Skip to main content
×
×
Home

What the City Has to Offer: Urbanization and Women's Empowerment in Turkey

  • Kursat Cinar (a1) and Meral Ugur-Cinar (a1)
Copyright
Footnotes
Hide All

The authors acknowledge the financial support of the European Union (Horizon 2020 - Marie Curie Reintegration Project: “Female Empowerment” - Project # 702073) and the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) (H2020 Success Award # 342617). They also would like to thank all survey participants in their research, including members of the Federation of Women’s Organizations in Turkey (Türkiye Kadın Dernekleri Federasyonu), Women Entrepreneurs Association of Turkey (Türkiye Kadın Girişimciler Derneği), Uçan Süpürge, Women’s Cooperatives Association (Kadın Kooperatifleri Birliği), Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects (Türk Mühendis ve Mimar Odaları Birliği). They also thank the three anonymous reviewers and the journal editor for their helpful comments on previous drafts.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Abadian, Sousan. 1996. “Women's Autonomy and Its Impact on Fertility.” World Development 24 (12): 17931809.
Afshar, Haleh, ed. 1998. Women and Empowerment: Illustrations from the Third World. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Alexander, Amy C. 2012. “Change in Women's Descriptive Representation and the Belief in Women's Ability to Govern: A Virtuous Cycle.” Politics & Gender 8 (4): 437–64.
Almeleh, Naomi, Soifer, Steven, Gottlieb, Naomi, and Gutierrez, Lorraine. 1993. “Women's Achievement of Empowerment through Activism in the Workplace.” Affilia 8 (1): 2639.
Altan-Olcay, Özlem. 2014. “Entrepreneurial Subjectivities and Gendered Complexities: Neoliberal Citizenship in Turkey,” Feminist Economics 20 (4): 235–59.
Ashraf, Nava, Karlan, Dean, and Yin, Wesley. 2009. “Female Empowerment: Impact of a Commitment Savings Product in the Philippines.” World Development 38 (3): 333–44.
Banks, Nicola. 2013. “Female Employment in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Participation, Perceptions and Pressures.” Environment and Urbanization 25 (1): 95109.
Beşpınar, F. Umut. 2010. “Questioning Agency and Empowerment: Women's Work-Related Strategies and Social Class in Urban Turkey.” Women's Studies International Forum 33 (6): 523–32.
Biewener, Carole, and Bacqué, Marie-Hélène. 2015. “Feminism and the Politics of Empowerment in International Development.” Africa & Francophonie 6 (2): 5875.
Boserup, Ester. 1970. Woman's Role in Economic Development. London: Allen & Unwin.
Buğra, Ayse. 2014. “Revisiting the Wollstonecraft Dilemma in the Context of Conservative Liberalism: The Case of Female Employment in Turkey.” Social Politics 21 (1): 148–66.
Buğra, Ayse, and Savaşkan, Osman. 2014. New Capitalism in Turkey: The Relationship between Politics, Religion and Business. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Burnet, Jennie F. 2011. “Women Have Found Respect: Gender Quotas, Symbolic Representation, and Female Empowerment in Rwanda.” Politics & Gender 7 (3): 303–34.
Chant, Sylvia. 2013. “Cities through a ‘Gender Lens’: A Golden ‘Urban Age’ for Women in the Global South?Environment and Urbanization 25 (1): 929.
Chant, Sylvia, and Datu, Kerwin. 2015. “Women in Cities: Prosperity or Poverty? A Need for Multi-dimensional and Multi-spatial Analysis.” In The City in Urban Poverty, eds. Lemanski, Charlotte and Marx, Colin. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 3963.
Charrad, Mounira M. 2009. “Kinship, Islam or Oil: Culprits of Gender Inequality?Politics and Gender 5 (4): 546–53.
Chaudhuri, Sanjukta. 2013. “A Life Course Model of Human Rights Realization, Female Empowerment, and Gender Inequality in India.” World Development 52: 5570.
Choo, Hae Yeon. 2012. “The Transnational Journey of Intersectionality.” Gender & Society 26 (1): 4045.
Cinar, E. Mine. 1994. “Unskilled Urban Migrant Women and Disguised Employment: Home-Working Women in Istanbul, Turkey.” World Development 22 (3): 369–80.
Cindoğlu, Dilek, and Toktaş, Şule. 2002. “Empowerment and Resistance Strategies of Working Women in Turkey.” European Journal of Women's Studies 9 (1): 3148.
CNN Turk. 2014. “Erdoğan: Kadın ve erkeğin eşit olması fıtrata ters” [Erdoğan: Male-female equality is against nature]. November 24. http://www.cnnturk.com/haber/turkiye/erdogan-kadin-ve-erkegin-esit-olmasi-fitrata-ters (accessed February 21, 2018). [in Turkish]
Coşar, Simten, and Yeğenoğlu, Metin. 2011. “New Grounds for Patriarchy in Turkey? Gender Policy in the Age of AKP.” South European Society and Politics 16 (4): 555–73.
Dogan News Agency. 2014. “TÜİK: Kent-kır ayrımı kalmadı” [TUIK: There is no difference between urban and rural any more]. April 15. http://www.dha.com.tr/tuik-kent-kir-ayrimi-kalmadi_648700.html (accessed February 21, 2018). [in Turkish]
Elmas, Gülen. 2004. “Women, Urbanization and Regional Development in Southeast Anatolia: A Case Study for Turkey.” Turkish Studies 5 (3): 124.
Erman, Tahire, Kalaycıoğlu, Sibel, and Rittersberger-Tılıç, Helga. 2002. “Money-Earning Activities and Empowerment Experiences of Rural Migrant Women in the City: The Case of Turkey.” Women's Studies International Forum 25 (4): 395410.
Eswaran, Mukesh. 2002. “The Empowerment of Women, Fertility, and Child Mortality: Towards a Theoretical Analysis.” Journal of Population Economics 15 (3): 433–54.
Geerts, Evelien, and van der Tuin, Iris. 2013. “From Intersectionality to Interference: Feminist Onto-epistemological Reflections on the Politics of Representation.” Women's Studies International Forum 41 (3): 171–78.
Goldin, Claudia. 1995. “The U-Shaped Female Labor Force Function in Economic Development and Economic History.” In Investment in Women's Human Capital, ed. Paul Schultz, T.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 6190.
Goldman, Mara J., and Little, Jani S.. 2015. “Innovative Grassroots NGOs and the Complex Processes of Women's Empowerment: An Empirical Investigation from Northern Tanzania.” World Development 66: 762–77.
Göle, Nilüfer. 1993. “Engineers: ‘Technocratic Democracy.’” In Turkey and the West: Changing Political and Cultural Identities, eds. Heper, Metin, Öncü, Ayse, and Kramer, Heinz. London: I.B. Tauris, 199218.
Göle, Nilüfer. 1997. “Secularism and Islamism in Turkey: The Making of Elites and Counter-Elites.” Middle East Journal 51 (1): 4658.
Haile, Hirut Bekele, Bock, Bettina, and Folmer, Henk. 2012. “Microfinance and Female Empowerment: Do Institutions Matter?Women's Studies International Forum 35 (4): 256–65.
Hammad, Hanan. 2016. Industrial Sexuality: Gender, Urbanization, and Social Transformation in Egypt. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Inglehart, Ronald, and Norris, Pippa. 2003. Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Inkeles, Alex, and Smith, David H.. 1974. Becoming Modern: Individual Change in Six Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Janssens, Wendy. 2009. “Women's Empowerment and the Creation of Social Capital in Indian Villages.” World Development 38 (7): 974–88.
Kabeer, Naila. 1999. “Resources, Agency, and Achievements: Reflections on the Measurement on Women Empowerment.” Development and Change 30 (3): 435–64.
Kabeer, Naila. 2001. “Conflict over Credit: Re-evaluating the Empowerment Potential of Loan to Women in Rural Bangladesh.” World Development 29 (1): 6384.
Kabeer, Naila. 2005. “Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment: A Critical Analysis of the Third Millennium Development Goal.” Gender & Development 13 (1): 1324.
Kandiyoti, Deniz. 1982. “Urban Change and Women's Roles: An Overview and Evaluation.” In Sex Roles, Family, and Community in Turkey, ed. Kagitcibasi, Çiğdem. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 101–20.
Kandiyoti, Deniz. 1987. “Emancipated but Unliberated? Reflections on the Turkish Case.” Feminist Studies 13 (2): 317–38.
Kandiyoti, Deniz. 1988. “Bargaining with Patriarchy.” Gender & Society 2 (3): 274–90.
Kandiyoti, Deniz. 2016. “Locating the Politics of Gender: Patriarchy, Neo-Liberal Governance and Violence in Turkey.” Research and Policy on Turkey 1 (2): 103–18.
Karakaş, Burcu. 2016. “Kadının bir soyadı ‘zaferi’ daha: Çözüm mahkemede değil, yasa değişikliğinde” [Another victory for women on last names: The solution is in changing laws, not in courts]. April 19. http://www.diken.com.tr/kadinin-bir-soyadi-zaferi-daha-cozum-mahkemede-degil-yasa-degisikliginde/ (accessed February 21, 2018). [in Turkish]
Kasaba, Reşat. 2008. “Introduction.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, Volume 4: Turkey in the Modern World, ed. Kasaba, Reşat (Ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kitschelt, Herbert, and Wilkinson, Steven I., eds. 2007. Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lerner, Daniel. 1958. The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East. New York: Free Press.
Lind, Amy. 1997. “Gender, Development and Urban Social Change: Women's Community Action in Global Cities.” World Development 28 (9): 1205–23.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1959. “Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy.” American Political Science Review 53 (1): 69105.
Mann, Susan Archer. 2012. “Intersectionality Theories.” In Doing Feminist Theory: From Modernity to Postmodernity, by Mann, Susan Archer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 160208.
Mitra, Arup. 2005. “Women in the Urban Informal Sector: Perpetuation of Meagre Earnings.” Development and Change 36 (2): 291316.
Moghadam, Valentine M., ed. 1996. Patriarchy and Economic Development: Women's Positions at the End of the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Moghadam, Valentine M. 1998. Women, Work, and Economic Reform in the Middle East and North Africa. London: Lynne Rienner.
Moghadam, Valentine M. 2016. “Women and Democracy after the Arab Spring: Theory, Practice, and Prospects.” In Empowering Women after the Arab Spring, eds. Shalaby, Marwa and Moghadam, Valentine M.. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 193216.
Mosley, Layna. 2013. “‘Just Talk to People’? Interviews in Contemporary Political Science.” In Interview Research in Political Science, ed. Mosley, Layna. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 128.
Osmani, Lutfun N. K. 1998. “The Grameen Bank Experiment: Empowerment of Women through Credit.” In Women and Empowerment: Illustrations from the Third World, ed. Afshar, Haleh. New York: St. Martin's Press, 6785.
Osmani, Lutfun N. K. 2007. “A Breakthrough in Women's Bargaining Power: The Impact of Microcredit.” Journal of International Development 19 (5): 695716.
Pampel, Fred, and Tanaka, Kazuko. 1986. “Economic Development and Female Labor Force Participation: A Reconsideration.” Social Forces 64 (3): 599619.
Patil, Vrushali. 2013. “From Patriarchy to Intersectionality: A Transnational Feminist Assessment of How Far We've Come.” Signs 38 (4): 847–67.
Pitt, Mark M., and Khandker, Shahidur R.. 1996. “The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participant Matter?Journal of Political Economy 106 (5): 958–95.
Psacharopoulos, George, and Tzannatos, Zafiris. 1991. “Female Labor Force Participation and Education.” In Essays on Poverty, Equity and Growth, ed. Psacharopoulos, George. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 266–90.
Rivera, Sharon Werning, Kozyreva, Polina M., and Sarovskii, Eduard G.. 2002. “Interviewing Political Elites: Lessons from Russia.” PS: Political Science and Politics 35 (4): 683–88.
Ross, Michael L. 2008. “Oil, Islam, and Women.” American Political Science Review 102 (1): 107–23.
Seidman, Irving. 2006. Interviewing as Qualitative Research: A Guide for Researchers in Education and the Social Sciences. 3rd ed. New York: Teachers College Press.
Tansel, Aysit. 2002. “Economic Development and Female Labor Force Participation in Turkey: Time-Series Evidence and Cross-Province Estimates.” Economic Research Center Working Papers in Economics, 01/05.
Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK). 2014a. The Revision in the Definitions of Rural and Urban http://www.resmiistatistik.gov.tr/?q=tr/content/18-k%C4%B1rkent-tan%C4%B1m%C4%B1n%C4%B1n-revizyonu (accessed February 22, 2018).
Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK). 2014b. Turkey in Statistics. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/IcerikGetir.do?istab_id=5 (accessed February 22, 2018).
Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK). 2016a. Women in 2015. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=21519 (accessed February 22, 2018).
Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK). 2016b. Major Statistics. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/UstMenu.do?metod=temelist (accessed February 22, 2018).
Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK). 2017. Women in 2016. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=24643 (accessed February 22, 2018).
Ugur-Cinar, Meral. 2014. “Construction of Gender and National Identity in Turkey: Images of the First Lady in the Turkish Media (2002–7).” Middle Eastern Studies 50 (3): 482–92.
Ugur-Cinar, Meral. 2017. “Embedded Neopatrimonialism: Patriarchy and Democracy in Turkey.” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 24 (3): 324–43.
United Nations. 2015. “UN Sustainable Development Goals.” http://www.who.int/mediacentre/events/meetings/2015/un-sustainable-development-summit/en/ (accessed December 19, 2017).
Weber, Olaf, and Ahmad, Adnan. 2014. “Empowerment Through Microfinance: The Relation between Loan Cycle and Level of Empowerment.” World Development 62: 7587.
World Economic Forum. 2016. “The Global Gender Gap Report 2016.” http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/rankings/ (accessed February 21, 2018).
Wyndow, Paula, Li, Jianghong, and Mattes, Eugen. 2013. “Female Empowerment as a Core Driver of Democratic Development: A Dynamic Panel Model from 1980 to 2005.” World Development 52: 3454.
Yılmaz Şener, Meltem. 2016. “Conditional Cash Transfers in Turkey: A Case to Reflect on the AKP's Approach to Gender and Social Policy.” Research and Policy on Turkey 1 (2): 164178.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Politics & Gender
  • ISSN: 1743-923X
  • EISSN: 1743-9248
  • URL: /core/journals/politics-and-gender
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Cinar and Ugur-Cinar supplementary material
Appendices A-C

 Word (18 KB)
18 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed