Segregation, Wages and Domestic Responsibilities. London: UCL.
Silverman, Kaja. 1988. The Acoustic Mirror. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Singer, Linda. 1993. Erotic Welfare: Sexual Theory and Politics in the Age of Epidemic. New York: Routledge.
Smith, Steven G. 1992. Gender Thinking. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Smooth, Wendy. 2001. “African American Women State Legislators: The Impact of Gender and Race on Legislative Influence.” Ph.D. diss. University of Maryland.
Spelman, Elizabeth. 1988. Inessential Woman. Boston: Beacon.
Spender, Dale. 1980. Man Made Language. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Steans, Jill. 1998. Gender and International Relations: An Introduction. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Steinberg, Ronnie. 1992. “Gender on the Agenda: Male Advantage in Organizations.” Contemporary Sociology 21 (September): 57681.
Suleiman, Susan Rubin, ed. 1985. The Female Body and Western Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Swers, Michele. 2002. The Difference Women Make: The Policy Impact of Women in Congress. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Tamerius, Karin. 1995. “Sex, Gender, and Leadership in the Representation of Women.” In Gender Power, Leadership and Governance, ed. Georgia Duerst-Lahti and Rita Mae Kelly. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Thomas, Sue. 1994. How Women Legislate. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tickner, J. Ann. 1991. “Hans Morgenthau's Principles of Political Realism: A Feminist Reformulation.” In Gender and International Relations, ed. Rebecca Grant and Kathleen Newland. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Tickner, J. Ann. 1992. Gender in International Relations. New York: Columbia University Press.
Tickner, J. Ann. 2001. Gendering World Politics: Issues and Approaches in the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Columbia University Press.
Vetterling-Braggin, Mary, ed. 1982. “Femininity,” “Masculinity,” and “Androgyny.” Totowa, NJ: Littlefield Adams.
Walby, Sylvia. 1986. Patriarchy at Work. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Yanow, Dvora. 2003. Constructing “Race” and “Ethnicity” in America: Category-Making in Public Policy and Administration. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
Young, Iris. 1994. “Gender as Seriality: Thinking About Women as a Social Collective.” Signs 19 (3): 71338.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Politics & Gender
  • ISSN: 1743-923X
  • EISSN: 1743-9248
  • URL: /core/journals/politics-and-gender
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
Type Description Title

 PDF (244 KB)
244 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed