Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5cfd469876-gzklw Total loading time: 0.611 Render date: 2021-06-23T21:44:46.958Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Nationwide Program of Education for Undergraduates in the Field of Disaster Medicine: Development of a Core Curriculum Centered on Blended Learning and Simulation Tools

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 August 2014

Pier Luigi Ingrassia
Affiliation:
Università del Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro,” Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Medicine and Computer Science Applied to Medical Practice (CRIMEDIM), Novara, Italy
Luca Ragazzoni
Affiliation:
Università del Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro,” Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Medicine and Computer Science Applied to Medical Practice (CRIMEDIM), Novara, Italy
Marco Tengattini
Affiliation:
Università del Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro,” Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Medicine and Computer Science Applied to Medical Practice (CRIMEDIM), Novara, Italy
Luca Carenzo
Affiliation:
Università del Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro,” Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Medicine and Computer Science Applied to Medical Practice (CRIMEDIM), Novara, Italy
Francesco Della Corte
Affiliation:
Università del Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro,” Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Medicine and Computer Science Applied to Medical Practice (CRIMEDIM), Novara, Italy
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

In recent years, effective models of disaster medicine curricula for medical schools have been established. However, only a small percentage of medical schools worldwide have considered at least basic disaster medicine teaching in their study program. In Italy, disaster medicine has not yet been included in the medical school curriculum. Perceiving the lack of a specific course on disaster medicine, the Segretariato Italiano Studenti in Medicina (SISM) contacted the Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale in Medicina di Emergenza e dei Disastri ed Informatica applicata alla didattica e alla pratica Medica (CRIMEDIM) with a proposal for a nationwide program in this field. Seven modules (introduction to disaster medicine, prehospital disaster management, definition of triage, characteristics of hospital disaster plans, treatment of the health consequences of different disasters, psychosocial care, and presentation of past disasters) were developed using an e-learning platform and a 12-hour classroom session which involved problem-based learning (PBL) activities, table-top exercises, and a computerized simulation (Table 1). The modules were designed as a framework for a disaster medicine curriculum for undergraduates and covered the three main disciplines (clinical and psychosocial, public health, and emergency and risk management) of the core of “Disaster Health” according to the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) international guidelines for disaster medicine education. From January 2011 through May 2013, 21 editions of the course were delivered to 21 different medical schools, and 524 students attended the course. The blended approach and the use of simulation tools were appreciated by all participants and successfully increased participants’ knowledge of disaster medicine and basic competencies in performing mass-casualty triage. This manuscript reports on the designing process and the initial outcomes with respect to learners' achievements and satisfaction of a 1-month educational course on the fundamentals of disaster medicine. This experience might represent a valid and innovative solution for a disaster medicine curriculum for medical students that is easily delivered by medical schools.Table 1

List of Modules and Topics

ModuleTopics
1. Introduction to disaster medicine and public health during emergencies- Modern taxonomy of disaster and common disaster medicine definitions
- Differences between disaster and emergency medicine
- Principles of public health during disasters
- Different phases of disaster management
2. Prehospital disaster management- Mass-casualty disposition, treatment area, and transport issues
- Disaster plans and command-and-control chain structure
- Functional response roles
3. Specific disaster medicine and triage procedures in the- Mass-casualty triage definitions and principles
management of disasters- Different methodologies and protocols
- Patient assessment, triage levels and tags
4. Hospital disaster preparedness and response- Hospital disaster laws
- Hospital preparedness plans for in-hospital and out-hospital disasters with an all-hazard approach
- Medical management for a massive influx of casualties
5. Health consequences of different disasters- Characteristics of different types of disasters
- Health impact of natural and man-made disasters
- Disaster-related injury after exposure to a different disasters with an all-hazard approach
6. Psychosocial care- Techniques to deal with psychic reactions caused by exposure to disaster scenarios
- Treatment approaches to acute and delayed critical incident stress reactions
7. Presentation of past disasters and public health emergencies, andCase study:
review of assistance experiences- Haiti earthquake
- Cholera outbreaks in Haiti
- National and international disaster response mechanism

IngrassiaPL, RagazzoniL, TengattiniM, CarenzoL, Della CorteF. Nationwide Program of Education for Undergraduates in the Field of Disaster Medicine: Development of a Core Curriculum Centered on Blended Learning and Simulation Tools. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-8.

Type
Special Report
Copyright
Copyright © World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1.Schiermeier, Q. Climate and weather: extreme measures. Nature. 2011;477(7363):148-149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2.Bartels, SA, VanRooyen, MJ. Medical complications associated with earthquakes. Lancet. 2012;379(9817):748-757.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3.Rosborough, S. A tale of two responses: Haiti earthquake highlights the need for training in international disaster response. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2010;4(1):21-23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4.Auf der Heide, E. The importance of evidence-based disaster planning. Ann Emerg Med. 2006;47(1):34-49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5.Association of American Medical Colleges. Training future physicians about weapons of mass destruction: report of the expert panel on bioterrorism education for medical students. Washington, DC; 2003. https://members.aamc.org/eweb/upload/Training%20Future%20Physicians%20About%20Weapons.pdf. Accessed February 6, 2014.Google Scholar
6.Report 15 of the Council on medical education. Education in disaster medicine and public health preparedness during medical school and residency training. http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/council-on-med-ed/cme-report-15a-09.pdf. Accessed February 6, 2014.Google Scholar
7.FitzGerald, GJ, Aitken, P, Arbon, P, et al. A national framework for disaster health education in Australia. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2010;25(1):4-11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8.Archer, F, Seynaeve, G. International guidelines and standards for education and training to reduce the consequences of events that may threaten the health status of a community. A report of an Open International WADEM Meeting, Brussels, Belgium, October 29-31, 2004. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007;22(2):120-130.Google Scholar
9.Pfenninger, EG, Domres, BD, Stahl, W, Bauer, A, Houser, CM, Himmelseher, S. Medical student disaster medicine education: the development of an educational resource. Int J Emerg Med. 2010;3(1):9-20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10.Parrish, AR, Oliver, S, Jenkins, D, Ruscio, B, Green, JB, Colenda, C. A short medical school course on responding to bioterrorism and other disasters. Acad Med. 2005;80(9):820-823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11.Kaji, AH, Coates, W, Fung, CC. A disaster medicine curriculum for medical students. Teach Learn Med. 2010;22(2):116-122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
12.Bristol, N, Marcozzi, D. New presidential directive targets academic approaches to disasters. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2008;2(1):13-14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13.Scott, LA, Carson, DS, Greenwell, IB. Disaster 101: a novel approach to disaster medicine training for health professionals. J Emerg Med. 2010;39(2):220-226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14.Carney, JK, Schilling, LM, Frank, SH, et al. Planning and incorporating public health preparedness into the medical curriculum. Am J Prev Med. 2011;41(4 Suppl 3):S193-S199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15.Silenas, R, Akins, R, Parrish, AR, Edwards, JC. Developing disaster preparedness competence: an experiential learning exercise for multiprofessional education. Teach Learn Med. 2008;20(1):62-68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16.Markenson, D, DiMaggio, C, Redlener, I. Preparing health professions students for terrorism, disaster, and public health emergencies: core competencies. Acad Med. 2005;80(6):517-526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
17.Pelaccia, T. Preparing health care students for mass casualty events. Med Educ. 2008;42(11):1135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
18.Kaiser, HE, Barnett, DJ, Hsu, EB, Kirsch, TD, James, JJ, Subbarao, I. Perspectives of future physicians on disaster medicine and public health preparedness: challenges of building a capable and sustainable auxiliary medical workforce. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3(4):210-216.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19.Mortelmans, LJ, De Cauwer, HG, Van Dyck, E, et al. Are Belgian senior medical students ready to deliver basic medical care in case of a H5N1 pandemic? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2009;24(5):438-442.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20.Sauser, K, Burke, RV, Ferrer, RR, Goodhue, CJ, Chokshi, NC, Upperman, JS. Disaster preparedness among medical students: a survey assessment. Am J Disaster Med. 2010;5(5):275-284.Google ScholarPubMed
21.Rega, P, Bork, C, Chen, Y, Woodson, D, Hogue, P, Batten, S. Using an H1N1 vaccination drive-through to introduce healthcare students and their faculty to disaster medicine. Am J Disaster Med. 2010;5(2):129-136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
22.Sapp, RF, Brice, JH, Myers, JB, Hinchey, P. Triage performance of first year medical students using a multiple-casualty scenario, paper exercise. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2010;25(3):239-245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23.Katz, CL, Gluck, N, Maurizio, A, DeLisi, LE. The medical student experience with disasters and disaster response. CNS Spectr. 2002;7(8):604-610.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24.International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA) Web site. http://www.ifmsa.org. Accessed February 6, 2014.Google Scholar
25.International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA). IFMSA Policy Statement on Disasters and Emergencies 2012. http://imccam2012.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/ps-am12-disasters-and-emergencies.pdf. Accessed February 6, 2014.Google Scholar
26.Smith, J, Levy, MJ, Hsu, EB, Lee Levy, J. Disaster curricula in medical education: pilot survey. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012;27(5):492-494.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27.Cummings, GE, Della Corte, F, Cummings, GG. Disaster Medicine education in Canadian medical schools before and after September 11, 2001. CJEM. 2005;7(6):399-405.Google ScholarPubMed
28. Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale in Medicina di Emergenza e dei Disastri ed Informatica applicata alla didattica e alla pratica medica (CRIMEDIM) Web site. https://crimedim.med.unipmn.it. Accessed February 6, 2014.Google Scholar
29.Della Corte, F. A single European response to disasters. Paper presented at: 14th ICEM 2012; June 27-30, 2012; Dublin, Ireland. http://imgpublic.mci-group.com/ie/ICEM2012/Friday/F_Della_Corte.pdf. Accessed February 6, 2014.Google Scholar
30.Ragazzoni, L, Ingrassia, PL, Gugliotta, G, Tengattini, M, Franc, JM, Della Corte, F. Italian medical students and disaster medicine: awareness and formative needs. Am J Disaster Med. 2013;8(2):127-136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
31. Segretariato Italiano Studenti in Medicina Web site. http://www.nazionale.sism.org. Accessed February 6, 2014.Google Scholar
32.Seynaeve, G, Archer, F, Fisher, J, et al. International standards and guidelines on education and training for the multi-disciplinary health response to major events that threaten the health status of a community. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2004;19(2):S17-30.Google Scholar
33.Kern, DE, Thomas, PA, Howard, DM, Bass, EB eds. Curriculum Development for Medical Education: A Six-step Approach. Baltimore, Maryland USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 1998.Google Scholar
34. German Society of Disaster Medicine website. http://www.dgkm.org. Accessed July 22, 2014.Google Scholar
35. Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance (BBK) website. http://www.bbk.bund.de. Accessed July 22, 2014.Google Scholar
36.Abrami, PC, Bernard, RM, Bures, EM, Borokhovski, E, Tamim, RM. Interaction in distance education and online learning: using evidence and theory to improve practice. J Comput High Educ. 2011;23:82-103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
37.Maciel, DT, Soares, W, Amaral, E. Moodle platform for online tutoring during internships. Med Educ. 2009;43(11):1113-1114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
38.Bollela, VR, Grec, W, Matias, AA. Shortening distances: a Moodle platform supports programme evaluation in internship. Med Educ. 2009;43(11):1114-1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
39. START - Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment Web site. http://www.start-triage.com. Accessed February 6, 2014.Google Scholar
40.Delooz, H, Debacker, M, Moens, G, Johannik, K. European survey on training objectives in disaster medicine. Eur J Emerg Med. 2007;14(1):25-31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
41.Kneebone, R. Evaluating clinical simulations for learning procedural skills: a theory-based approach. Acad Med. 2005;80(6):549-553.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
42.Fanning, RM, Gaba, DM. The role of debriefing in simulation-based learning. Simul Healthc. 2007;2(2):115-125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
43.Gryth, D, Rådestad, M, Nilsson, H, et al. Evaluation of medical command and control using performance indicators in a full-scale, major aircraft accident exercise. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2010;25(2):118-123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
44.Kirkpatrick, DL. Evaluating Training Programs: the Four Levels, 2nd ed. San Francisco, California USA: Berrett-Koehler; 1998.Google Scholar
45.Bradt, DA, Abraham, K, Franks, R. A strategic plan for disaster medicine in Australasia. Emerg Med (Fremantle). 2003;15(3):271-282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
46.Bradt, DA, Drummond, CM. Professionalization of disaster medicine: an appraisal of criterion-referenced qualifications. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007;22(5):360-368.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
47.Ruiz, JG, Mintzer, MJ, Leipzig, RM. The impact of e-learning in medical education. Acad Med. 2006;81(3):207-212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
48.Choules, AP. The use of e-learning in medical education: a review of the current situation. Postgrad Med J. 2007;83(978):212-216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
49.Della Corte, F, La Mura, F, Petrino, R. E-learning as educational tool in emergency and disaster medicine teaching. Minerva Anestesiol. 2005;71(5):181-195.Google ScholarPubMed
50.Chandler, T, Qureshi, K, Gebbie, KM, Morse, SS. Teaching emergency preparedness to public health workers: use of blended learning in web-based training. Public Health Rep. 2008;123(5):676-680.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
51.Gray, K, Tobin, J. Introducing an online community into a clinical education setting: a pilot study of student and staff engagement and outcomes using blended learning. BMC Med Educ. 2010;10:6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
52.Srinivasan, M, Wilkes, M, Stevenson, F, Nguyen, T, Slavin, S. Comparing problem-based learning with case-based learning: effects of a major curricular shift at two institutions. Acad Med. 2007;82(1):74-82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
53.Woltering, V, Herrler, A, Spitzer, K, Spreckelsen, C. Blended learning positively affects students' satisfaction and the role of the tutor in the problem-based learning process: results of a mixed-method evaluation. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2009;14(5):725-738.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
54.McGaghie, WC, Issenberg, SB, Petrusa, ER, Scalese, RJ. A critical review of simulation-based medical education research: 2003-2009. Med Educ. 2010;44(1):50-63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
55.Grant, DJ, Marriage, SC. Training using medical simulation. Arch Dis Child. 2012;97(3):255-259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
56.Olson, DK, Hoeppner, MM, Scaletta, K, Peck, M, Newkirk, R. Games, simulations, and learning in emergency preparedness: a review of the literature. Am J Disaster Med. 2012;7(2):145-154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
57.Montán, KL, Khorram-Manesh, A, Ortenwall, P, Lennquist, S. Comparative study of physiological and anatomical triage in major incidents using a new simulation model. Am J Disaster Med. 2011;6(5):289-298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
58.Sapp, RF, Brice, JH, Myers, JB, Hinchey, P. Triage performance of first-year medical students using a multiple-casualty scenario, paper exercise. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2010;25(3):239-245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
59.Kaji, AH, Coates, WC, Fung, CC. Medical student participation in a disaster seminar and drill: brief description of activity and report of student experiences. Teach Learn Med. 2010;22(1):28-32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
60.Pelaccia, T, Delplancq, H, Triby, E, et al. Can teaching methods based on pattern recognition skill development optimize triage in mass-casualty incidents? Emerg Med J. 2009;26(12):899-902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
61.Franc-Law, JM, Ingrassia, PL, Ragazzoni, L, Della Corte, F. The effectiveness of training with an emergency department simulator on medical student performance in a simulated disaster. CJEM. 2010;12(1):27-32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
62.Wilkerson, W, Avstreih, D, Gruppen, L, Beier, KP, Woolliscroft, J. Using immersive simulation for training first responders for mass casualty incidents. Acad Emerg Med. 2008;15(11):1152-1159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
63.Cone, DC, Serra, J, Kurland, L. Comparison of the SALT and Smart triage systems using a virtual reality simulator with paramedic students. Eur J Emerg Med. 2011;18(6):314-321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
64.Cohen, D, Sevdalis, N, Taylor, D, et al. Emergency preparedness in the 21st century: training and preparation modules in virtual environments. Resuscitation. 2013;84(1):78-84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
65.Vincent, DS, Sherstyuk, A, Burgess, L, Connolly, KK. Teaching mass casualty triage skills using immersive three-dimensional virtual reality. Acad Emerg Med. 2008;15(11):1160-1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
66.Wiecha, J, Barrie, N. Collaborative online learning: a new approach to distance CME. Acad Med. 2002;77(9):928-929.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
67.Wiecha, JM, Gramling, R, Joachim, P, Vanderschmidt, H. Collaborative e-learning using streaming video and asynchronous discussion boards to teach the cognitive foundation of medical interviewing: a case study. J Med Internet Res. 2003;5(2):e13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
68.Barnett-Vanes, A, Luis Guinto, RL. Disaster curricula in medical and health care education: adopting an interprofessional approach. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(6):644-645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
69.International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA) General Assembly 2011 Web site. http://www.am2011denmark.com. Accessed February 6, 2014.Google Scholar
28
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Nationwide Program of Education for Undergraduates in the Field of Disaster Medicine: Development of a Core Curriculum Centered on Blended Learning and Simulation Tools
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Nationwide Program of Education for Undergraduates in the Field of Disaster Medicine: Development of a Core Curriculum Centered on Blended Learning and Simulation Tools
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Nationwide Program of Education for Undergraduates in the Field of Disaster Medicine: Development of a Core Curriculum Centered on Blended Learning and Simulation Tools
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *