Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Analysis of cellular responses to free radicals: focus on exercise and skeletal muscle

  • Scott K. Powers (a1) and Shannon L. Lennon (a1)
Abstract

Muscular exercise results in an increased production of radicals and other forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent evidence suggests that radicals and other ROS are an underlying aetiology in exercise-induced disturbances in muscle redox status. These exercise-induced redox disturbances in skeletal muscle are postulated to contribute to both muscle fatigue and/or exercise-induced muscle injury. To defend against ROS, muscle cells contain complex cellular defence mechanisms to reduce the risk of oxidative injury. Two major classes (enzymic and non-enzymic) of endogenous protective mechanisms work together to reduce the harmful effects of oxidants in the cell. Primary antioxidant enzymes include superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1; SOD), GSH peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9; GPX), and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6); these enzymes are responsible for removing superoxide radicals, H2O2 and organic hydroperoxides, and H2O2 respectively. Important non-enzymic antioxidants include vitamins E and C, β-carotene, GSH and ubiquinones. Vitamin E, β-carotene and ubiquinone are located in lipid regions of the cell, whereas GSH and vitamin C are in aqueous compartments of the cell. Regular endurance training promotes an increase in both total SOD and GPX activity in actively-recruited skeletal muscles. High-intensity exercise training has been shown to be generally superior to low-intensity exercise in the upregulation of muscle SOD and GPX activities. Also, training-induced upregulation of antioxidant enzymes is limited to highly-oxidative skeletal muscles. The effects of endurance training on non-enzymic antioxidants remain a relatively uninvestigated area.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Analysis of cellular responses to free radicals: focus on exercise and skeletal muscle
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Analysis of cellular responses to free radicals: focus on exercise and skeletal muscle
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Analysis of cellular responses to free radicals: focus on exercise and skeletal muscle
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding Author: Professor Scott K. Powers, fax +1 352 392 0316, email spowers@hhp.ufl.edu
References
Hide All
Aberg F, Appelkvist EL, Dallner G & Ernster L (1992) Distribution and redox state of ubiquinones in rat and human tissues. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 295, 230234.
Alessio H & Goldfarb A (1988) Lipid peroxidation and scavenger enzymes during exercise: adaptive response to training. Journal of Applied Physiology 64, 13331336.
Armstrong R & Phelps R (1984) Muscle fiber type composition of the rat hindlimb. American Journal of Anatomy 171, 259272.
Barclay JK & Hansel M (1991) Free radicals may contribute to oxidative skeletal muscle fatigue. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 69, 279284.
Beyer RE, Morales-Corral P, Ramp B, Kreitman KR, Falzon MJ, Rhee SY, Kuhn TW, Stein M, Rosenwasser MJ & Cartwright KJ (1984) Elevation of tissue coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) and cytochrome C concentrations by endurance exercise in the rat. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 234, 323329.
Borzone G, Zhao B, Merola AJ, Berliner L & Clanton TL (1994) Detection of free radicals by electron spin resonance in rat diaphragm after resistive loading. Journal of Applied Physiology 77, 812818.
Bowles DK, Torgan CE, Ebner S, Kehrer JP, Ivy JL & Staines JW (1991) Effects of acute, submaximal exercise on skeletal muscle vitamin E. Free Radical Research Communications 14, 139143.
Burton GW & Ingold KU (1989) Vitamin E as an in vitro and in vivo antioxidant. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 570, 722.
Burton GW & Traber MG (1990) Vitamin E: antioxidant activity, biokinetics, and bioavailability. Annual Review of Nutrition 10, 357382.
Criswell D, Powers S, Dodd S, Lawler J, Edwards W, Renshler K & Grinton S (1993) High intensity training-induced changes in skeletal muscle antioxidant activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25, 11351140.
Davies KJ, Quintanilha AT, Brooks GA & Packer L (1982) Free radicals and tissue damage produced by exercise. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 107, 11981205.
Gohil K, Packer L, deLumen B, Brooks GA & Terblanche SE (1986) Vitamin E deficiency and vitamin C supplements: exercise and mitochondrial oxidation. Journal of Applied Physiology 60, 19861991.
Gohil K, Rothfuss L, Lang J & Packer L (1987) Effect of exercise training on tissue vitamin E and ubiquinone content. Journal of Applied Physiology 63, 16381641.
Grisham M & McCord J (1986) Physiology of Oxygen Radicals.Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
Halliwell B & Gutteridge JM (editors) (1989) Iron toxicity and oxygen radicals. In Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, 2nd ed., pp. 86123.Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hammeren J, Powers S, Lawler J, Criswell D, Martin D, Lowenthal D & Pollock M (1992) Exercise training-induced alterations in skeletal muscle oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activity in senescent rats. International Journal of Sports Medicine 13, 412416.
Hellsten Y, Apple F & Sjodin B (1996) Effect of sprint cycle training on activities of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology 81, 14841487.
Higuchi M, Cartier LJ, Chen M & Holloszy JO (1985) Superoxide dismutase and catalase in skeletal muscle: adaptive response to exercise. Journal of Gerontology 40, 281286.
Jackson M (1998) Free radical mechanisms in exercise-related muscle damage. In Oxidative Stress in Skeletal Muscle, pp. 7586 [Reznick AZ, Packer L, Sen CK, Holloszy JO and Jackson MJ, editors]. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag.
Jackson MJ, Edwards RH & Symons MC (1985) Electron spin resonance studies of intact mammalian skeletal muscle. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 847, 185190.
Janero DR (1991) Therapeutic potential of vitamin E against myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 10, 315324.
Jenkins R (1983) The role of superoxide dismutase and catalase in muscle fatigue. In Biochemistry of Exercise, Vol.13, pp. 467471 [Knuttgen H, editor]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.
Ji LL (1995a) Exercise and oxidative stress: role of the cellular antioxidant systems. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews 23, 135166.
Ji LL (1995b) Oxidative stress during exercise: implication of antioxidant nutrients. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 18, 10791086.
Ji LL, Fu R & Mitchell E (1992) Glutathione and antioxidant enzymes in skeletal muscle: effects of fiber type and exercise intensity. Journal of Applied Physiology 73, 18541859.
Ji LL, Stratman F & Lardy H (1988) Antioxidant enzyme systems in rat liver and skeletal muscle. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 263, 150160.
Kagan VE, Bakalova RA, Serbinova EE & Stoytchev TS (1990) Fluorescence measurements of incorporation and hydrolysis of tocopherol and tocopheryl esters in biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology 186, 355367.
Kagan VE, Shvedova A, Serbinova E, Khan S, Swanson C, Powell R & Packer L (1992) Dihydrolipoic acid-a universal antioxidant both in the membrane and in the aqueous phase. Reduction of peroxyl, ascorbyl and chromanoxyl radicals. Biochemistry and Pharmacology 44, 16371649.
Karlsson J, Lin L & Sylven C (1996) Muscle ubiquinone in healthy physically active males. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 156, 169172.
Krinsky NI & Deneke SM (1982) Interaction of oxygen and oxy-radicals with carotenoids. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 69, 205210.
Laughlin MH, Simpson T, Sexton WL, Brown OR, Smith JK & Korthuis KJ (1990) Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, antioxidant enzymes, and exercise training. Journal of Applied Physiology 68, 337343.
Lawler J, Powers S & Criswell D (1993) Inducibility of NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase with endurance training in skeletal muscle. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 149, 177181.
Leeuwenburg C, Fiebig R, Chandwaney R & Ji LL (1994) Aging and exercise training in skeletal muscle: responses of glutathione and antioxidant enzyme systems. American Journal of Physiology 267, R439R445.
Leeuwenburgh C, Hollander J, Fiebig R, Leichtweis S, Griffith M & Li JJ (1997) Adaptations of glutathione antioxidant system to endurance training are tissue and muscle fiber specific. American Journal of Physiology 272, R363R369.
Marin E, Kretzschmar M, Arokoski J, Hanninen O & Klinger W (1993) Enzymes of glutathione synthesis in dog skeletal muscles and their response to training. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 47, 369373.
Meister A & Anderson ME (1983) Glutathione. Annual Reviews of Biochemistry 52, 711760.
Mellors A & Tappel AL (1966) The inhibition of mitochondrial peroxidation by ubiquinone and ubiquinol. Journal of Biological Chemistry 241, 43534356.
Meydani M, Evans W, Handelman G, Biddle L, Fielding RA, Meydani SN, Burrill J, Fiatarone MA, Blumberg JB & Cannon JG (1993) Protective effect of vitamin E on exercise-induced oxidative damage in young and older adults. American Journal of Physiology 264, R992R998.
Nashawati E, Dimarco A & Supinski G (1993) Effects produced by infusion of a free radical-generating solution into the diaphragm. American Review of Respiratory Disease 147, 6065.
Novelli GP, Bracciotti G & Falsini S (1990) Spin-trappers and vitamin E prolong endurance to muscle fatigue in mice. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 8, 913.
Oberly L, St Clair D, Autor A & Oberly T (1987) Increase in manganese superoxide dismutase activity in the mouse heart after X-irradiation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 254, 6980.
Oh-ishi S, Kizaki T, Nagasawa J, Izawa T, Komabayashi T, Nagata N, Suzuki K, Taniguchi N & Ohno H (1997a) Effects of endurance training on superoxide dismutase activity, content and mRNA expression in rat muscle. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 5, 326332.
Oh-ishi S, Kizaki T, Ookawara T, Sakurai T, Izawa T, Nagata N & Ohno H (1997b) Endurance training improves the resistance of rat diaphragm to exercise-induced oxidative stress. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 156, 15791585.
Ohno H, Suzuki K, Ffujii J, Yamashita H, Kizaki T, Oh-ishi S & Taniguchi N (1994) Exercise and Oxygen Toxicity. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishers.
O'Neill CA, Stebbins CL, Bonigut S, Halliwell B & Longhurst JC (1996) Production of hydroxyl radicals in contracting skeletal muscle of cats. Journal of Applied Physiology 81, 11971206.
Oyanuagui Y (1984) Reevaluation of assay methods and establishment of kit for superoxide dismutase activity. Analytical Biochemistry 142, 290296.
Packer L (1991) Protective role of vitamin E in biological systems. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 1050S1055S.
Packer L (1994) Antioxidant properties of lipoic acid and its therapeutic effects in prevention of diabetes complications and cataracts. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 738, 257264.
Packer L, Almada A & Rothfuss L (1989) Modulation of tissue vitamin E levels by physical exercise. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 570, 311321.
Packer JE, Slater TF & Willson RL (1979) Direct observation of a free radical interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C. Nature 278, 737738.
Pette D & Dusterhoft S (1992) Altered gene expression in fast-twitch induced by chronic low-frequency stimulation. American Journal of Physiology 262, R333R338.
Powers S, Criswell D, Lawler J, Ji L, Martin D, Herb R & Dudley G (1994a) Influence of exercise and fiber type on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology 266, R375R380.
Powers S, Criswell D, Lawler J, Martin D, Ji L, Herb R & Dudley G (1994b) Regional training-induced alterations in diaphragmatic oxidative and antioxidant enzymes. Respiration Physiology 95, 227237.
Powers S, Ji C & Leeuwenburgh C (1999) Exercise training-induced alterations in skeletal muscle antioxidant capacity: a brief review. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise(In the Press).
Powers S, Lawler J, Criswell D, Lieu F-K & Martin D (1992) Aging and respiratory muscle metabolic plasticity: effects of endurance training. Journal of Applied Physiology 72, 10681073.
Powers S & Sen C (1999) Physiological antioxidants and exercise training. In Exercise and Oxygen Toxicity [Sen C and Packer L, editors]. Amsterdam: Elsevier (In the Press).
Reid M, Haack K, Franchek K, Valberg PA, Kobzik L & West MS (1992a) Reactive oxygen in skeletal muscle: I. Intracellular oxidant kinetics and fatigue in vitro. Journal of Applied Physiology 73, 17971804.
Reid M, Shoji T, Moody M & Entman ML (1992b) Reactive oxygen in skeletal muscle. II. Extracellular release of free radicals. Journal of Applied Physiology 73, 18051809.
Reid MB, Stokic DS, Koch SM, Khawli FA & Leis AA (1994) N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue in humans. Journal of Clinical Investigation 94, 24682474.
Salminen A & Vihko V (1983) Endurance training reduces the susceptibility of mouse skeletal muscle to lipid peroxidation in vitro. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 117, 109113.
Sen CK, Marin E, Kretzschmar M & Hanninen O (1992) Skeletal muscle and liver glutathione homeostasis in response to training, exercise, and immobilization. Journal of Applied Physiology 73, 12651272.
Shindoh C, Dimarco A, Thomas A, Manubay P & Supinski G (1990) Effect of N-acetylcysteine on diaphragm fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology 68, 21072113.
Starnes J, Cantu G, Farrar R & Kehrer JP (1989) Skeletal muscle lipid peroxidation in exercised and food-restricted rats during aging. Journal of Applied Physiology 67, 6975.
Tiidus P & Houston M (1993) Vitamin E status does not affect the responses to exercise training and acute exercise in female rats. Journal of Nutrition 123, 834840.
Vandenburgh H (1992) Mechanical forces and their second messengers in stimulating cell growth in vitro. American Journal of Physiology 262, R350R355.
Venditti P & Di Meo S (1996) Antioxidants, tissue damage, and endurance in trained and untrained young male rats. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 331, 6368.
Venditti P & Di Meo S (1997) Effect of training on antioxidant capacity, tissue damage, and endurance of adult male rats. International Journal of Sports Medicine 18, 497502.
Vina J, Sastre J, Asensi M & Packer L (1995) Assay of blood glutathione oxidation during physical exercise. Methods in Enzymology 251, 237243.
Vincent H, Powers S, Demirel H, Coombes J & Naito H (1999) Exercise training protects against contraction-induced lipid peroxidation in the diaphragm. European Journal of Applied Physiology 79, 268273.
Yu B (1994) Cellular defenses against damage from reactive oxygen species. Physiological Reviews 74, 139162.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 162 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 183 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.