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Are press depictions of Affordable Care Act beneficiaries favorable to policy durability?

  • Jacqueline Chattopadhyay (a1)
Abstract

Background: If successfully implemented and enduring, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) stands to expand health insurance access in absolute terms, reduce inter-group disparities in that access, and reduce exposure to the financial vulnerabilities illness entails. Its durability—meaning both avoidance of outright retrenchment and fidelity to its policy aims—is thus of scholarly interest. Past literature suggests that social constructions of a policy’s beneficiaries may impact durability.

Questions: This paper first describes media portrayals of ACA beneficiaries with an eye toward answering three descriptive questions: (1) Do portrayals depict beneficiaries as economically heterogeneous? (2) Do portrayals focus attention on groups that have acquired new political relevance due to the ACA, such as young adults? (3) What themes that have served as messages about beneficiary “deservingness” in past social policy are most frequent in ACA beneficiary portrayals? The paper then assesses how the portrayal patterns that these questions uncover may work both for and against the ACA’s durability, finding reasons for confidence as well as caution.

Methods: Using manual and automated methods, this paper analyzes newspaper text from August 2013 through January 2014 to trace portrayals of two ACA “target populations” before and during the new law’s first open-enrollment period: those newly eligible for Medicaid, and those eligible for subsidies to assist in the purchase of private health insurance under the ACA. This paper also studies newspaper text portrayals of two groups informally crafted by the ACA in this timeframe: those gaining health insurance and those losing it.

Results: The text data uncover the following answers to the three descriptive questions for the timeframe studied: (1) Portrayals may underplay beneficiaries’ economic heterogeneity. (2) Portrayals pay little attention to young adults. (3) Portrayals emphasize themes of workforce participation, economic self-sufficiency, and insider status. Health status, age, gender, and race/ethnicity appear to receive little attention.

Implications and Conclusions: Existing literature suggests that these portrayal patterns may both support and limit ACA durability. In favor of durability is that ACA beneficiaries are depicted in terms that have been associated with deservingness in past American social policy—particularly being cast as workers and insiders. Yet, the results also give three reasons for caution. First, ACA insurance-losers are also portrayed as deserving. Second, it is unclear how the portrayal patterns found may impact the durability of the ACA’s efforts to cut insurance disparities by age, health status, and especially race/ethnicity. Third, portrayals’ strong casting of beneficiaries as workers, and limited attention to beneficiaries’ economic heterogeneity and to young adults, may do little to help cultivate beneficiary political engagement around the ACA.

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Correspondence: Department of Political Science and Public Administration, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223. Email: jchattop@uncc.edu
References
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202 Tversky, Amos and Kahneman, Daniel, “Advances in prospect theory: Cumulative representation of uncertainty,” in Choices, Values, and Frames, Kahneman, Daniel and Tversky, Amos, eds. (New York: Russell Sage Foundation and Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 4465, at p. 45.
203 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, p. 343.
204 Ingram, Helen and Schneider, Anne L., “Social construction (continued): Response,” American Political Science Review , 1995, 89(2): 441446, at p. 443.
205 Gilens, 1999, pp. 133–139, 153, 206.
206 Ono, Kent A. and Sloop, John M., Shifting Borders: Rhetoric, Immigration, and California’s Proposition 187 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002), p. 6.
207 Iyengar, Shanto, Peters, Mark D., and Kinder, Donald R., “Experimental demonstrations of the ‘not-so-minimal’ consequences of television news programs,” American Political Science Review , 1982, 76(4): 848858, at p. 848.
208 Nelson, Oxley, and Clawson, p. 221.
209 Ingram and Schneider, 2005a, p. 5.
210 Patashnik and Zelizer, 2013, pp. 1075, 1076, Table 1.
211 Patashnik and Zelizer, 2009, p. 38, Table 1.
212 DiAlto, Stephanie J., “From ‘problem minority’ to ‘model minority’: The changing social construction of Japanese Americans,” in Deserving and Entitled: Social Constructions and Public Policy, Schneider, Anne L. and Ingram, Helen M., eds. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005), pp. 81103, at p. 82.
213 Jacoby.
214 Druckman, 2001b, p. 1061.
215 Zaller, John, “The myth of massive media impact revived: New support for a discredited idea,” in Political Persuasion and Attitude Change, Mutz, Diana C., Sniderman, Paul M., and Brody, Richard A., eds. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996), pp. 1778, at p. 18 [quote]; see also pp. 59, 60.
216 Cook, Timothy E., Governing with the News: The News Media as Political Institution (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998), p. 11 [quote]; see also p. 140.
217 Jacoby, p. 751.
218 Cook, p. 87.
219 Cook, p. 3.
220 Bennett, W. Lance and Iyengar, Shanto, “A new era of minimal effects? The changing foundations of political communication,” Journal of Communication , 2008, 58(4): 707731, at p. 725.
221 Bennett and Iyengar, p. 707.
222 Iyengar, Peters and Kinder, p. 848.
223 Ben-Porath and Shaker, p. 466.
224 Armstrong, Elizabeth M., Carpenter, Daniel P., and Hojnacki, Marie, “Whose deaths matter? Mortality, advocacy, and attention to disease in the mass media,” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law , 2006, 31(4): 729772, at p. 768.
225 Chong, p. 196.
226 Iyengar, p. 21.
227 Nelson, Oxley, and Clawson, p. 236.
228 Gilens, 1999, pp. 121–125, 145.
229 DiAlto, p. 84.
230 DiAlto, p. 84.
231 Soss, p. 368.
232 Weir, Orloff, and Skocpol, 1988a, pp. 437, 441.
233 Wilson, William Julius, “Public Policy Research and The Truly Disadvantaged ,” in The Urban Underclass, Jencks, Christopher and Peterson, Paul E., eds. (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1991), pp. 460481, at p. 478.
234 Skocpol, 1992, p. 60.
235 Skocpol, 1995b, p. 32.
236 Skocpol, 1995a.
237 Oberlander, pp. 79–80.
238 Greenstein, p. 449.
239 Campbell, 2003, p. 7.
240 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, pp. 335–336.
241 Skocpol, 1992, pp. 33, 60.
242 Weir, Orloff, and Skocpol, 1988a, p. 430, original emphasis.
243 Patashnik and Zelizer, 2013, p. 1079.
244 Patashnik and Zelizer, 2013, p. 1079.
245 Skocpol, 1992, p. 59.
246 Campbell, 2015, p. 284.
247 Campbell, 2003, p. 142.
248 Campbell, 2003, p. 36.
249 Jacobs and Mettler, p. 928.
250 Jacobs, 2011, p. 629.
251 Jacobs, 2014, p. 636.
252 Patashnik and Zelizer, 2013, p. 1079.
253 Sommers, Benjamin D., Buchmueller, Thomas, Decker, Sandra L., Carey, Colleen, and Kronick, Richard, “The Affordable Care Act has led to significant gains in health insurance and access to care for young adults,” Health Affairs , 2013, 32(1): 165174.
254 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “HHS launches partnership and video contest with young invincibles,” August 19, 2013, http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2013pres/08/20130819a.html, accessed May 4, 2015.
255 Patashnik and Zelizer, 2013, p. 1079.
256 Campbell, 2003.
257 Skocpol, 1992, p. 48.
258 Schneider, Anne L. and Ingram, Helen M., eds., Deserving and Entitled: Social Constructions and Public Policy (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005a).
259 Soss, Fording, and Schram, pp. 85, 235.
260 Katz.
261 Gilens, 1999, pp. 66, 205.
262 Skocpol, 1992, p. 149.
263 Winter.
264 Campbell, 2003, p. 138.
265 Skocpol, 1992, pp. 266–267.
266 Soss.
267 Ingram and Schneider, 1995, p. 443.
268 Gilens, 1999, p. 111.
269 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, p. 336, Figure 1.
270 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, p. 335.
271 Gordon, Linda, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001), as cited by Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 85.
272 Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 85.
273 Kim, Claire Jean, “The racial triangulation of Asian Americans,” Politics & Society , 1999, 27(1): 105138.
274 Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 85; see also pp. 22, 23, 43–44, 46, 233.
275 Piven, Frances Fox and Cloward, Richard A., Regulating the Poor: The Functions of Public Welfare, updated edition (New York: Vintage Books, 1993), pp. 382, 396.
276 Gilens, 1999, pp. 3, 37, 64, 77.
277 Katz, pp. 185, 198.
278 Skocpol, 1995c, p. 7.
279 Skocpol, Theda, “The limits of the New Deal system and the roots of contemporary welfare dilemmas,” in Social Policy in the United States: Future Possibilities in Historical Perspective, Skocpol, Theda, ed. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995d), pp. 209227, at p. 213.
280 Ikenberry, G. John and Skocpol, Theda, “The road to Social Security,” in Social Policy in the United States: Future Possibilities in Historical Perspective, Skocpol, Theda, ed. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), pp. 136166, at pp. 162, 163.
281 Newman, p. 87.
282 Piven and Cloward, p. 448.
283 Katz, p. 3.
284 Ingram and Schneider, 2005b, p. 221.
285 Gilens, 1999, p. 149.
286 Ingram and Schneider, 2005a, p. 17.
287 Amenta, Edwin and Skocpol, Theda, “Redefining the New Deal: World War II and the development of social provision in the United States,” in Social Policy in the United States: Future Possibilities in Historical Perspective, Skocpol, Theda, ed. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), pp. 167208, at pp. 168, 206.
288 Rodriguez, Laugesen, and Watts, p. 245.
289 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, p. 336, Figure 1.
290 Skocpol, 1992, pp. 135, 149–150.
291 Jensen, Laura S., “Constructing and entitling America’s original veterans,” in Deserving and Entitled: Social Constructions and Public Policy, Schneider, Anne L. and Ingram, Helen M., eds. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005), pp. 3562, at p. 36.
292 Kim, p. 118.
293 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, p. 339.
294 Ingram and Schneider, 2005a, p.17.
295 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, p. 341.
296 Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 203.
297 Soss, p. 368.
298 Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 22.
299 Schriner, Kay, “Constructing the democratic citizen: Idiocy and insanity in American suffrage law,” in Deserving and Entitled: Social Constructions and Public Policy, Schneider, Anne L. and Ingram, Helen M., eds. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005), pp. 6380, at p. 77.
300 Gilens, 1999, p. 37.
301 Gilens, 1999.
302 Piven and Cloward, p. 169.
303 Quadagno, Jill, The Color of Welfare: How Racism Undermined the War on Poverty (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), pp. 120121.
304 Newman, p. 98.
305 Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 52 [quote]; see also pp. 40, 95.
306 Ingram and Schneider, 2005a, p.17.
307 Skocpol, 1992, p. 471.
308 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, pp. 336, 343.
309 Katz, p. 9.
310 Winter, p. 402.
311 Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 85.
312 Winter, p. 405, original emphasis.
313 Winter, p. 405.
314 Ono and Sloop, pp. 70–71.
315 Carmines, Edward G. and Stimson, James A., Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989).
316 Piven and Cloward, p. 423.
317 Mendelberg, Tali, “Executing Hortons: Racial crime in the 1988 presidential campaign,” Public Opinion Quarterly , 1997, 61(1): 134157.
318 Mendelberg, Tali, The Race Card: Campaign Strategy, Implicit Messages, and the Norm of Equality (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).
319 Neubeck and Cazenave, pp. 126, 148.
320 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, p. 336, Figure 1.
321 Ingram and Schneider, 2005a, p. 17.
322 Gilens, 1999, pp. 125–127, 129.
323 Ono and Sloop, pp. 28–29, 39.
324 Neubeck and Cazenave, pp. 34–35, 110–111, 139–141.
325 Kim, pp. 110, 118, 128.
326 Rabinowitz, Joshua L., Sears, David O., Sidanius, Jim, and Krosnick, Jon A., “Why do white Americans oppose race-targeted policies? Clarifying the impact of symbolic racism,” Political Psychology , 2009, 30(5): 805828, at pp. 805, 819, 825.
327 DeSante, Christopher D., “Working twice as hard to get half as far: Race, work ethic, and America’s deserving poor,” American Journal of Political Science , 2013, 57(2): 342356.
328 Neubeck and Cazenave, p. 36.
329 Winter, pp. 400, 404.
330 Gilens, 1999, pp. 3, 5, 72, 80, 92, 214–215.
331 Soss, Fording, and Schram, pp. 62, 65.
332 DeSante.
333 Soss, Fording, and Schram, pp. 100–101, 126, 136, 137, 140, 175.
334 Kim, p. 108, Figure 1.
335 Ana, Otto Santa, Brown Tide Rising: Metaphors of Latinos in Contemporary American Public Discourse (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2002).
336 Hochschild, Jennifer, Chattopadhyay, Jacqueline, Gay, Claudine, and Jones-Correa, Michael, eds., Outsiders No More? Models of Immigrant Political Incorporation (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013).
337 Katz, p. 9.
338 Schneider, Anne L. and Ingram, Helen M., “Part II: Congressional discourse: Forging lines of division between deserving and undeserving,” in Deserving and Entitled: Social Constructions and Public Policy, Schneider, Anne L. and Ingram, Helen M., eds. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005b), pp. 105110, at p. 110.
339 Kim.
340 Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 14.
341 Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 131.
342 Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 4, original emphasis.
343 Soss, Fording, and Schram, pp. 80, 260.
344 Gilens, 1999, p. 206, emphasis added.
345 Mendelberg, 2001.
346 Kim, p. 117.
347 Gilens, 1996, p. 593.
348 Winter, p. 403.
349 Katz, pp. 9, 85, 225.
350 Piven and Cloward, pp. 123, 124, 129–130.
351 Skocpol, 1992, p. 2 [quote]; see also pp. 10, 21, 317, 333, 337.
352 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, p. 336, Figure 1.
353 Skocpol, 1992, p. 96.
354 Skocpol, 1992, p. 32.
355 Katz, pp. 21–22, 87, 92, 98.
356 Piven and Cloward, pp. 136, 346.
357 Soss, Fording, and Schram, pp. 56, 61, 87–88, 95, 259.
358 Neubeck and Cazenave, pp. 28–35.
359 Skocpol, 1992, pp. 467–470.
360 Katz, pp. 8, 11, 86.
361 Skocpol, 1992, pp. 32, 467.
362 Iyengar, p. 36.
363 Skocpol, Theda, “Conclusion: Remaking U.S. social policies for the 21st century,” in Social Policy in the United States: Future Possibilities in Historical Perspective, Skocpol, Theda, ed. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995e), pp. 297312, at pp. 304, 310.
364 Katz, pp. 3, 88, 265, 269.
365 Rodriguez, Laugesen, and Watts, p. 245.
366 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, p. 336, Figure 1.
367 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, p. 336, Figure 1.
368 Quadagno, 1994, pp. 165–166.
369 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, pp. 336, 339, and Figure 1.
370 Schriner, pp. 66–67.
371 Piatak, Jaclyn S., “Understanding the implementation of Medicare and Medicaid: Social construction and historical context,” Administration & Society , 2015, Online First: 1–26, at p. 7.
372 Kim, p. 118.
373 Quadagno, 1994, pp. 117, 124.
374 Skocpol, 1992, p. 467.
375 Katz, p. 18.
376 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, p. 336, Table 1.
377 Kim, Table 1, p. 121.
378 Katz, pp. 1–2.
379 Ingram and Schneider, 2005a, pp. 8, 16.
380 Newton, Lina, “‘It is not a question of being anti-immigration’: Categories of deservedness in immigration policy making,” in Deserving and Entitled: Social Constructions and Public Policy, Schneider, Anne L. and Ingram, Helen M., eds. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005), pp. 139167, at p. 141.
