Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Religious Regulation as Foreign Policy: Morocco's Islamic Diplomacy in West Africa

  • Ann Marie Wainscott (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Studies of religious regulation tend to examine how states manage the domestic religious market. This article extends this research program by analyzing a state that regulates the religious markets of foreign countries. The Moroccan case demonstrates the circumstances under which a religious bureaucracy designed to manage domestic religion can be turned outward, and employed to achieve foreign policy goals. Unlike other cases of foreign religious regulation, however, Morocco's efforts have been welcomed at the same time that the policy advanced Morocco's interests. What explains the success of Morocco's religious foreign policy? Building on interviews with religious elites from a recipient country, this article argues that Moroccan religious foreign policy has been successful because it was perceived as having historical and cultural legitimacy, it built on pre-existing institutions, and it was paired with renewed economic collaboration, three factors that have broader theoretical relevance to the study of religious foreign policies.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Religious Regulation as Foreign Policy: Morocco's Islamic Diplomacy in West Africa
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Religious Regulation as Foreign Policy: Morocco's Islamic Diplomacy in West Africa
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Religious Regulation as Foreign Policy: Morocco's Islamic Diplomacy in West Africa
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Ann Marie Wainscott, Department of Political Science, Miami University, 218 Harrison Hall, Oxford, OH 45056. E-mail: annmariewainscott@gmail.com.
Footnotes
Hide All

This article appears in modified form as a chapter in the book: Bureaucratizing Islam: Morocco and the War on Terror. The two publications proceeded simultaneously.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Agence de Presse Sénégalaise . 2012. “Mali: Pr Babacar Samb — ‘Ce Qui Menace Le Mali Menace Le Sénégal (That Which Threatens Mali, Threatens Senegal).’” www.fr.allafrica.com/stories/201209240996.html (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Agence Marocaine de Presse . 2015. “Full Text of King Mohammed VI's Speech on Throne Day.” www.moroccoworldnews.com/2015/07/164318/full-text-of-king-mohammed-vis-speech-on-throne-day (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Aït Akdim Youssef. 2014. “Madrasa sans frontiers (Madrasa without Borders).” www.jeuneafrique.com/53893/politique/madrasa-sans-fronti-res (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Alaoui Mohamed Chakir. 2014. “Le Maroc Sollicité Par Le Kenya Pour Former Des Imams (Kenya Solicits Morocco to Train Its Imams).” www.fr.le360.ma/societe/le-maroc-sollicite-par-le-kenya-pour-former-des-imams-24453 (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Ali Siham. 2013. “Morocco, Mali Sign Religious Affairs Accord.” www.magharebia.com/en_GB/articles/awi/features/2013/11/13/feature-02 (Accessed on February 28, 2014).
Antoun Richard T. 2006. “Fundamentalism, Bureaucratization, and the State's Co-Optation of Religion: A Jordanian Case Study.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 38:369393.
Arbaoui Larbi. 2016. “Morocco to Train Russian Imams.” www.moroccoworldnews.com/2016/03/182434/182434 (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
BBC News . 2016. “Morocco Asks to Rejoin African Union after 32 Years.” www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-36822240 (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Beaty Thalia, Brant Kristopher, and Donaldson Maggy. 2015. “More — Not Less — Religion Needed to Fight Extremism, Imam Director Says.” www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/extremism-fight (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Bellin Eva. 2008. “Review: Faith in Politics: New Trends in the Study of Religion and Politics.” World Politics 60:315347.
Bettiza Gregorio. 2013. “Religion and American Foreign Policy in the Context of the Postsecular Turn in World Politics and the Social Sciences.” International Politics Reviews 1:1126.
Binahdā Ṭāriq. 2014. “Salafiyyu Mālī Ghāḍibūn Min ‘khaṭir’ taṣdīr Al-Mālikiyya Min Al-Maghrib (Malian Salafis are Angry at the ‘Danger’ of Exporting Malikism from Morocco).” www.hespress.com/orbites/111651.html (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Calcuttwawala Zainab. 2016. “Morocco to Build a Large Mosque in Chad, Train Chadian Imams.” www.moroccoworldnews.com/2016/02/179488/morocco-to-build-a-large-mosque-in-chad-train-chadian-imams (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Campo Juan Eduardo, ed. 2009. “Abu Al-Qasim Ibn Muhammad Ibn Al-Junayd Al-Khazzaz Al-Qawariri Al-Junayd.” In Encyclopedia of Islam. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, 415.
Cornell Vincent J. 1998. Realm of the Saint: Power and Authority in Moroccan Sufism. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Dakaractu.Com . 2016. “Visite du roi Mohamed VI Au Sénégal: Une Coopération À Sens Unique! (Visit of King Mohamed VI to Senegal: A One-way Cooperation).” www.dakaractu.com/Visite-du-Roi-Mohamed-VI-au-Senegal-Une-cooperation-a-sens-unique_a121270.html (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Dao Adama. 2014. “Coopération Mali-Maroc: 17 Accords et Conventions Signés (Mali-Morocco Cooperation: 17 Agreements and Conventions Signed).” www.maliweb.net/economie/cooperation/cooperation-mali-maroc-17-accords-conventions-signes-198262.html (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Diouf Mamadou. 2012. Tolerance, Democracy, and Sufis in Senegal. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Driessen Michael D. 2010. “Religion, State, and Democracy: Analyzing Two Dimensions of Church-State Arrangements.” Politics and Religion 3:5580.
El Aissi Noureddine. 2014. “Un Nouvel Institut Pour Former Des Cadres Religieux (A New Institute to Train Religious Bureaucrats).” www.leconomiste.com/article/950241-un-nouvel-institut-pour-former-des-cadres-religieux (Accessed on March 26, 2015).
El Haitami Meriem. 2012. “Restructuring Female Religious Authority: State-Sponsored Women Religious Guides (Murshidat) and Scholars (’Alimat) in Contemporary Morocco.” Mediterranean Studies 20:227240.
Esposito John, ed. 2003. “Ashari, Abu-Al-Hasan Ali Ibn Ismail Al-.” www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e212 (Accessed on May 6, 2015).
Fentaw Alemayehu. 2012. “Ethiopia: Government Increasingly Intolerant of Islam Risks Radicalizing Muslims.” www.africanarguments.org/2012/11/16/ethiopia-government-increasingly-intolerant-of-islam-risks-radicalization-of-muslim-population-%E2%80%93-by-alemayehu-fentaw-weldemariam (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Fox Jonathan, and Tabory Ephraim. 2008. “Contemporary Evidence Regarding the Impact of State Regulation of Religion on Religious Participation and Belief.” Sociology of Religion 69:245271.
Fox Jonathan. 2008. A World Survey of Religion and the State. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
France 24 . 2015. “French Imams to Receive ‘Tolerance’ Training in Morocco.” www.france24.com/en/20150920-france-imams-receive-tolerance-training-morocco-islam-religion (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Gill Anthony. 1998. Rendering unto Caesar: The Catholic Church and the State in Latin America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Gill Anthony. 2008. The Political Origins of Religious Liberty. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Grzymała-Busse Anna. 2012. “Why Comparative Politics Should Take Religion (More) Seriously.” Annual Review of Political Science 15:421442.
Grzymała-Busse Anna. 2015. Nations under God: How Churches Use Moral Authority to Influence Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Haynes Jeff. 2001. “Transnational Religious Actors and International Politics.” Third World Quarterly 22:143158.
Haynes Jeffrey. 2008. “Religion and Foreign Policy Making in the USA, India and Iran: Towards a Research Agenda.” Third World Quarterly 29:143165.
Hedström Peter, and Ylikoski Petri. 2010. “Causal Mechanisms in the Social Sciences.” Annual Review of Sociology 36:4967.
Hibbard Scott W. 2010. Religious Politics and Secular States: Egypt, India, and the United States. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Hurd Elizabeth Shakman. 2007a. “Theorizing Religious Resurgence.” International Politics 44:647665.
Hurd Elizabeth Shakman. 2007b. The Politics of Secularism in International Relations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hurd Elizabeth Shakman. 2015. Beyond Religious Freedom: The New Global Politics of Religion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Inboden William. 2010. Religion and American Foreign Policy, 1945–1960: The Soul of Containment. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
International Crisis Group. 2007. “Western Sahara: Out of the Impasse.” www.files.ethz.ch/isn/32587/66_western_sahara.pdf (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Jamal Amaney A. 2012. Of Empires and Citizens: Pro-American Democracy or No Democracy at All? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Jasser Zuhdi. 2013. “Counter Extremism with Freedom in Ethiopia.” www.uscirf.gov/news-room/op-eds/georgetown-journal-international-affairs-counter-extremism-freedom-in-ethiopia (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Kane Abdoulaye. 2007. “Les pèlerins sénégalais au Maroc: la sociabilité autour de al Tijaniyya (Senegalese Pilgrims in Morocco: The Sociability around the Tijaniyya Sufi brotherhood).” In Les nouveaux urbains dans l'espace Sahara-Sahel — Un cosmopolitisme par le bas (The New Cities in the Sahara-Sahel — A Cosmopolitanism from below), eds. Marfaing Laurence, and Boessen Elisabeth. Paris: KARTHALA Editions, 187208.
Kane Ousmane. 2003. Muslim Modernity in Postcolonial Nigeria: A Study of the Society for the Removal of Innovation and Reinstatement of Tradition. Leiden: Brill.
Kébé Abdoul Aziz. 2015. “La Coopération Religieuse et Spirituelle Pour Un Monde de Paix: L'exemple Du Maroc (Religious and Spiritual Cooperation for a World of Peace: The Example of Morocco).” Le Soleil, July 28.
Koesel Karrie J. 2014. Religion and Authoritarianism: Cooperation, Conflict, and the Consequences. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Krasner Stephen D. 1999. Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kuru Ahmet T. 2011. “Passive and Assertive Secularism: Historical Conditions, Ideological Struggles, and State Policies toward Religion.” World Politics 59:568594.
Lauzière Henri. 2012. “The Religious Dimension of Islamism: Sufism, Salafism, and Politics in Morocco.” In Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change, ed. Shehata Samer. New York, NY: Routledge.
Loimeier Roman. 2005. “Playing with Affiliations: Muslims in Northern Nigeria in the 20th Century.” In Entreprises religieuses transnationales en Afrique de l'ouest (Transnational Religious Initiatives in West Africa), ed. Fourchard Laurent. Paris: KARTHALA Editions, 349–72.
Madani Mohamed, Maghraoui Driss, and Zerhouni Saloua. 2012. “The 2011 Moroccan Constitution: A Critical Analysis.” www.constitutionnet.org/vl/item/2011-moroccan-constitution-critical-analysis (Accessed on July 14, 2014).
Maghraoui Driss. 2009. “The Strengths and Limits of Religious Reforms in Morocco.” Mediterranean Politics 14:195211.
Mandaville Peter. 2010. Global Political Islam. New York, NY: Routledge.
Le Matin . 2014. “S.M. Le Roi, Amir Al Mouminine, Lance Les Travaux de Réalisation de l'Institut Mohammed VI de Formation Des Imams, Morchidines et Morchidates (His Majesty the King, Commander of the Faithful, Launched the Work of Founding the Institute Mohammed VI of the Training of Imams, Morchidines and Morchidates).” www.lematin.ma/journal/-/202102.html (Accessed on May 1, 2015).
Mbaye Assane. 2015. “Grande Mosquée de Dakar: Centre Religion, Clans et Luttes D'influences! (Great Mosque of Dakar: Religious Center, Clans and Conflicts over Influence)” Enquête, July 23.
Medias24 . 2016. “La Fondation Mohammed VI Des Ouléma Africains En Ordre de Marche (The Foundation Mohammed VI of the Africans up and Running).” www.medias24.com/MAROC/SOCIETE/164717-La-Fondation-Mohammed-VI-des-oulema-africains-en-ordre-de-marche.html (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Menara.ma . 2014. “Maroc-Gabon: Signature de 24 Accords de Coopération (Morocco and Gabon Sign 24 Cooperation Agreements).” www.menara.ma/fr/actualit%C3%A9s/maroc/2014/03/07/1058352-maroc-gabon-signature-de-24-accords-de-coop%C3%A9ration.html (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Ministère des Habous et des Affairs Islamiques. 2015a. “SM Le Roi, Amir Al Mouminine, Inaugure à Rabat l'Institut Mohammed VI de Formation Des Imams, Morchidines et Morchidates (His Majesty the King, Commander of the Faithful, Opened in Rabat the Mohammed VI Institute for the Training of Imams, Morchidines and Morchidates).” www.habous.gov.ma/fr/islam-au-maroc/2647-sm-le-roi,-amir-al-mouminine,-inaugure-à-rabat-l'institut-mohammed-vi-de-formation-des-imams,-morchidines-et-morchidates.html (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Ministère des Habous et des Affairs Islamiques. 2015b. “Press Release on the Occasion of the Announcement of the Creation of the Foundation.” www.habous.gov.ma/fr/fondation-mohammed-vi-des-oulémas-africains/580-articles-ar/2861-press-release-on-the-occasion-of-the-announcement-of-the-creation-of-the-foundation.html (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Ministère des Habous et des Affairs Islamiques. 2016. “Institut Mohammed VI de formation des imams morchidines et morchidates (Institute Mohammed VI of Training Imams Morchidines and Morchidates).” www.habous.gov.ma/fr/institut-mohammed-vi-pour-la-formation-des-imams,-morchidines-et-morchidatesi.html (Accessed on July 8, 2017).
