Aldrich, John H., and Battista, James S. Colman. 2002. “Conditional Party Government in the States.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (1): 164–72.
Banaszak, Lee Ann. 1996. Why Movements Succeed or Fail: Opportunity, Culture, and the Struggle for Women's Suffrage. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Barrett, Edith J. 1997. “Gender and Race in the State House: The Legislative Experience.” Social Science Journal 34 (2): 131–44.
Beckwith, Karen. 2007. “Numbers and Newness: The Descriptive and Substantive Representation of Women.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 40 (1): 27–49.
Beckwith, Karen, and Cowell-Meyers, Kimberly. 2007. “Sheer Numbers: Critical Representation Thresholds and Women's Political Representation.” Perspectives on Politics 5 (3): 553–65.
Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M., and Jones, Bradford. 2004. Event History Modeling: A Guide for Social Scientists. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bratton, Kathleen. 2002. “Critical Mass Theory Revisited: The Behavior and Success of Token Individuals in State Legislatures.” American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Boston, MA.
Buckley, Jack, and Westerland, Chad. 2004. “Duration Dependence, Functional Form, and Corrected Standard Errors: Improving EHA Models of State Policy Diffusion.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 4 (1): 94–113.
Carroll, Susan. 2002. “Representing Women: Congresswomen's Perceptions of their Representational Roles.” In Women Transforming Congress, ed. Rosenthal, Cindy Simon. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Carroll, Susan J. 2006. “Are Women Legislators Accountable to Women? The Complementary Roles of Feminist Identity and Women's Organizations.” In Gender and Social Capital, ed. O'Neil, Brenda and Gidengil, Elisabeth, 352–78. New York, NY: Routledge.
Carroll, Susan J., and Taylor, Ella. 1989. “Gender Differences in Policy Priorities of U.S. State and Legislators.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta.
Celis, Karen, Childs, Sarah, Kantola, Johanna, and Krook, Mona Lena. 2008. “Rethinking Women's Substantive Representation.” Representation 44 (2): 99–110.
Center for American Women and Politics. Spring 1989. CAWP News & Notes 7 (1): 1–31.
Center for American Women and Politics. Winter 1989. CAWP News & Notes 7 (2): 1–21.
Center for American Women in Politics. Spring 1992. CAWP News & Notes 8 (2): 1–31.
Center for American Women in Politics. Summer 1994. CAWP News & Notes 9 (3): 1–36.
Center for American Women in Politics. Summer/Fall 1994. CAWP News & Notes 9 (3A): 1–36.
Center for American Women in Politics. Spring 1998. CAWP News & Notes 11 (3): 1–16.
Childs, Sarah, and Krook, Mona Lena. 2006. “Should Feminists Give Up on Critical Mass? A Contingent Yes.” Politics & Gender 2 (4): 522–30.
Childs, Sarah, and Krook, Mona Lena. 2009. “Analysing Women's Substantive Representation: From Critical Mass to Critical Actors.” Government and Opposition 44 (2): 125–45.
Clark, Christopher J. Gaining Voice: Causes and Consequences of Black Representation in the American States. Forthcoming. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cox, Elizabeth M. 1996. Women State and Territorial Legislators, 1895–1995: A State-by-State Analysis, with Rosters of 6,000 Women. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Crowder-Meyer, Melody, and Lauderdale, Benjamin E.. 2014. “A Partisan Gap in the Supply of Female Potential Candidates in the United States.” Research & Politics 1 (1): 1–7.
Crowley, Jocelyn. E. 2004. “When Tokens Matter.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 29 (1): 109–36.
Dodson, Debra, Carroll, Susan J., Mandel, Ruth B., Kleeman, Katherine E., Schreiber, Ronnee, and Liebowitz, Debra. 1995. Voices, Views, Votes: The Impact of Women in the 103rd Congress. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP), Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers.
Duerst-Lahti, Georgia. 2002. “Governing Institutions, Ideologies, and Gender: Toward the Possibility of Equal Political Representation.” Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 47:371–88.
Edwards, Bob, and McCarthy, John D.. 2004. “Resources and Social Movement Mobilization.” In The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, ed. Snow, David A., Soule, Sarah A., and Kriesi, Hanspeter, 116–52. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Freeman, Jo. 1986. “The Political Culture of the Democratic and Republican Parties.” Political Science Quarterly 101 (3): 327–56.
Gertzog, Irwin N. 1995. Congressional Women: Their Recruitment, Integration, and Behavior. Rev. ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
Gertzog, Irwin N. 2004. Women and Power on Capitol Hill: Reconstructing the Congressional Women's Caucus. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Hammond, Susan A. 1998. Congressional Caucuses in National Policymaking. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Hammond, Susan Webb, Mulhollan, Daniel P., and Stevens, Arthur G. Jr. 1985. “Informal Congressional Caucuses and Agenda Setting.” Western Political Science Quarterly 38 (4): 583–605.
Harden, Jeffrey J. 2011. “A Bootstrap Method for Conducting Statistical Inference with Clustered Data.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 11 (2): 223–46.
Hawkesworth, Mary. 2003. “Congressional Enactments of Race-Gender: Toward a Theory of Raced Gendered Institutions.” American Political Science Review 97 (4): 529–50.
Hawkesworth, Mary, Dodson, Debra, Kleeman, Katherine E., Casey, Kathleen J., and Jenkins, Krista. 2000. Legislating by and for Women: A Comparison of the 103rd and 104th Congresses. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP), Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers.
Heath, Roseanna Michelle, Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A. and Taylor-Robinson, Michelle M.. 2005. “Women on the Sidelines: Women's Representation on Committees in Latin American Legislatures.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (2): 420–36.
Hedge, David, Button, James, and Spear, Mary. 1996. “Accounting for the Quality of Black Legislative Life: The View from the States.” American Journal of Political Science 40 (1): 82–98.
Hinckley, Barbara. 1971. Stability and Change in Congress. New York: Harper and Row.
Holman, Mirya. 2014. Women in Politics in the American City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Kam, Cindy, and Franzese, Robert J.. 2007. Modeling and Interpreting Interactive Hypotheses in Regression Analysis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1977. “Some Effects on Proportions on Group Life: Skewed Sex Ratios and Responses to Token Women.” American Journal of Sociology 82:965–90.
Kanthak, Kristin, and Krause, George A.. 2012. The Diversity Paradox: Political Parties, Legislatures, and the Organizational Foundations of Representation in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 138.
Kathlene, Lyn. 1994. “Power and Influence in State Legislative Policymaking: The Interaction of Gender and Position in Committee Hearing Debates.” American Political Science Review 88 (3): 560–76.
Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod. 1998. Faithful and Fearless: Moving Feminist Protest Inside the Church and Military. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kenney, Sally J. 1996. “New Research on Gendered Political Institutions.” Political Research Quarterly 49 (2): 445–66.
Kenny, Meryl. 2007. “Gender, Institutions and Power: A Critical Review.” Politics 27 (2): 91–100.
King, James D. 2000. “Changes in Professionalism in U.S. State Legislatures.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 25 (2): 327–43.
King-Meadows, Tyson, and Schaller, Thomas F.. 2006. Devolution and Black State Legislators: Challenges and Choices in the Twenty-First Century. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Klarner, Carl. 2013a. “Other Scholars’ Competitiveness Measures.” Harvard Dataverse Network [Distributor] V1 [Version]. http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/22519. Accessed October 5, 2018. Klarner, Carl. 2013b. “State Partisan Balance Data, 1937–2011.” Harvard Dataverse Network [Distributor] V1 [Version]. http://hdl:1902.1/20403. Accessed October 5, 2018.
Mackay, Fiona, Kenny, Meryl, and Chappell, Louise. 2010. “New Institutionalism Through a Gender Lens: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism?” International Political Science Review 31 (5): 573–88.