381 Skocpol, 1992, p. 149.
382 Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 55.
383 DiAlto.
384 Jensen, pp. 35, 37.
385 Oberlander, p. 72.
386 Winter, p. 402.
387 Neubeck and Cazenave, p. 31.
388 DeSante, p. 342.
389 Gilens, 1999, p. 154–158.
390 Winter, p. 402.
391 Kim.
392 Jacobs, 2014, p. 631.
393 Gilens, 1999, pp. 6, 111.
394 Rose and Baumgartner.
395 Santa Ana.
396 Ono and Sloop.
397 Druckman, James N., “Media matter: How newspapers and television news cover campaigns and influence voters,” Political Communication , 2005, 22(4): 463481, at p. 463.
398 Chiasson, Lloyd, “Japanese-American relocation during World War II: A study of California editorial reactions,” Journalism Quarterly , 1991, 68(1–2): 263268, as cited by DiAlto, p. 85.
399 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, pp. 335, 346.
400 Oberlander, p. 79.
401 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Key features of the Affordable Care Act by year.”
402 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Key features of the Affordable Care Act by year.”
403 Patashnik and Zelizer, 2013, p. 1080.
404 See U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Key features of the Affordable Care Act by year.”
405 Pear, Robert, “Troubleshooter reports progress and barriers in bid to repair health portal,” The New York Times, November 2, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/02/us/politics/day-1-on-healthcaregov-fewer-than-a-dozen-signed-up.html, accessed May 4, 2015.
406 Johnson, Clay and Reed, Harper, “Why the government never gets tech right,” The New York Times, October 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/25/opinion/getting-to-the-bottom-of-healthcaregovs-flop.html, accessed May 4, 2015.
407 Goldstein, Amy, “Timeline of major change to the Affordable Care Act,” The Washington Post, March 8, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/timeline-of-major-change-to-the-affordable-care-act/2014/03/08/10859e88-a630-11e3-a5fa-55f0c77bf39c_story.html, accessed April 21, 2015.
408 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Administration takes steps to ensure Americans signing up through the marketplace have coverage and access to the care they need on January 1,” 2013, http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2013pres/12/20131212a.html, accessed May 4, 2015.
409 Shear, Michael D. and Pear, Robert, “Day is added to deadline as rush hits health portal,” The New York Times, December 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/24/us/deadline-for-health-care-sign-up-is-extended-by-a-day.html, accessed May 4, 2015.
410 Zaller, John R., The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 4251.
411 Blumenthal, David and Squires, David, “Residents in the ACA’s nonparticipating states still benefiting,” The Commonwealth Fund blog, May 28, 2015, www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/blog/2014/may/affordable-care-acts-nonparticipating-states, accessed July 27, 2015.
412 Grimmer, Justin and Stewart, Brandon M., “Text as data: The promise and pitfalls of automated content analysis methods for political texts,” Political Analysis , 2013, 21(3): 267297, at p. 272.
413 Lucas, Christopher, Nielsen, Richard A., Roberts, Margaret E., Stewart, Brandon M., Storer, Alex, and Tingley, Dustin, “Computer-assisted text analysis for comparative politics,” Political Analysis , 2015, 23(2): 254277, at pp. 257, 259, 260.
414 Grimmer and Stewart, p. 272.
415 Grimmer and Stewart, pp. 272–273.
416 Lucas et al., p. 257.
417 Lucas et al., p. 258.
418 Grimmer and Stewart, p. 273.
419 Lucas et al., p. 258.
420 Winter, p. 405.
421 Grimmer and Stewart, pp. 274, 287, although here the goal is not to classify documents.
422 Shartzer, Adele, Long, Sharon K., and Zuckerman, Stephen, “Who are the newly insured as of early March 2014?” Urban Institute, Health Reform Monitoring Survey, May 22, 2014, http://hrms.urban.org/briefs/Who-Are-the-Newly-Insured.html, accessed August 9, 2014.
423 Jacobs and Skocpol, p. 122.
424 Patashnik and Zelizer, 2013, p. 1079.
425 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, “Health insurance marketplace: Summary enrollment report for the initial annual open enrollment period,” May 1, 2014, https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/76876/ib_2014Apr_enrollment.pdf, p. 1.
426 Campbell, 2015, p. 284.
427 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Key features of the Affordable Care Act by year.”
428 Jacobs, 2014, p. 637.
429 Jacobs and Skocpol, p. 44.
430 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Key features of the Affordable Care Act by year.”
431 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, p. 8.
432 Gilens, 1999, pp. 68, 99, 101, 139.
433 Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 63.
434 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, p. 32.
435 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Enrollment in the health insurance marketplace totals over 8 million people,” 2014, http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2014pres/05/20140501a.html, accessed May 4, 2015.
436 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, p. 27.
437 Ingram and Schneider, 2005a, p. 17.
438 Enos, Ryan D., “The effect of proximity to African–Americans on Latino vote choice in the 2008 presidential primary in Los Angeles,” http://people.hmdc.harvard.edu/∼renos/papers/threat_LosAngeles_primary.pdf, accessed July 28, 2015.
439 Mendelberg, 2008, p. 110.
440 Hacker, p. 246.
441 Pierson, 1994, p. 127.
442 Ingram and Schneider, 2005b, pp. 219–220.
443 Cook, Fay Lomax and Barrett, Edith J., Support for the American Welfare State: The Views of Congress and the Public (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992), pp. 96108.
444 Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Public’s Views About Medicaid Survey, Apr, 2005 [survey question]. USPSRA.05MEDICAID.R15A. Princeton Survey Research Associates International [producer]. Storrs, CT: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, iPOLL [distributor], accessed April 21, 2015.
445 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Harvard School of Public Health. American Attitudes Toward Health Care Reform, Mar, 1993 [survey question]. USMARTIL.93RWJ.R053. Marttila & Kiley [producer]. Storrs, CT: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, iPOLL [distributor], accessed April 21, 2015.
446 Harvard School of Public Health, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Harvard School Of Public Health Survey On Health Care Issues, Sep, 1993 [survey question]. USPSRA.HS1093.R04. Princeton Survey Research Associates [producer]. Storrs, CT: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, iPOLL [distributor], accessed April 21, 2015.
447 Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Harvard School of Public Health. Public Knowledge of Health Reform Survey, Sep, 1993 [survey question]. USPSRA.93HLTK.R01. Princeton Survey Research Associates [producer]. Storrs, CT: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, iPOLL [distributor], accessed April 21, 2015.
448 Families USA, Health Insurance Association of America. Uninsured Americans Survey, Sep, 1999 [survey question]. USPOS.99UNINS.R16. Public Opinion Strategies and [producer]. Storrs, CT: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, iPOLL [distributor], accessed April 21, 2015.
449 Harvard School of Public Health, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Health Insurance Coverage Survey, Jul, 2001 [survey question]. USICR.01CVJL.R33. ICR–International Communications Research [producer]. Storrs, CT: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, iPOLL [distributor], accessed April 21, 2015.
450 Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. ER Wave One Survey, Sep, 1997 [survey question]. USPSRA.97ERW1.R03. Princeton Survey Research Associates [producer]. Storrs, CT: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, iPOLL [distributor], accessed April 21, 2015.
451 Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. ER Wave Two Survey, Nov, 1997 [survey question]. USPSRA.97ERW2.R03. Princeton Survey Research Associates [producer]. Storrs, CT: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, iPOLL [distributor], accessed April 21, 2015.
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453 Gilens, 1999, pp. 49, 127.
454 Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. Kaiser/Newshour Uninsured Survey, Jan, 2000 [survey question]. USICR.00INSR.R03. ICR-International Communications Research [producer]. Storrs, CT: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, iPOLL [distributor], accessed April 21, 2015.
455 Schneider and Ingram, 1993, p. 339.
456 Ingram and Schneider, 2005a, p. 11, original emphasis.
457 Cousins, Christopher, “LePage: Medicaid expansion would add too many smokers and heavy drinkers to program,” Bangor Daily News, September 16, 2013, http://bangordailynews.com/2013/09/16/health/lepage-medicaid-expansion-would-add-too-many-smokers-and-heavy-drinkers-to-program/.
