Alaimo K, Briefel RR, Frongillo EA & Olson CM (1998) Food insufficiency exists in the United States: Results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANESIII). American Journal of Public Health 88, 419–426.
Ames BN, Shigenaga MK & Hagen TM (1993) Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90, 7915–7922.
Attar EL (1992) Effect of vitamin C and vitamin E on prostaglandin synthesis by fibroblasts and squamous carcinoma cells. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 47, 253–257.
Azzi A, Boscoboinik D, Marilley D, Ozer NK, Stable B & Tasinato A (1995) Vitamin E: A sensor and an information transducer of the cell oxidation state. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, Suppl., 1337S–1346S.
Bezlepkin VG, Siroat NP & Gaziev AI (1996) The prolongation of survival in mice by dietary antioxidants depends on their age by the start of feeding this diet. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 92, 227–234.
Blot W, Li J-Y, Taylor PR, Guo W, Dawsey S, Wang G-Q, Yang CS, Zheng S-F, Sun Y-H, Liu F, Fraumeni JF, Zhang Y-H & Li B (1993) Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: Supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence and disease-specific mortality in the general population. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 1483–1492.
Boaz M, Smetana S, Weinstein T, Matas Z, Gafter U, Laina A, Knecht A, Weissgarten Y, Brunner D, Fainaru M & Green MS (2000) Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebocontrolled trial. Lancet 356, 1213–1218.
Bruce-Keller AJ, Umberger G, McFall R & Mattson MP (1999) Food restriction reduces brain damage and improves behavioral outcome following excitotoxic and metabolic insults. Annals of Neurology 45, 8–15.
Burt VL & Harris T (1994) The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: contributing data on aging and health. Gerontologist 34, 486–490.
Cao Y & Cao R (1999) Angiogenesis inhibited by drinking tea. Nature 398, 381.
Comfort A (1971) Effect of ethoxyquin on the longevity of C3H mice. Nature 229, 254–255.
Cutler RG (1991) Antioxidants and aging. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 373S–379S.
Das S (1994) Vitamin E in the genesis and prevention of cancer. Ada Oncologica 33, 615–619.
Dillon G, Vita JA, Leeuwenburgh C, Olesiak M, Heinecke JW & Frei B (1998) α-Tocopherol supplementation reduces systemic markers of oxidative damage in healthy adults. Circulation 17, Suppl., 6711.
Fernandes G, Venkatraman JT, Turturro A, Attwood VG & Hart RW (1997) Effect of food restriction on life span and immune functions in long-lived Fischer-344 x Brown Norway F1 rats. Journal of Clinical Immunology 17, 85–95.
Fleshner N, Fair WR, Huryk R & Heston WD (1999) Vitamin E inhibits the high-fat diet promoted growth of established human prostate LNCaP tumors in nude mice. Journal of Urology 161, 1651–1654.
Gey KF (1993) Prospects for the prevention of free radical disease, regarding cancer and cardiovascular disease. British Medical Bulletin 49, 679–699.
GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators (1999) Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Lancet 354, 447–455.
Graham JE, Rockwood K, Beattie BL, Gauthier ERS, Tuokko H & McDowell I (1997) Prevalence and severity of cognitive impairment with and without dementia in an elderly population. Lancet 349, 1793–1796.
Green D, O'Driscoll G, Rankin JM, Maiorana AJ & Taylor RR (1998) Beneficial effect of vitamin E administration on nitric oxide function in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. Clinical Science 95, 361–367.
Han SN, Meydani M, Wu D, Bender BS, Smith DE, Vina J, Cao G, Prior RL & Meydani SN (2000) Effect of long-term dietary antioxidant supplementation on influenza virous infection. Journal of Gerontology 55A, B1–B8.
Harman D (1968) Free radical theory of aging: effect of free radical inhibitors on the mortality rate of male LFA mice. Journal of Gerontology 23, 476–482.
Harman D (1980) Free radical theory of aging: beneficial effect of antioxidants on the lifespan of male NZB mice; role of free radical reactions in the deterioration of the immune system with age and in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Age 3, 64–73.
Hendrie HC (1998) Epidemiology of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Psychiatry 6, S3–S18.
Hodis HN, Mack WJ, LaBree L, Cashin-Hemphill L, Sevanian A, Johnson R & Azen AP (1995) Serial coronary angiographic evidence that antioxidant vitamin intake reduces progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 273, 1849–1854.
Jialal I, Fuller CJ & Huet BA (1995) The effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on LDL oxidation. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 15, 190–198.
Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, Bielinski D, Martin A, McEwen JJ & Bickford PC (1999) Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberries, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. Journal of Neuroscience 19, 8114–8121.
Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, Prior RL, Cao G, Martin A, Taglialatela G & Bickford PC (1998) Long-term dietary strawberry, spinach, or vitamin E supplementation retards the onset of age-related neuronal signal-transduction and cognitive behavioral deficits. Journal of Neuroscience 18, 8047–8055.
Keaney JFJ, Gaziano MJ, XU A, Frei B, Curran-Celentano J, Shwaery GT, Loscalzo J & Vita JA (1993) Dietary antioxidants preserve endothelium-dependent vessel relaxation in cholesterolfed rabbits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90, 11880–11884.
Knekt P, Reunanen A, Jarvinen R, Seppanen R, Heliovaara M & Aromaa A (1994) Antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality in a longitudinal population study. American Journal of Epidemiology 139, 1180–1189.
Koga T & Meydani M (2001) Effect of plasma metabolites of (+)-catechin and quercetin on monocyte adhesion to human aortic endothelial cells. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73, 941–948.
Kohn RR (1971) Effect of antioxidants on life-span of C57/BL mice. Journal of Gerontology 26, 376–380.
Kok FJ, de Bruijn AM, Vermeeren R, Hofman A, VanLaar A, deBruin M, Hermus RJT & Valkenberg HA (1987) Serum selenium, vitamin antioxidants and cardiovascular mortality. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 462–468.
Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas RJ, Mink PJ, Wu Y & Bostock RM (1996) Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 1156–1162.
Losonczy KG, Harris TB & Havlik RJ (1996) Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: The Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 190–196.
Marwick C (1997) NHANES III health data relevant for aging nation. Journal of the American Medical Association 277, 100–102.
Meydani M (1995) Vitamin E. Lancet 345, 170–175.
Meydani M (1998) Nutrition, immune cells, and atherosclerosis. Nutrition Reviews 56, S177–S182.
Meydani SN, Barklund PM, Liu S, Meydani M, Miller RA, Cannon J, Morrow F, Rocklin R & Blumberg JB (1990) Vitamin E supplementation enhances cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 557–563.
Meydani SN, Meydani M, Blumberg JB, Leka LS, Siber G, Loszewski R, Thompson C, Pedrosa MC, Diamond RD & Stollar BD (1997) Vitamin E supplementation and in vivo immune response in healthy elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 277, 1380–1386.
Meydani SN, Meydani M, Verdon CP, Shapiro AC, Blumberg JB & Hayes KC (1986) Vitamin E supplementation suppresses prostaglandin E2 synthesis and enhances the immune response of aged mice. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 34, 191–201.
Mukhtar H, Katiyar SK & Agarwal R (1994) Green tea and skin - anticarcinogenic effects. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 102, 3–7.
Nakachi K, Suemasu K, Suga K, Takeo T, Imai K & Higashi Y (1998) Influence of drinking green tea on breast cancer malignancy among Japanese patients. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 89, 254–261.
National Center for Health Statistics (1994) Plan and Operation of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Vital and Health Statistics Series no. 1 (32).Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Available at http://www.cdc.gov.nchs
Neunteufl T, Kostner K, Katzenschlager R, Zehetgruber M, Maurer G & Weidinger F (1998) Additional benefit of vitamin E supplementation to simvastatin therapy on vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of hypercholesterolemic men. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 32, 711–716.
Novelli M, Masiello P, Bombara M & Bergamini E (1998) Protein glycation in the aging male Sprague-Dawley rat: effects of antiaging diet restrictions. Journal of Gerontology 53A, B94–B101.
Palumbo G, Avanzini F, Alli C, Roncaglioni M, Ronchi E, Cristofari M, Capra A, Rossi S, Nosotti L, Costantini C & Cavalera C (2000) Effects of vitamin E on clinic and ambulatory blood pressure in treated hypertensive patients. Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project (PPP) - Hypertension study. American Journal of Hypertension 13, 564–567.
Perkins A, Hendrie HC, Callahan CM, Cao S, Unverzagt FW, Xu Y, Hall K & Hui SL (1999) Association of antioxidants with memory in a multiethnic elderly sample using the Third National Health and Nutrition examination Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology 150, 37–44.
Perrig WJ, Perrig P & Stavelin HB (1997) The relation between antioxdants and memory performance in the old and very old. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 45, 718–724.
Riemersma RA, Wood DA, MacIntyre CCH, Elton RA, Gey KF & Oliver MF (1991) Risk of angina pectoris and plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C, E, and carotene. Lancet 337, 1–5.
Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA & Willett WC (1993) Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. New England Journal of Medicine 328, 1450–1456.
Salonen JT, Salonen R, Penttila I, Herranen J, Jauhiainen M, Kantola M, Lappentelainen R, Maenpaa P, Alfthan G & Puska P (1985) Serum fatty acids, apolipoproteins, selenium and vitamin antioxidants and risk of death from coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology 56, 226–231.
Sano M, Ernesto MS, Thomas RG, Klauber MR, Schafer K, Grundmer M, Woodbury P, Growder J, Cotman CW, Pfeiffer E, Schneider LS & Thal LJ (1997) A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer–s disease. New England Journal of Medicine 336, 1216–1222.
Shklar G & Schwartz JL (1996) Vitamin E inhibits experimental carcinogenesis and tumour angiogenesis. European Journal of Cancer 32, 114–119.
Shukitt-Hale B, Smith DE, Meydani M & Joseph JA (1999) The effects of dietary antioxidants on psychomotor performance in aged mice. Experimental Gerontology 34, 797–808.
Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Rosner B & Willett WC (1993) Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. New England Journal of Medicine 328, 1444–1449.
Steiner M (1999) Vitamin E, a modifier of platelet function: rationale and use in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Nutrition Reviews 57, 306–309.
Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, Kelly F, Chessman K, Mitchinson MJ & Brown MJ (1996) Randomized, controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet 347, 781–786.
Tang F-Y & Meydani M (1999) Green tea polyphenols and vitamin E inhibit angiogenesis by suppressing IL-8. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 27, S149.
Tang F-Y & Meydani M (2001) Green tea catechins and vitamin E inhibit angiogenesis of human microvascular endothelial cells through suppression of IL-8 production. Nutrition and Cancer(In the Press).
Taylor A, Jahngen-Hodge J, Smith DE, Palmer VJ, Dallal GE, Lipman RD, Padhye N & Frei B (1995) Dietary restriction delays cataract and reduces ascorbate levels in Emory mice. Experimental Eye Research 61, 55–62.
The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study (1999) Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. New England Journal of Medicine 342, 154–160.
US Department of Health and Human Services (1994) Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). NCHS CDROM Series11, no. 1A, ASCII version. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Weindruch R (1992) Effect of caloric restriction on age-associated cancers. Experimental Gerontology 27, 575–581.
Weindruch R (1996) The retardation of aging by caloric restriction: studies in rodents and primates. Toxicologic Pathology 24, 742–745.
Wu D, Koga T, Martin KR & Meydani M (1999) Effect of vitamin E on human aortic endothelial cell production of chemokines and adhesion to monocytes. Atherosclerosis 147, 297–307.
Yu BP (editor) (1993) Oxidative damage by free radicals and lipid peroxidation in aging. In Free Radicals in Aging, pp. 57–88. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Yu BP (1995) Modulation of oxidative stress as a means of life prolonging action of dietary restriction. In Oxidative Stress and Aging, pp. 331–341. [Cuttler RG, Packer L, Bertram J and Mori A, editors]. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag.