Anderson, L, Seilhamer, J (1997) A comparison of selected mRNA and protein abundances in human liver. Electrophoresis 18, 533–537.
Andoh, A, Shimada, M, Araki, Y, Fujiyama, Y, Bamba, T (2002) Sodium butyrate enhances complement-mediated cell injury via down-regulation of decay-accelerating factor expression in colonic cancer cells. Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 50, 663–672.
Armstrong, F, Mathers, JC (2000) Kill and cure: dietary augmentation of immune defences against colon cancer. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 59, 215–220.
Ballestar, E, Esteller, M (2002) The impact of chromatin in human cancer: linking DNA methylation to gene silencing. Carcinogenesis 23, 1103–1109.
Bingham, SA (1990) Mechanisms and experimental and epidemiological evidence relating dietary fibre (non-starch polysaccharides) and starch to protection against large bowel cancer. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 49, 153–171.
Blackstock, WP, Weir, MP (1999) Proteomics: quantitative and physical mapping of cellular proteins. Trends in Biotechnology 17, 121–127.
Blagosklonny, MV, Wu, GS, Omura, S, el-Deiry, WS (1996) Proteasome-dependent regulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 expression. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 227, 564–569.
Bonnotte, B, Favre, N, Reveneau, S, Micheau, O, Droin, N, Garrido, C, Fontana, A, Chauffert, B, Solary, E, Martin, F (1998) Cancer cell sensitization to Fas-mediated apoptosis by sodium butyrate. Cell Death and Differentiation 5, 480–487.
Browne, SJ, Macfarlane, M, Cohen, GM, Paraskeva, C (1998) The adenomatous polyposis coli protein and retinoblastoma proteins are cleaved early in apoptosis and are potential substrates for caspases. Cell Death and Differentiation 5, 206–213.
Browne, SJ, Williams, AC, Hague, A, Butt, AJ, Paraskeva, C (1994) Loss of APC protein expressed by human colonic epithelial cells and the appearance of a specific low-molecular-weight form is associated with apoptosis in vitro. International Journal of Cancer 59, 56–64.
Butt, AJ, Hague, A, Paraskeva, C (1997) Butyrate- but not TGFβ 1 - induced apoptosis of colorectal adenoma cells is associated with increased expression of the differentiation markers E-cadherin and alkaline phosphatase. Cell Death and Differentiation 4, 725–734.
Chai, F, Evdokiou, A, Young, GP, Zalewski, PD (2000) Involvement of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and its cleavage by DEVD-caspase during apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells induced by butyrate. Carcinogenesis 21, 7–14.
Clarke, KO, Feinman, R, Harrison, LE (2001) Tributyrin, an oral butyrate analogue, induces apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Cancer Letters 171, 57–65.
Cummings, JH, Pomare, EW, Branch, WJ, Naylor, CP, Macfarlane, GT (1987) Short chain fatty acids in human large intestine, portal, hepatic and venous blood. Gut 28, 1221–1227.
D'Anna, JA, Tobey, RA, Gurley, LR (1980) Concentrationdependent effects of sodium butyrate in Chinese hamster cells: cell cycle progression, inner-histone acetylation, histone H1 dephosphorylation, and induction of an H1-like protein. Biochemistry 19, 2656–2671.
D'Argenio, G, Cosenza, V, Delle, Cave, M, Iovino, P, Della, Valle, N, Lombardi, G, Mazzacca, G (1996) Butyrate enemas in experimental colitis and protection against large bowel cancer in a rat model. Gastroenterology 110, 1727–1734.
Della, Ragione, F, Criniti, V, Della, Pietra, V, Borriello, A, Oliva, A, Indaco, S, Yamamoto, T, Zappia, V (2001) Genes modulated by histone acetylation as new effectors of butyrate activity. FEBS Letters 499, 199–204.
Diakos, C, Prieschl, EE, Saemann, M, Novotny, V, Bohmig, G, Csonga, R, Baumruker, T, Zlabinger, GJ (2002) Novel mode of interference with nuclear factor of activated T-cells regulation in T-cells by the bacterial metabolite n -butyrate. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277, 24243–24251.
Duggan, DJ, Bittner, M, Chen, Y, Meltzer, P, Trent, JM (1999) Expression profiling using cDNA microarrays. Nature Genetics 21, 10–14.
Evan, G, Littlewood, T (1998) A matter of life and cell death. Science 281, 1317–1322.
Faust, D, Hormann, S, Friedrich-Sander, M, Milovic, V, Stein, J (2001) Butyrate and the cytokine-induced alpha1-proteinase inhibitor release in intestinal epithelial cells. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 31, 1060–1063.
Gamet, L, Daviaud, D, Denis-Pouxviel, C, Remesy, C, Murat, JC (1992) Effects of short-chain fatty acids on growth and differentiation on the human colon-cancer cell line HT–29. International Journal of Cancer 52, 286–289.
Giermasz, A, Makowski, M, Nowis, D, Jalili, A, Maj, M, Dabrowsks, A, Czajka, A, Jakobisiak, M, Golab, J (2002) Potentiated antitumour effects of butyrate and actinomycin D in melanoma model in mice. Oncology Reports 9, 199–203.
Hacia, JG, Collins, FS (1999) Mutational analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays. Journal of Medical Genetics 36, 730–736.
Hague, A, Manning, AM, Hanlon, KA, Huschtscha, LI, Hart, D, Paraskeva, C (1993) Sodium butyrate induces apoptosis in human colonic tumour cell lines in a p53-independent pathway: implications for the possible role of dietary fibre in the prevention of large-bowel cancer. International Journal of Cancer 55, 498–505.
Hanahan, D, Weinberg, RA (2000) The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 100, 57–70.
Heerdt, BG, Houston, MA, Augenlicht, LH (1994) Potentiation by specific short-chain fatty acids of differentiation and apoptosis in human colonic carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Research 54, 3288–3294.
Iacomino, G, Tecce, M, Grimaldi, C, Tosto, M, Russo, GL (2001) Transcriptional response of a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line to sodium butyrate. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 285, 1280–1289.
Inan, MS, Rasoulpour, RJ, Yin, L, Hubbard, AK, Rosenberg, DW, Giardina, C (2000) The luminal short-chain fatty acid butyrate modulates NF-kappaB activity in a human colonic epithelial cell line. Gastroenterology 118, 724–734.
Jones, MB, Krutzsch, H, Shu, H, Zhao, Y, Liotta, LA, Kohn, EC, Petricoin, EF (2002) Proteomic analysis and identification of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for invasive ovarian cancer. Proteomics 2, 76–84.
Jordan, NJ, Kolios, G, Abbot, SE, Sinai, MA, Thompson, DA, Petraki, K, Westwick, J (1999) Expression of functional CXCR4 chemokine receptors on human colonic epithelial cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation 104, 1061–1069.
Kiess, M, Gill, RM, Hamel, PA (1995) Expression of the positive regulator of cell cycle progression, cyclin D3, is induced during differentiation of myoblasts into quiescent myotubules. Oncogene 10, 159–166.
Kitahara, O, Furukawa, Y, Tanaka, T, Kilhara, C, Ono, K, Yanagawa, R, Nita, ME, Takagi, T, Nakamura, Y, Tsunoda, T (2001) Alterations of gene expression during colorectal carcinogenesis Short-chain fatty acids 115 revealed by cDNA microarrays after laser-capture microdissection of tumor tissues and normal epithelia. Cancer Research 61, 3544–3549.
Klose, J (1999) Large-gel 2-D electrophoresis. Methods in Molecular Biology 112, 147–172.
Kruh, J (1982) Effects of sodium butyrate, a new pharmacological agent, on cells in culture. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 42, 65–82.
Kruh, J, Defer, N, Tichonicky, L (1995) Effects of butyrate on cell proliferation and gene expression. In Physiological and Clinical Aspects of Short-chain Fatty Acids, pp.275–288 [Cummings, JH, Rombeau, JL, Sakata, T, editors] Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leder, A, Leder, P (1975) Butyric acid, a potent inducer of erythroid differentiation in cultured erythroleukemic cells. Cell 5, 319–322.
Liu, Y, Kulesz-Martin, M (2001) p53 protein at the hub of cellular DNA damage response pathways through sequence-specific and non-sequence-specific DNA binding. Carcinogenesis 22, 851–860.
Luo, J, Duggan, DJ, Chen, Y, Sauvageot, J, Ewing, CM, Bittner, ML, Trent, JM, Isaacs, WB (2001) Human prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia: molecular dissection by gene expression profiling. Cancer Research 61, 4683–4688.
Mahyar-Roemer, M, Roemer, K (2001) p21 Waf1/Cip1 can protect human colon carcinoma cells against p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis induced by natural chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. Oncogene 20, 3387–3398.
Mariadason, J, Corner, GA, Augenlicht, LH (2000) Genetic reprogramming in pathways of colonic cell maturation induced by short chain fatty acids: Comparison with trichostatin A, sulindac, and curcumin and implications for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. Cancer Research 60, 4561–4572.
Mohr, S, Leikauf, GD, Keith, G, Rihn, BH (2002) Microarrays as cancer keys: an array of possibilities. Journal of Clinical Oncology 20, 3165–3175.
Nancey, S, Bienvenu, J, Coffin, B, Andre, F, Decos, L, Flourie, B (2002) Butyrate strongly inhibits in vitro stimulated release of cytokines in blood. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 47, 921–928.
O'Farrell, PH (1975) High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry 250, 4007–4021.
Pellizzaro, C, Coradini, D, Daidone, GG (2002) Modulation of angiogenesis-related proteins synthesis by sodium butyrate in colon cancer cell line HT29. Carcinogenesis 23, 735–740.
Perrin, P, Cassagnau, E, Burg, C, Party, Y, Vavasseur, F, Harb, J, Le Pendu, J, Douillard, J-Y, Galmiche, J-P, Bornet, F, Meflah, K (1994) An interleukin 2/sodium butyrate combination as immunotherapy for rat colon cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis. Gastroenterology 107, 1397–1408.
Prasad, KN, Sinha, PK (1976) Effect of sodium butyrate on mammalian cells in culture. In Vitro 12, 125–132.
Ruemmele, FM, Dionne, S, Qureshi, I, Sarma, DSR, Levy, E, Seidman, EG (1999) Butyrate mediates Caco–2 cell apoptosis via up-regulation of pro-apoptotic BAK and inducing caspase–3 mediated cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Cell Death and Differentiation 6, 729–735.
Saemann, MD, Bohmig, GA, Osterreicher, CH, Burtscher, H, Parolini, O, Diakos, C, Stockl, J, Horl, WH, Zlabinger, GJ (2000) Antiinflammatory effects of sodium butyrate on human monocytes: potent inhibition of IL-12 and up-regulation of IL-10 production. FASEB Journal 14, 2380–2382.
Saemann, MD, Parolini, O, Bohmig, GA, Kelemen, P, Krieger, PM, Neumuller, J, Kanrr, K, Kammlaander, W, Horl, WH, Diakos, C, Stuhlmeier, K, Zlabinger, GJ (2002) Bacterial metabolite interference with maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 71, 238–246.
Sapolsky, RJ, Hsie, L, Berno, A, Ghandour, G, Mittmann, M, Fan, JB (1999) High-throughput polymorphism screening and genotyping with high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Genetic Analysis 14, 187–192.
Schwartz, B, Avivi-Green, C, Polak-Charcon, S (1998) Sodium butyrate induces retinoblastoma protein dephosphorylation, p16 expression and growth arrest of colon cancer cell. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 188, 21–30.
Siavoshian, S, Blottière, HM, Le Foll, E, Kaeffer, B, Cherbut, C, Galmiche, JP (1997) Comparison of the effect of different short chain fatty acids on the growth and differentiation of human colonic carcinoma cell lines in vitro. Cell Biology International 21, 281–287.
Siavoshian, S, Segain, J-P, Kornprobst, M, Bonnet, C, Cherbut, C, Galmiche, J-P, Blottière, HM (2000) Butyrate and trichostatin A effects on the proliferation/differentiation of human intestinal epithelial cells: induction of cyclin D3 and p21 expression. Gut 46, 507–514.
Southern, E, Mir, K, Shchepinov, M (1999) Molecular interactions on microarrays. Nature Genetics 21, 5–9.
Steinbach, G, Lynch, PM, Phillips, RK, Wallace, MH, Hawk, E, Gordon, GB, Wakabayashi, N, Saunders, B, Shen, Y, Fujimura, T, Su, LK, Levin, B (2000) The effect of celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase –2 inhibitor, in familial adenomatous polyposis. New England Journal of Medicine 342, 1946–1952.
Steinman, RA, Hoffman, B, Iro, A, Guillouf, C, Libermann, DA, el-Houseini, ME (1994) Induction of p21 (WAF–1/CIP1) during differentiation. Oncogene 9, 3389–3396.
Tan, S, Seow, TK, Liang, RC, Koh, S, Lee, C, Chung, M, Hooi, S (2002) Proteome analysis of butyrate-treated human colon cancer cells (HT29). International Journal of Cancer 98, 523–531.
Van Eyk, JE (2001) Proteomics: unraveling the complexity of heart disease and striving to change cardiology. Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics 3, 546–553.
Wasinger, VC, Cordwell, SJ, Cerpa-Poljak, A, Yan, JX, Gooley, AA, Wilkins, MR, Duncan, MW, Harris, R, Williams, KL, Humphery-Smith, I (1995) Progress with gene-product mapping of the Mollicutes: Mycoplasma genitalium. Electrophoresis 16, 1090–1094.
Webb, SJ, Nicholson, D, Bubb, VJ, Wyllie, AH (1999) Caspasemediated cleavage of APC results in an amino-terminal fragment with an intact armadillo repeat domain. FASEB Journal 13, 339–346.
Weinberg, RA (1995) The retinoblastoma protein and cell cycle control. Cell 81, 323–330.
Whitehead, RH, Young, GP, Bhathal, PS (1986) Effects of short chain fatty acids on a new human colon carcinoma cell line (LIM 1215). Gut 27, 1457–1463.
Wintersberger, E, Mudrak, I, Wintersberger, U (1983) Butyrate inhibits mouse fibroblasts at a control point in the G1 phase. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 21, 239–247.
World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute of Cancer Research (1997) Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington, DC: World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute of Cancer Research.