Mohamed Bala. 1982. Africa and Nonalignment: A Study in the Foreign Relations of New Nations. San Francisco, CA: Kanopy.
Le Monde Afrique . 2015. “Tournée africaine de Mohammed VI: le Maroc et le Sénégal signent treize accords de cooperation (Mohammed VI's African Tour: Morocco and Senegal Sign 13 Cooperation Agreements).” www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2015/05/22/tournee-africaine-de-mohammed-vi-le-maroc-et-le-senegal-signent-treize-accords-de-cooperation_4638737_3212.html (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Morocco on the Move . 2013. “Western Sahara.” www.moroccoonthemove.com/policy/western-sahara/#sthash.dgbq0iUq.dpbs (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Morocco on the Move . 2014. “Training African Imams Recognition of Morocco's Multi-Faceted Approach to Curb Extremism: Holley — Lemag.” www.moroccoonthemove.com/2014/05/28/training-african-imams-recognition-moroccos-multi-faceted-approach-curb-extremism/#sthash.0wnU9wZ4.dpbs (Accessed on June 1, 2014).
Morocco World News . 2015a. “Senegal's President Asks Morocco to Train Senegalese Imams.” www.moroccoworldnews.com/2015/03/152899/senegals-president-asks-morocco-train-senegalese-imams (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Morocco World News . 2015b. “Western Sahara: Senegal Reaffirms ‘Firm’ Support to Morocco's Autonomy Plan.” www.moroccoworldnews.com/2015/04/156861/western-sahara-senegal-reaffirms-firm-support-moroccos-autonomy-plan (Accessed on April 23, 2015).
Nasr Seyyed Vali Reza. 2001. The Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the Making of State Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Oudina M. 2016. “Western Sahara: President of Niger Reaffirms His Support to Morocco.” www.ennaharonline.com/en/international/11619.html (Accessed on Month Day, Year).
Philpott Daniel. 2000. “The Religious Roots of Modern International Relations.” World Politics 52:206245.
Philpott Daniel. 2009. “Has the Study of Global Politics Found Religion?Annual Review of Political Science 12:183202.
Porter Geoffrey. 2002. “At the Pillar's Base: Islam, Morocco and Education in the Qarawiyin Mosque 1912–2000.” Ph.D. diss. New York University.
PR Newswire . 2013. “Morocco's King Mohammed VI Strengthens Relationship with Gabon, Gains More Support on Western Sahara Initiative.” www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/moroccos-king-mohammed-vi-strengthens-relationship-with-gabon-gains-more-support-on-western-sahara-initiative-200496731.html (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Rabasa Angel M., Benard Cheryl, Schwartz Lowell H., and Sickle Peter. 2007. “Building Moderate Muslim Networks.” www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG574.html (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Régragui Ismaïl. 2013. La diplomatie publique marocaine: une stratégie de marque religieuse? (Moroccan Public Diplomacy: A Religious Branding Strategy?) Paris: Editions L'Harmattan.
Rerhaye Narjis. 2013. “Entretien Avec Ahmed Abbadi, SG de La Rabita Mohammadia Des Oulémas (Interview with Ahmed Abbadi, the Secretary General of the Mohammedan League of Religious Scholars).” www.libe.ma/Entretien-avec-Ahmed-Abbadi-SG-de-la-Rabita-Mohammadia-des-oulemas_a36537.html (Accessed on April 7, 2015).
Sambe Bakary. 2011. Islam et diplomatie: la politique africaine du Maroc (Islam and Diplomacy: Morocco's Africa Policy). Gaithersburg, MD: Phoenix Press International.
Sarkissian Ani. 2012. “Religious Regulation and the Muslim Democracy Gap.” Politics and Religion 5:501527.
Sarkissian Ani. 2015. The Varieties of Religious Repression: Why Governments Restrict Religion. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Sezgin Yüksel, and Künkler Mirjam. 2014. “Regulation of ‘Religion’ and the ‘Religious’: The Politics of Judicialization and Bureaucratization in India and Indonesia.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 56:448478.
Shah Timothy Samuel, Stepan Alfred, and Toft Monica Duffy. 2012. Rethinking Religion and World Affairs. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Sheikh Ayan. 2014. “Saudi Arabia Bans Ebola-Stricken Countries from Hajj Pilgrimage.” www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/saudi-arabia-bans-pilgrims-ebola-stricken-countriespilgrims-ebola-stricken-countries-banned-hajj (Accessed on September 17, 2015).
Shinkman Paul. 2015. “Can Government Purge Extremism From Islam?” www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/04/16/moroccan-government-delves-into-citizens-religious-lives-to-purge-extremism (Accessed on May 1, 2015).
Slimane Rachid. 2011. “Al-Durūs Al-Ḥasaniyya … Zurūf Al-Nash'a Wa-‘Ālamiyyat Al-Ta'thīr Wa-Āfāq Al-Mustaqbal (The Hassanian Lectures … The Circumstances of their Founding, Global Impact, and Prospects for the Future).” www.maghress.com/attajdid/20684 (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Snyder Jack L. 2011. Religion and International Relations Theory. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Le Soleil . 2015. “6ème édition de La Foire de L'indépendance Du Bénin: Le Maroc à L'honneur à Travers Des Expositions-Vente (6th Edition of the Fair of Benin's Independence: Spotlight on Morocco throughout the Exhibition Sales).” July 31.
Suyūṭī Imām Jalāl al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān. Translated by Algar Hamid, Dr. Schub Michael, and Mr. Abdel Ḥaleem Ayman. 2011. The Perfect Guide to the Sciences of the Qurān. Muḥammad bin Hamad al-Thani Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization. Reading, MA: Garnet Publications
Temlali Yassin. 2014. “Morocco Eyes Africa for Investment, Political Support.” www.al-monitor.com/pulse/politics/2014/04/morocco-africa-continent-investment-political-support.html (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Thurston Alexander, and Lebovich Andrew. 2013. “A Handbook on Mali's 2012–2013 Crisis.” www.buffett.northwestern.edu/documents/working-papers/ISITA-13-001-Thurston-Lebovich.pdf (Accessed on September 13, 2015).
Tilouine Joan. 2013. “Au Maroc, L'armée de La Paix Recrute Des Imams Maliens (To Morocco, the Peace Army Recruiting Malians).” www.jeuneafrique.com (Accessed on May 5, 2015).
Toft Monica Duffy, Philpott Daniel, and Shah Timothy Samuel. 2011. God's Century: Resurgent Religion and Global Politics. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.
U.S. Department of State. 2014. “Remarks at Opening Plenary of the US-Morocco Strategic Dialogue.” www.2009-2017.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/04/224411.htm (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
United Nations Security Council. 2015. “Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation Concerning Western Sahara.” www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2015/246&referer=http://www.un.org/en/media/accreditation/dailylist.shtml&Lang=E (Accessed on September 14, 2015).
Wainscott Ann M. 2016. “Morocco's AU Bid Builds on Years of Strategic Diplomacy.” www.theglobalobservatory.org/2016/07/morocco-african-union-western-sahara-mohammed-vi (Accessed on October 1, 2017).
Wainscott Ann M. 2017. Bureaucratizing Islam: Morocco and the War on Terror. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Warner Carolyn M., and Walker Stephen G.. 2011. “Thinking about the Role of Religion in Foreign Policy: A Framework for Analysis: Thinking about the Role of Religion in Foreign Policy.” Foreign Policy Analysis 7:113135.
Waterbury John. 1970. The Commander of the Faithful: The Moroccan Political Elite. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
bin Yahya Muhammad. 2016. “Tanṣīb Al-Majlis Al-A’lā Li-Mua’sisa Muḥamad Al-Sādis Li-L-U’lamā’ Al-Afāriqa (The Inauguration of the High Council of the Mohammed VI Foundation for African ‘Ulama).’ www.elaph.com/Web/Economics/2016/6/1093855.html (Accessed on October 28, 2017).
Zeghal Malika. 2008. Islamism in Morocco: Religion, Authoritarianism, and Electoral Politics. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Politics and Religion
  • ISSN: 1755-0483
  • EISSN: 1755-0491
  • URL: /core/journals/politics-and-religion
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 38
Total number of PDF views: 71 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 334 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 10th November 2017 - 19th February 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.