458 Long, Robert, “Medicaid researcher: LePage missed point of study he used to oppose expansion,” Bangor Daily News, September 18, 2013, http://bangordailynews.com/2013/09/18/health/medicaid-researcher-lepage-missed-point-of-study-he-used-to-oppose-expansion/.
459 Oberlander, pp. 43, 165.
460 Campbell, 2003, pp. 85, 95.
461 Soss, pp. 369–372.
462 Campbell, 2003, p. 138.
463 Pierson, 1994, p. 4 [quote]; see also p. 9.
464 Soss, Fording, and Schram.
465 Wilson, p. 478.
466 Sidney, Mara S., “Contested images of race and place: The politics of housing discrimination,” in Deserving and Entitled: Social Constructions and Public Policy, Schneider, Anne L. and Ingram, Helen M., eds. (New York: State University Press of New York, 2005), pp. 111137, at p. 137.
467 Quadagno, 1994.
468 Schram, Sanford F., “Putting a black face on welfare: The good and the bad,” in Deserving and Entitled: Social Constructions and Public Policy, Schneider, Anne L. and Ingram, Helen M., eds. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005), pp. 261286.
469 Soss, Fording, and Schram, p. 64.
470 Neubeck and Cazenave, p. 111.
471 Soss, Fording, and Schram, pp. 63, 300.
472 Quadagno, 1994.
473 Schneider and Ingram, 2005b, p. 108.
474 Schram, p. 284.
475 Neubeck and Cazenave, p. 207.
476 Lin, Ann Chih and Harris, David R., “Why is American poverty still colored in the twenty-first century?,” in The Colors of Poverty: Why Racial and Ethnic Disparities Persist, Lin, Ann Chih and Harris, David R., eds. (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2008), pp. 118, at p. 12.
477 Armstrong, Carpenter, and Hojnacki, p. 759.
478 Schram, p. 284.
479 Neubeck and Cazenave, pp. 208, 210.
480 Soss, Fording, and Schram, pp. 59–60.
481 Neckerman, Aponte, and Wilson, p. 401.
482 Powell, John A., “Post-racialism or targeted universalism,” Denver University Law Review , 2008, 86: 785806, at pp. 789, 790.
483 Lin and Harris, p. 4.
484 Bertrand, Marianne and Mullainathan, Sendhil, “Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination,” The American Economic Review , 2004, 94(4): 9911013.
485 Soss, Fording, and Schram, pp. 59–60.
486 Neubeck and Cazenave, p. 182.
487 Wilson.
488 Newman, pp. 152, 205–208, 276.
489 DiAlto, p. 81.
490 Winter, p. 405.
491 National Immigration Law Center, “Immigrants and the Affordable Care Act,” 2014, http://www.nilc.org/immigrantshcr.html, accessed September 9, 2015.
492 Ono and Sloop, pp. 30, 37, 70–71, 161.
493 Pedraza, Francisco I. and Zhu, Ling, “Immigration enforcement and the ‘chilling effect’ on Latino Medicaid enrollment,” http://healthpolicyscholars.org/sites/healthpolicyscholars.org/files/pedrazazhu_medicaid.pdf, accessed September 8, 2015, p. 2.
494 Pedraza and Zhu, p. 2.
495 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014.
496 Pedraza and Zhu, p. 40.
497 Pedraza and Zhu, p. 2.
498 Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, “Health coverage for the Hispanic population today under the Affordable Care Act,” April 2013, https://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/84321.pdf, p. 4.
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503 Mettler, 2011, p. 30.
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506 Soss, Fording, and Schram, pp. 23, 51.
507 Mettler, 2011, p. 30.
508 Campbell, 2003, p. 146.
509 Oberlander, pp. 24, 78, 80, 81.
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511 Pierson, 1994, p. 138.
512 Olson, pp. 181–203.
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Politics and the Life Sciences
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