Mahoney, Anna. 2013. “The Politics of Women's Legislative Caucuses.” Ph.D. diss., Rutgers University.
Mahoney, James, and Thelen, Kathleen, eds. 2010. Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
McAdam, Doug, McCarthy, John D., and Zald, Mayer N.. 1996. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures and Cultural Framing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
McCammon, Holly J., Campbell, Karen E., Granberg, Ellen M., and Mowery, Christine. 2001. “How Movements Win: Gendered Opportunity Structures and U.S. Women's Suffrage Movements, 1866 to 1919.” American Sociological Review 66 (1): 49–70.
Menifield, Charles E., and Shaffer, Stephen D., eds. 2005. Politics in the New South: Representation of African Americans in Southern State Legislatures. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Mueller, Carol. 1984. “Women's Organizational Strategies in State Legislatures.” In Political Women: Current Roles in State Government, ed. Flammang, Janet A.. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
National Order of Women. n.d. Legislators’ Records. Sophia Smith Collection. Northampton, MA: Smith College.
O'Brien, Diana Z. 2015. “Rising to the Top: Gender, Political Performance, and Party Leadership in Parliamentary Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science 59 (4): 1022–39.
Osborn, Tracy L. 2003. “Institutional Context and Support for a Women's Agenda in State Legislatures.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia.
Osborn, Tracy L. 2012. How Women Represent Women: Political Parties, Gender, and Representation in the State Legislatures. New York: Oxford University Press.
Reingold, Beth. 2000. Representing Women: Sex, Gender, and Legislative Behavior in Arizona and California. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Reingold, Beth, and Schneider, Paige. 2001. “Sex, Gender, and the Status of ‘Women's Issue’ Legislation in the States.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco.
Ringe, Nils, and Victor, Jennifer N.. 2013. Bridging the Information Gap: Legislative Member Institutions in the US and EU. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Rivers, Christina R. 2012. The Congressional Black Caucus, Minority Voting Rights, and the U.S. Supreme Court. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Rosenthal, Alan. 1998. The Decline in Representative Democracy: Process, Participation and Power in State Legislatures. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.
Rosenthal, Alan. 2009. Engines of Democracy: Politics and Policymaking in State Legislatures Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Smooth, Wendy. 2001. African American Women State Legislators: The Impact of Gender and Race on Legislative Influence. Ph.D. diss. University of Maryland, College Park.
Smooth, Wendy. 2008. “Gender, Race, and the Exercise of Power and Influence.” In Legislative Women. ed. Reingold, Beth, 175–96. Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner.
Snyder, James M. Jr., and Groseclose, Tim. 2000. “Estimating Party Influence in Congressional Roll-call Voting.” American Journal of Political Science 44 (2): 193–211.
Squire, Peverill. 2007. “Measuring State Legislative Professionalism: The Squire Index Revisited.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 7 (2): 211–27.
Squire, Peverill, and Moncrief, Gary. 2010. State Legislatures Today: Politics Under the Domes. Boston: Pearson Education.
Swers, Michele L. 2002. The Difference Women Make: The Policy Impact of Women in Congress. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tamerius, Karen. 1995. “Sex, Gender, and Leadership in the Representation of Women.” In Gender, Power, and Leadership and Governance, ed. Duerst-Lahti, Georgia and Kelly, Rita Mae. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Tate, Katherine. 2014. Concordance: Black Lawmaking in the U.S. Congress from Carter to Obama. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
The Book of the States. Various years. Lexington, KY: The Council of State Governments.
Thomas, Sue. 1991. “The Impact of Women on State Legislative Policies.” Journal of Politics 53 (4): 958–76.
Thomas, Sue. 1994. How Women Legislate. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tolbert, C., and Steuernagel, G.. 2001. “Women Lawmakers, State Mandates and Women's Health.” Women and Politics 22 (2): 1–39.