Alemzadeh R, Jacobs W & Pitukcheewanont P (1996) Antiobesity effect of diazoxide in obese Zucker rats. Metabolism 45, 334–341.
ALS CNTF Treatment Study Group (1996) A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of subcutaneous recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (rHCNTF) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurology 46, 1244–1249.
Arase K, Fisler JS, Shargill NS, York DA & Bray GA (1988) Intracerebroventricular infusions of 3-OHB and insulin in a rat model of dietary obesity. American Journal of Physiology 255, R974-R981.
Baile CA & Della-Fera MA (1984) Peptidergic control of food intake in food-producing animals. Federation Proceedings 43, 2898–2902.
Barton C, York DA & Bray GA (1995) Bombesin-induced hypothermia in rats tested at normal ambient temperatures. Contribution of the sympathetic nervous system. Brain Research Bulletin 37, 163–168.
Blundell JE, Lawton CL & Halford JCG (1995) Serotonin, eating behavior, and fat intake. Obesity Research 3, 471–476.
Boosalis MG, Gemayel N, Lee A, Bray GA, Laine L & Cohen H (1992) Cholecystokinin and the satiety: Effect of hypothalamic obesity and gastric bubble insertion. American Journal of Physiology 262, R241-R244.
Bray GA (1995) Nutrient intake is modulated by peripheral peptide administration. Obesity Research 3, Suppl. 4, 569S–572S.
Bray GA (1996a) Leptin and leptomania. Lancet 348, 140–141.
Bray GA (1996b) What's in a name: The glucostatic or glucodynamic hypothesis for regulation of food intake. Obesity Research 4, 489–492.
Bray GA & York DA (1971) Genetically transmitted obesity in rodents. Physiological Reviews 51, 598–646.
Bray GA & York DA (1972) Studies on food intake of genetically obese rats. American Journal of Physiology 223, 176–179.
Bray GA & York DA (1979) Hypothalamic and genetic obesity in experimental animals: an autonomic and endocrine hypothesis. Physiological Reviews 59, 719–809.
Brief DJ & Davis JD (1984) Reduction of food intake and body weight by chronic intraventricular insulin infusion. Brain Research Bulletin 12, 571–575.
Campfield LA, Smith FJ, Guisez Y, Devoa R & Burn P (1995a) Recombinant mouse OB protein: evidence for a peripheral signal linking adiposity and central neural networks. Science 269, 546–549.
Campfield LA, Smith FJ, Mackie G, Tenenbaum R, Sassano ML, Mullin J, Kaiser K & Kierstead RW (1995b) Insulin normalization as an approach to the pharmacological treatment of obesity. Obesity Research 3, S591–S603.
Campfield LA, Smith FJ, Rosenbaum M & Hirsch J (1996) Human eating: evidence for a physiological basis using a modified paradigm. Neuroscience and Biobehavior Reviews 20, 133–137.
Cangiano C, Ceci F, Cascino A, Del Ben M, Laviano A, Muscaritoli M, Antonucci F & Rossi-Fanelli F (1992) Eating behavior and adherence to dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects treated with 5-hydroxytryptophan. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, 863–867.
Castillo MJ, Scheen AJ & Lefebvre PJ (1995) Amylin/islet amyloid polypeptide: biochemistry, physiology, path-physiology. Diabetes and Metabolism 21, 3–25.
Chance WT, Balasubramaniam A, Stallion A & Fischer JE (1993) Anorexia following the systemic injection of amylin. Brain Research 607, 185–188.
Chance WT, Balasubramaniam A, Zhang FS, Wimalawansa SJ & Fischer JE (1991) Anorexia following the intrahypothalamic administration of amylin. Brain Research 539, 352–354.
Clement K, Vaisse C & Lahlou N (1998) A mutation in the human leptin receptor gene causes obesity and pituitary dysfunction. Nature 392, 398–401.
Cokelaere MM, Busselen P, Flo G, Daenens P, Decuypere E, Kuhn E & Van Boven M (1995) Devazepide reverse the anorexic effect of simmondsin in the rat. Journal of Endocrinology 147, 473–477.
Cokelaere MM, Dangreau HD, Arnouts S, Kuhn ER & Decuypere EMP (1992) Influence of pure simmondsin on food intake in rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40, 1839–1842.
Corwin RL, Gibbs J & Smith GP (1991) Increased food intake after type A but not type B cholecystokinin receptor blockade. Physiology and Behavior 50, 255–258.
Crawley JN & Corwin RL (1994) Biological actions of cholecystokinin. Peptides 15, 731–755.
Diabetes Care and Complications Trial (1993) The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 329, 977–986.
Erlanson-Albertsson C, Mei J, Okada S, York DA & Bray GA (1991) Pancreatic procolipase propeptide, enterostatin, specifically inhibits fat intake. Physiology and Behavior 49, 1191–1194.
Erlanson-Albertsson C & York D (1997) Enterostatin – A peptide regulating fat intake. Obesity Research 5, 360–372.
Esler MD, Turner AG, Kaye DM, Thompson JM, Kingwell BA, Morris M, Lambert GW, Jennings GL, Cox HS & Seals DR (1995) Aging effects on human sympathetic neuronal function. American Journal of Physiology 269, R278–R282.
Farooqi IS, Jebb SA, Langmark G, Lawrence E, Cheetham CH, Prentice AM, Hughes IA, McCarnish MA & O'Rahilly S (1999) Effects of recombinant leptin therapy in a child with congenital leptin deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine 341, 879–884.
Fisler JS, Shimizu H & Bray GA (1989) Brain 3-hydroxybutyrate, and GABA in a rat model of dietary obesity. Physiology and Behavior 45, 571–577.
Flier JS (1998) Clinical review 94: What's in a name? In search of leptin's physiologic role. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83, 1407–1413.
Flint A, Raben A, Astrup A & Holst JJ (1998) Glucagon-like peptide 1 promotes satiety and suppresses energy intake in humans. Journal of Clinical Investigation 101, 515–520.
Friedman MI (1995) Control of energy intake by energy metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 1096S–1100S.
Fujimoto K, Machidori H, Iwakiri R, Yamamoto K, Fujisaki J & Tso P (1993) Effect of intravenous administration of apolipoprotein A-IV on patterns of feeding, drinking and ambulatory activity of rats. Brain Research 608, 233–237.
Fujimoto K, Sakata T, Shiraishi T, Kurata K, Terada K & Etou H (1986) Anorexia induced in rat by D-glucosamine deoxidized at C-1. American Journal of Physiology 251, R481-R491.
Fukuda A, Oomura Y, Plata-Salaman CR, Minami T & Ito C (1988) A novel endogenous sugar acid depolarizes ventromedial hypothalamic neurons in vitro. American Journal of Physiology 255, R134-R140.
Geary N (1990) Pancreatic glucagon signals postprandial satiety. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 14, 323–338.
Geary N, Kissilef HR, Pi-Sunyer FX & Hinton V (1992) Individual, but not simultaneous, glucagon and cholecystokinin infusions inhibit feeding in men. American Journal of Physiology 262, R975-R980.
Geary N & Smith G (1983) Selective hepatic vagotomy blocks pancreatic glucagon's satiety effect. Physiology and Behavior 31, 391–394.
Gerardo-Gettens T, Moore BJ, Stern JS & Horwitz BA (1989) Prolactin stimulates food intake in the absence of ovarian progesterone. American Journal of Physiology 256, R701–R706.
Gibbs J, Fauser D, Rowe E, Rolls B, Rolls E & Madison S (1979) Bombesin suppresses feeding in rats. Nature 282, 208–210.
Gibbs J & Smith GP (1998) Peptides of digestive system and brain. Model of the cholecystokinin system. Annals of Endocrinology 49, 113–120.
Gibbs J, Young RC & Smith GP (1973) Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in rats. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology 84, 488–495.
Gilbertson TA, Liu L, York DA & Bray GA (1998) Dietary fat preferences are inversely correlated with peripheral gustatory fatty acid sensitivity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 855, 165–168.
Glick Z (1981) Modes of action of gallic acid in suppressing food intake of rats. Journal of Nutrition 111, 1910–1916.
Glick Z, Oku J & Bray GA (1982) Effects of polyphenols on food intake and body weight of lean and obese rats. Nutrition and Behavior 1, 75–78.
Gloaguen I, Costa P, Demartis A, Lazzaro D, Di Marco A, Graziani R, Paonessa G, Chen F, Rosenblum CI, Van der Ploeg LH, Cortese R, Ciliberto G & Laufer R (1997) Ciliary neurotrophic factor corrects obesity and diabetes associated with leptin deficiency and resistance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94, 6456–6461.
Greenberg D, McCaffery J, Potack JZ, Bray GA & York DA (1999) Differential satiating effects of fats in the small intestine of obesity-resistant and obesity-prone rats. Physiology and Behavior 66, 621–626.
Grujic D, Susulic VS, Harper ME, Himms-Hagen J, Cunningham BA, Corkey BE & Lowell BB (1997) β3-adrenergic receptors on white and brown adipocytes mediate β3-selective agonist-induced effects on energy expenditure, insulin secretion, and food intake. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272, 17686–17693.
Gutzwiller JP, Drewe J, Hildebrand P, Lauper JZ & Beglinger C (1994) Effect of intravenous human gastrin-releasing peptide on food intake in humans. Gastroenterology 106, 1168–1173.
Halaas JL, Gajiwala KS, Maffei M, Cohen SL, Chait BT, Rabinowitz D, Lallone RL, Burley SK & Friedman JM (1995) Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene. Science 269, 543–546.
Hamamura M, Leng G, Emson PC & Kiyama H (1991) Electrical activation and c-fos mRNA expression in rat neurosecretory neurons after systemic administration of cholecystokinin. Journal of Physiology 444, 51–56.
Henke BR, Willson TM, Sugg EE, Croom DK, Dougherty RW, Queen KL, Birkemo LS, Ervin GN, Grizzle MK & Johnson MF (1996) 3-(1 H-indazol-3-ylmethyl)-1, 5-benzodiazepines: CCK-A agonists that demonstrate oral activity as satiety agents. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 39, 2655–2658.
Herzig KH, Schon I, Tatemoto K, Ohe Y, Li Y, Folsch UR & Owyang C (1996) Diazepam binding inhibitor is a potent cholecystokinin-releasing peptide in the intestine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93, 7927–7932.
Heymsfield SB, Greenberg AS, Fujioka K, Dixon RM, Kushner R, Hunt T, Lubina JA, Patane J, Self B, Hunt P & McCamish M (1999) Recombinant leptin for weight loss in obese and lean adults: a randomized, controlled, dose-escalation trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 282, 1568–1575.
Hoppener JW, Verbeek JS, de Koning EJ, Oosterwijk C, van Hulst KL, Visser-Vernooy HJ, Hofhuis FM, van Gaalen S, Berends MJ & Hackeng WH (1993) Chronic overproduction of islet amyloid polypeptide/amylin in transgenic mice: lysosomal localization of human islet amyloid polypeptide and lack of marked hyperglycemia or hyperinsulinemia. Diabetologia 36, 1258–1265.
Horn CC & Friedman MI (1998) Methylpalmoxirate increases eating behavior and brain fos-like immunoreactivity in rats. Brain Research 781, 8–14.
Inoue S, Nagase H, Satoh S, Saito M, Egawa M, Tanaka K & Takamura Y (1991) Role of the efferent and afferent vagus nerve in the development of ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) obesity. Brain Research Bulletin 27, 511–515.
Johnson MF, Birkemo LS & Ervin GN (1994) Chronic administration of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) and the cholecystokinin tetrapeptide analogue A71623 decrease the food intake and body weight of restricted-feeder rats. Appetite 23, 309–310.
Kirkham TC, Gibbs J, Smith GP & Geary N (1995a) Meal pattern analysis in rats reveals partial agonist activity of the bombesin receptor antagonist BW2258U89. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 52, 101–106.
Kirkham TC, Perez S & Gibbs J (1995b) Prefeeding potentiates anorectic actions of neuromedin B and gastrin releasing peptide. Physiology and Behavior 58, 1175–1179.
Kissileff HR, Pi-Sunyer FX, Thornton J & Smith GP (1981) C terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin decreases food intake in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 154–160.
Klebig M, Willeinson JE & Woychik RP (1994) Molecular analysis of the mouse agouti gene and the role of dominant agouti-locus mutations in obesity and insulin resistance. In Pennington Center Nutrition Series, Vol. 5, Molecular and Genetic Aspects of Obesity, pp. 120–158 [Bray GA and Ryan DH, editors] Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.
Ladenheim EE, Moore KA, Salorio CF, Mantey SA, Taylor JE, Coy DH, Jensen RT & Moran TH (1997a) Characterization of bombesin binding sites in the rat stomach. European Journal of Pharmacology 319, 245–251.
Ladenheim EE, Taylor JE, Coy DH, Carrigan TS, Wohn A & Moran TH (1997b) Caudal hindbrain neuromedin B-preferring receptors participate in the control of food intake. American Journal of Physiology 272, R433-R437.
Ladenheim EE, Taylor JE, Coy DH, Moore KA & Moran TH (1996a) Hindbrain GRP receptor blockade antagonizes feeding suppression by peripherally administered GRP. American Journal of Physiology 271, R180-R184.
Ladenheim EE, Wirth KE & Moran TH (1996b) Receptor subtype mediation of feeding suppression by bombesin-like peptides. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 54, 705–711.
Langhans W (1996) Role of the liver in the metabolic control of eating: What we know and what we do not know. Neuroscience Bulletin 20, 145–153.
Langhans W, Delprete E & Scharrer E (1991) Mechanisms of vasopressin's anorectic effect. Physiology and Behavior 49, 169–176.
Langhans W, Egli G & Scharrer E (1985) Selective hepatic vagotomy eliminates the hypophagic effect of different metabolites. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System 13, 255–262.
Lee MC, Schiffman SS & Pappas TN (1994) Role of neuropeptides in the regulation of feeding behavior: a review of cholecystokinin, bombesin, neuropeptide Y, and galanin. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 18, 313–323.
Leibowitz SF & Hoebel BG (1998) Behavioral neuroscience of obesity. In Handbook of Obesity, pp. 313–358 [Bray GA, Bouchard C and James WPT, editors]. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.
Levine AS & Morley JE (1981) Reduction of feeding in rats by calcitonin. Brain Research 222, 187–191.
Liddle RA (1995) Regulation of cholecystokinin secretion by intraluminal releasing factors. American Journal of Physiology 269, G319-G327.
Lieverse RJ, Jansen JB, Masclee AA & Lamers CB (1995a) Satiety effects of a physiological dose of cholecystokinin in humans. Gut 36, 176–179.
Lieverse RJ, Jansen JB, Masclee AM & Lamers CB (1995b) Effects of somatostatin on human satiety. Neuroendocrinology 61, 112–116.
Lieverse RJ, Jansen JBMJ, de Zwan A, Samson L, Masclee AA, Rovati LC & Lamers CB (1993) Bombesin reduces food intake in lean man by a cholecystokinin-independent mechanism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 76, 1495–1498.
Lieverse RJ, Masclee AA, Jansen JB, Lam WF & Lambers CB (1998) Obese women are less sensitive for the satiety effects of the bombesin than lean women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 207–212.
Lieverse RJ, Masclee AA, Jansen JB, Rovati LC & Lamers CB (1995c) Satiety effects a type A CCK receptor antagonist loxiglumide in lean and obese women. Biological Psychiatry 37, 331–335.
Lin L, Okada S, York DA & Bray GA (1994) Structural requirements for the biological activity of enterostatin. Peptides 15, 849–854.
Lin L, Umahara M, York DA & Bray GA (1998) b-casomorphins stimulate and enterostatin inhibits the intake of dietary fat in rats. Peptides 19, 325–331.
Lin L & York DA (1995) Feeding responses after microinjection of enterostatin into the PVN and amygdala. Obesity Research 3, 412S Abstr.
Lin L & York DA (1998) Chronic ingestion of dietary fat is a prerequisite for inhibition of feeding by enterostatin. American Journal of Physiology 275, R619-R623.
Lotter EC, Krinsky R, McKay JM, Treneer CM, Porte D Jr & Woods SC (1981) Somatostatin decreases food intake of rats and baboons. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology 5, 278–287.
Louis-Sylvestre J & Le Magnen J (1980) A fall in blood glucose level precedes meal onset in free-feeding rats. Neuroscience and Behavior Reviews 4, 13–15.
Lunetta M, Di Mauro M, Le Moli R & Burafato S (1996) Long-term octreotide treatment reduced hyperinsulinemia, excess body weight and skin lesions in severe obesity with acanthosis nigricans. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 19, 699–703.
Lustig RH, Rose SR, Burghen GA, Velasquez-Mieyer P, Broome DC, Smith K, Li H, Hudson MM, Heideman RL & Kun LE (1999) Hypothalamic obesity caused by cranial insult in children: altered glucose insulin dynamics and reversal by a somatostatin agonist. Journal of Pediatrics 135, 162–168.
Lutz TA, Geary N, Szabady MM, Del Prete E & Scharrer E (1995) Amylin decreases meal size in rats. Physiology and Behavior 58, 1197–1202.
McGaowan MK, Andrews KN, Fenner D & Grossman SP (1993) Chronic introhypothalamine insulin infusion in the rat: behavioral specificity. Physiology and Behavior 54, 1031–1034.
Matsumoto I, Oomura Y, Nishino H, Nemoto S, Aou S & Aikawa T (1994) Effects of 2-buten-4-olide, an endogenous satiety substance, on plasma glucose, corticosterone, and catecholamines. American Journal of Physiology 266, R413-R418.
Mayer J (1953) Glucostatic mechanism of regulation of food intake. New England Journal of Medicine 249, 13–16.
Miyasaka K & Funakoshi A (1997) Stimulatory effect of synthetic luminal cholecystokinin releasing factor (LCRF) fragment (1–35) on pancreatic exocrine secretion in conscious rats. Pancreas 15, 310–313.
Montague CT, Farooqi S, Whitehead JP, Soos MA, Rau H, Wareham NJ, Sewter CP, Digby JE, Mohammed SN, Hurst JA, Cheetham CH, Earley AR, Barnett AH, Prins JB & O'Rahilly S (1997) Congenital leptin deficiency is associated with severe early-onset obesity in humans. Nature 387, 903–908.
Moran TH, Katz LF, Plata-Salaman CR & Schwartz GJ (1998) Disordered food intake and obesity in rats lacking cholecystokinin A receptor. American Journal of Physiology 274, R618-R625.
Moran TH, Sawyer TK, Seeb DH, Ameglio PJ, Lombard MA & McHugh PR (1992) Potent and sustained satiety actions of a cholecystokinin octapeptide analogue. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, S286–S290.
Morley JE, Flood JF, Horowitz M, Morley PM & Walter MJ (1994) Modulation of food intake by peripherally administered amylin. American Journal of Physiology 267, R178-R184.
Morley JE, Levine AS, Brown DM & Handwerger BS (1982) The effect of calcitonin on food intake in diabetic mice. Peptides 3, 17–20.
Muurahainen NE, Kissileff HR & Pi-Sunyer FX (1993) Intravenous infusion of bombesin reduces food intake in humans. American Journal of Physiology 264, R350–R354.
Nagase H, Bray GA & York DA (1996a) Pyruvate and hepatic pyruvate dehydrogenase levels in rat strains sensitive and resistant to dietary obesity. American Journal of Physiology 270, R489-495.
Nagase H, Bray GA & York DA (1996b) Effects of pyruvate and lactate on food intake in rat strains sensitive and resistant to dietary obesity. Physiology and Behavior 59, 555–560.
Nagase H, Bray GA & York DA (1996c) Effect of galanin and enterostatin on sympathetic-nerve activity to interscapular brown adipose-tissue. Brain Research Bulletin 709, 44–50.
Nauck MA, Heimesaat MM, Orskov C, Holst JJ, Ebert R & Creutzfeldt W (1993) Preserved incretion activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7–36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Investigation 91, 301–307.
Niijima A (1983) Glucose-sensitive afferent nerve fibers in the liver and their role in food intake and blood glucose regulation. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System 9, 207–220.
Ogawa Y, Masuzaki H, Sagawa N & Nakao K (1999) Leptin as an adipocyte- and nonadipocyte-derived hormone. In Pennington Center Nutrition Series Vol. 9, Nutrition, Genetics, and Obesity, pp. 147–155[Bray GA and Ryan DH, editors]. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.
Okada S, York DA, Bray GA & Erlanson-Albertsson C (1991) Enterostatin, (Val-Pro-Asp-Pro-Arg), the activation peptide of procolipase selectivity reduces fat intake. Physiology and Behavior 49, 1185–1189.
Okki-Hamazaki H, Watase K, Yamamoto K, Ogura H, Yamano M, Yamada K, Maeno H, Imaki J, Kikuyama S, Wada E & Wada K (1997) Mice lacking bombesin receptor subtype-3 develop metabolic defects and obesity. Nature 390, 165–167.
Okumura T, Fukagawa K, Tso P, Taylor IL & Pappas TN (1995) Mechanism of action of intracisternal apolipoprotein A-IV in inhibiting gastric acid secretion in rats. Gastroenterology 109, 1583–1588.
Oomura Y (1986) Feeding regulation by endogenous sugar acids through hypothalamic chemosensitive neurons. Brain Research Bulletin 17, 551–562.
Orthen-Gambill N & Kanarek RR (1982) Differential effects of amphetamine and fenfluramine on dietary self-selection in rats. Pharmacology 16, 303–309.
Pelleymounter MA, Cullen MJ, Baker MB, Hecht R, Winters D, Boone T & Collins F (1995) Effects of the obese gene-product on body-weight regulation in OB/OB mice. Science 269, 540–543.
Penick SB & Hinkle L (1961) Depression of food intake induced in healthy subjects by glucagon. New England Journal of Medicine 264, 893–898.
Pieber TR, Roitelman J, Lee Y, Luskey KL & Stein DT (1994) Direct plasma radioimmunoassay for rat amylin-(1–37): concentrations with acquired and genetic obesity. American Journal of Physiology 267, E156-E164.
Porte D Jr, Seeley RJ, Woods SC, Baskin DG, Figlewicz DP & Schwartz MW (1998) Obesity, diabetes and the central nervous system. Diabetologia 41, 863–881.
Ravussin E & Swinburn BA (1992) Pathophysiology of obesity. Lancet 340, 404–408.
Rice HB & Corwin RL (1998) Effects of enterostatin on consumption of optional foods in non-food-deprived rats. Obesity Research 6, 54–61.
Ritter S, Calingasan NY, Hutton B & Dinh TT (1992) Cooperation of vagal and central neural systems in monitoring metabolic events controlling feeding behavior in neuroanatomy and physiology of abdominal vagal afferents. In Neuroanatomy and Physiology of Abdominal Vagal Efferent, pp. 249–277 [Ritter S, Ritter RC and Barnes CD, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Ritter S & Taylor JS (1989) Capsaicin abolishes lipoprivic but not glucoprivic feeding in rats. American Journal of Physiology 256, R1232-R1239.
Ritter S & Taylor JS (1990) Vagal sensory neurons are required for lipoprivic but not glucoprivic feeding in rats. American Journal of Physiology 258, R1395-R1401.
Rossner S, Barkeling B, Erlanson-Albertsson C, Larsson P & Wahlin-Boll E (1995) Intravenous enterostatin does not affect single meal food intake in man. Appetite 34, 37–42.
Rushing PA, Gibbs J & Geary N (1996) Brief, meal-contingent infusions of gastrin-releasing peptide 1–27 and neuromedin B-10 inhibit spontaneous feeding in rats. Physiology and Behavior 60, 1501–1504.
Russek M (1963) A hypothesis on the participation of hepatic glucoreceptors in the control of food intake. Nature 197, 79–80.
Sakata T & Kurokawa M (1992) Feeding modulation by pentose and hexose analogues. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 272S–277S.
Sakata T, Terada K, Arase K, Fujimoto K, Oomura Y, Okukado N & Uchikawa O (1989) Stereospecific feeding modulation by endogenous organic acid gamma-lactone in rats. American Journal of Physiology 256, R366-R370.
Schulman JL, Carleton JL, Whitney E & Whitehorn JC (1957) Effect of glucagon on food intake and body weight in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 11, 419–421.
Schwartz MW, Boyko EJ, Kahn SE, Ravussin E & Bogardus C (1995) Reduced insulin-secretion: An independent predictor of body weight gain. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 80, 1571–1576.
Schwartz MW, Figlewicz DP, Baskin DG, Woods SC & Porte D Jr (1994) Insulin in the brain: A hormonal regulator of energy balance. Endocrine Reviews 13, 387–414.
Shargill NS, Tsujii S, Bray GA & Erlanson-Albertsson C (1991) Enterostatin suppresses food intake following injection into the third ventricle of rats. Brain Research 544, 137–140.
Shimizu H, Shargill NS, Bray GA, Yen TT & Gesellechen PD (1989) Effects of MSH on food intake, body weight and coat color of the yellow obese mouse. Life Sciences 45, 543–552.
Silverstone PH, Oldman D, Johnson B & Cowen PJ (1992) Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, partially attenuates the effects of amphetamine: a pilot study in healthy volunteers. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 7, 37–43.
Singer LK, York DA & Bray GA (1997) Feeding response to mercaptoacetate in Osborne-Mendel and S5B/PL rats. Obesity Research 5, 587–594.
Smith GP & Gibbs J (1994) Satiating effect of cholecystokinin. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 713, 236–241.
Smith GP, Jerome C & Gibbs J (1981) Abdominal vagotomy does not block the satiety effect of bombesin in the rat. Peptides 2, 409–411.
Sorhede M, Erlanson-Albertsson C, Mei J, Nevalainen T, Aho A & Sundler F (1996) Enterostatin in gut endocrine cells – immunocytochemical evidence. Peptides 17, 609–614.
Stacher G, Steinringer H, Schmierer G, Schneider C & Winklehner S (1982) Cholecystokinin octapeptide decreases intake of solid food in man. Peptides 1, 133–136.
Stein LJ & Woods SC (1983) GRP reduces meal size in rats. Peptides 3, 833–835.
Stricker EM & Rowland N (1978) Hepatic versus cerebral origin of stimulus for feeding induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose in rats. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology 92, 126–132.
Sundaresan PR, Weintraub M, Hershey LA, Kroening BH, Hasday JD & Banerjee SP (1983) Platelet alpha-adrenergic receptors in obesity: Alteration with weight loss. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 33, 776–785.
Susulic VS, Frederic RC, Lawitts J, Tozzo E, Kahn BB, Harper ME, Himms-Hagen J, Flier JS & Lowell BB (1995) Targeted disruption of the b(3) adrenergic receptor gene. Journal of Biological Chemistry 270, 9483–9492.
Terada K, Sakata T, Oomura Y, Fujimoto K, Arase K, Osanai T & Nagai Y (1986) Hypophagia induced by endogenous or liposome-encapsulated 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid. Physiology and Behavior 38, 861–869.
Thompson DA & Campbell RG (1977) Hunger in man induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose: glucoprivic control of taste preference and food intake. Science 198, 1065–1068.
Tian Q, Nagase H, York DA & Bray GA (1994) Vagal-central nervous system interactions modulate the feeding responses to peripheral enterostatin. Obesity Research 2, 527–534.
Tordoff MG, Rawson N & Friedman MI (1991) 2,5-Anhydro-D-mannitol acts in liver to initiate feeding. American Journal of Physiology 261, R283-R288.
Tsujii S & Bray GA (1992) Food intake of lean and obese Zucker rats following ventricular infusions of adrenergic agonists. Brain Research 587, 226–232.
Tsujii S & Bray GA (1998) b3 Adrenergic agonist (BRL-37344) decreases food intake. Physiology and Behavior 63, 723–728.
United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Group (1998) United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study 24: a 6-year, randomized, controlled trial comparing sulfonylurea, insulin, and metformin therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes that could not be controlled with diet therapy. Annals of Internal Medicine 128, 165–175.
VanderWeele DA, Harackiewicz E & Van Itallie TB (1982) Elevated insulin and satiety in obese and normal weight rats. Appetite 3, 99–109.
Woods SC, Lotter EC, McKay LD & Porte D (1979) Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of insulin reduces food intake and body weight of baboons. Nature 282, 503–505.
Yamashita J, Onai T, York DA & Bray GA (1994) Relationship between food intake and metabolic rate in rats treated with β-adrenergic agonists. International Journal of Obesity 18, 429–433.
Yoshimatsu H, Egawa M & Bray GA (1992) Effects of cholecystokinin on sympathetic activity to interscapular brown adipose tissue. Brain Research 597, 298–303.
Zhang Y & Leibel RL (1998) Molecular physiology of leptin and its receptor. Growth, Genetics and Hormones 14, 17–26.
Zhang Y, Proenca R, Maffei M, Barone M, Leopold L & Friedman M (1994) Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature 372, 425–432.