Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Creating an acute energy deficit without stimulating compensatory increases in appetite: is there an optimal exercise protocol?

  • Kevin Deighton (a1) (a2) and David J. Stensel (a2)
Abstract

Recent years have witnessed significant interest from both the scientific community and the media regarding the influence of exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake responses. This review demonstrates a consensus among the majority of scientific investigations that an acute bout of land-based endurance exercise does not stimulate any compensatory increases in appetite and energy intake on the day of exercise. Alternatively, preliminary evidence suggests that low volume, supramaximal exercise may stimulate an increase in appetite perceptions during the subsequent hours. In accordance with the apparent insensitivity of energy intake to exercise in the short term, the daily energy balance response to exercise appears to be primarily determined by the energy cost of exercise. This finding supports the conclusions of recent training studies that the energy expenditure of exercise is the strongest predictor of fat loss during an exercise programme.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Creating an acute energy deficit without stimulating compensatory increases in appetite: is there an optimal exercise protocol?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Creating an acute energy deficit without stimulating compensatory increases in appetite: is there an optimal exercise protocol?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Creating an acute energy deficit without stimulating compensatory increases in appetite: is there an optimal exercise protocol?
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: K. Deighton, email K.Deighton@leedsmet.ac.uk
References
Hide All
1. Finucane, MM, Stevens, GA, Cowan, MJ et al. (2011) National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9·1 million participants. Lancet 377, 557567.
2. Bray, GA (2004) Medical consequences of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 25832589.
3. World Health Organisation (2009) Global health risks. Available at http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GlobalHealthRisks_report_full.pdf
4. Donnelly, JE, Blair, SN, Jakicic, JM et al. (2009) American college of sports medicine position stand. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41, 459471.
5. Cloud, J (2009) Why exercise won't make you thin. Time Magazine. Available at http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1914857,00.html
6. Gray, R (2009) Health warning: exercise makes you fat. The Daily Telegraph. Available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/6083234/Health-warning-exercise-makes-you-fat.html
7. Blundell, JE & King, NA (1999) Physical activity and regulation of food intake: current evidence. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31, S573S583.
8. Blundell, JE, Stubbs, RJ, Hughes, DA et al. (2003) Cross talk between physical activity and appetite control: does physical activity stimulate appetite? Proc Nutr Soc 62, 651661.
9. Martins, C, Morgan, L & Truby, H (2008) A review of the effects of exercise on appetite regulation: an obesity perspective. Int J Obes 32, 13371347.
10. Hubert, P, King, NA & Blundell, JE (1998) Uncoupling the effects of energy expenditure and energy intake: appetite response to short-term energy deficit induced by meal omission and physical activity. Appetite 31, 919.
11. King, JA, Wasse, LK, Ewens, J et al. (2011) Differential acylated ghrelin, peptide YY3-36, appetite, and food intake responses to equivalent energy deficits created by exercise and food restriction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96, 11141121.
12. Broom, DR, Stensel, DJ, Bishop, NC et al. (2007) Exercise-induced suppression of acylated ghrelin in humans. J Appl Physiol 102, 21652171.
13. Burns, SF, Broom, DR, Miyashita, M et al. (2007) A single session of treadmill running has no effect on plasma total ghrelin concentrations. J Sports Sci 25, 635642.
14. King, JA, Miyashita, M, Wasse, LK et al. (2010) Influence of prolonged treadmill running on appetite, energy intake and circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin. Appetite 54, 492498.
15. Becker, GF, Macedo, RCO, Cunha, GDS et al. (2012) Combined effects of aerobic exercise and high-carbohydrate meal on plasma acylated ghrelin and levels of hunger. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 37, 184192.
16. Cheng, MH-Y, Bushnell, D, Cannon, DT et al. (2009) Appetite regulation via exercise prior or subsequent to high-fat meal consumption. Appetite 52, 193198.
17. Evero, N, Hackett, LC, Clark, RD et al. (2012) Aerobic exercise reduces neuronal responses in food reward brain regions. J Appl Physiol 112, 16121619.
18. Laan, DJ, Leidy, HJ, Lim, E et al. (2010) Effects and reproducibility of aerobic and resistance exercise on appetite and energy intake in young, physically active adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35, 842847.
19. Martins, C, Morgan, LM, Bloom, SR et al. (2007) Effects of exercise on gut peptides, energy intake and appetite. J Endocrinol 193, 251258.
20. Thompson, DA, Wolfe, LA & Eikelboom, R (1988) Acute effects of exercise intensity on appetite in young men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 20, 222227.
21. Ueda, S, Yoshikawa, T, Katsura, Y et al. (2009) Comparable effects of moderate intensity exercise on changes in anorectic gut hormone levels and energy intake to high intensity exercise. J Endocrinol 203, 357364.
22. King, JA, Wasse, LK & Stensel, DJ (2011) The acute effects of swimming on appetite, food intake, and plasma acylated ghrelin. J Obes 351628.
23. Broom, DR, Batterham, RL, King, JA et al. (2009) Influence of resistance and aerobic exercise on hunger, circulating levels of acylated ghrelin, and peptide YY in healthy males. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296, R29R35.
24. King, JA, Wasse, LK & Stensel, DJ (2013) Acute exercise increases feeding latency in healthy normal weight young males but does not alter energy intake. Appetite 61, 4551.
25. Erdmann, J, Tahbaz, R, Lippl, F et al. (2007) Plasma ghrelin levels during exercise – effects of intensity and duration. Regul Pept 143, 127135.
26. Farah, NMF, Brunstrom, JM & Gill, JMR (2012) Using a novel computer-based approach to assess the acute effects of exercise on appetite-related measures. Appetite 58, 196204.
27. George, VA & Morganstein, A (2003) Effect of moderate intensity exercise on acute energy intake in normal and overweight females. Appetite 40, 4346.
28. Gonzalez, JT, Veasey, RC, Rumbold, PLS et al. (2013) Breakfast and exercise contingently affect postprandial metabolism and energy balance in physically active males. Br J Nutr 110, 721732.
29. Hagobian, TA, Yamashiro, M, Hinkel-Lipsker, J et al. (2013) Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 38, 6672.
30. Kelly, PJ, Guelfi, KJ, Wallman, KE et al. (2012) Mild dehydration does not reduce postexercise appetite or energy intake. Med Sci Sports Exerc 44, 516524.
31. Larson-Meyer, DE, Palm, S, Bansal, A et al. (2012) Influence of running and walking on hormonal regulators of appetite in women. J Obes 730409.
32. Tsofliou, F, Pitsiladis, YP, Malkova, D et al. (2003) Moderate physical activity permits acute coupling between serum leptin and appetite-satiety measures in obese women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 13321339.
33. Unick, JL, Otto, AD, Goodpaster, BH et al. (2010) Acute effect of walking on energy intake in overweight/obese women. Appetite 55, 413419.
34. Ueda, S, Yoshikawa, T, Katsura, Y et al. (2009) Changes in gut hormone levels and negative energy balance during aerobic exercise in obese young males. J Endocrinol 201, 151159.
35. Jokisch, E, Coletta, A & Raynor, HA (2012) Acute energy compensation and macronutrient intake following exercise in active and inactive males who are normal weight. Appetite 58, 722729.
36. Kawano, H, Mineta, M, Asaka, M et al. (2013) Effects of different modes of exercise on appetite and appetite-regulating hormones. Appetite 66, 2633.
37. Verger, P, Lanteaume, MT & Louis-Sylvestre, J (1994) Free food choice after acute exercise in men. Appetite 22, 159164.
38. Wade, GN & Jones, JE (2004) Neuroendocrinology of nutritional infertility. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287, R1277R1296.
39. Balaguera-Cortes, L, Wallman, KE, Fairchild, TJ et al. (2011) Energy intake and appetite-related hormones following acute aerobic and resistance exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 36, 958966.
40. King, NA, Burley, VJ & Blundell, JE (1994) Exercise-induced suppression of appetite: effects on food intake and implications for energy balance. Eur J Clin Nutr 48, 715724.
41. Maraki, M, Tsofliou, F, Pitsiladis, YP et al. (2005) Acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite, energy intake and mood. Is there a time of day effect? Appetite 45, 272278.
42. Shorten, AL, Wallman, KE & Guelfi, KJ (2009) Acute effect of environmental temperature during exercise on subsequent energy intake in active men. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 12151221.
43. Almada, C, Cataldo, LR, Smalley, SV et al. (2013) Plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-18 after an acute physical exercise: relation with post-exercise energy intake in twins. J Physiol Biochem 69, 8595.
44. Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Verwegen, CR, Ijedema, MJ et al. (1997) Acute effects of exercise or sauna on appetite in obese and nonobese men. Physiol Behav 62, 13451354.
45. Finlayson, G, Bryant, E, Blundell, JE et al. (2009) Acute compensatory eating following exercise is associated with implicit hedonic wanting for food. Physiol Behav 97, 6267.
46. Kissileff, HR, Pi-Sunyer, FX, Segal, K et al. (1990) Acute effects of exercise on food intake in obese and nonobese women. Am J Clin Nutr 52, 240245.
47. Malkova, D, McLaughlin, R, Manthou, E et al. (2008) Effect of moderate-intensity exercise session on preprandial and postprandial responses of circulating ghrelin and appetite. Horm Metab Res 40, 410415.
48. King, NA, Lluch, A, Stubbs, RJ et al. (1997) High dose exercise does not increase hunger or energy intake in free living males. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 478483.
49. Wasse, LK, Sunderland, C, King, JA et al. (2012) Influence of rest and exercise at a simulated altitude of 4000 m on appetite, energy intake, and plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin and peptide YY. J Appl Physiol 112, 552559.
50. Wasse, LK, Sunderland, C, King, JA et al. (2013) The influence of vigorous running and cycling exercise on hunger perceptions and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations in lean young men. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 38, 16.
51. Borer, KT, Wuorinen, E, Chao, C et al. (2005) Exercise energy expenditure is not consciously detected due to oro-gastric, not metabolic, basis of hunger sensation. Appetite 45, 177181.
52. Borer, KT, Wuorinen, E, Ku, K et al. (2009) Appetite responds to changes in meal content, whereas ghrelin, leptin, and insulin track changes in energy availability. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 22902298.
53. King, JA, Wasse, LK, Broom, DR et al. (2010) Influence of brisk walking on appetite, energy intake, and plasma acylated ghrelin. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42, 485492.
54. Pomerleau, M, Imbeault, P, Parker, T et al. (2004) Effects of exercise intensity on food intake and appetite in women. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 12301236.
55. Hanlon, B, Larson, MJ, Bailey, BW et al. (2012) Neural response to pictures of food after exercise in normal-weight and obese women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 44, 18641870.
56. Deighton, K, Zahra, JC & Stensel, DJ (2012) Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state. Appetite 58, 946954.
57. Imbeault, P, Saint-Pierre, S, Alméras, N et al. (1997) Acute effects of exercise on energy intake and feeding behaviour. Br J Nutr 77, 511521.
58. Boutcher, SH (2011) High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss. J Obes 868305.
59. Heydari, M, Freund, J & Boutcher, SH (2012) The effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on body composition of overweight young males. J Obes 480467.
60. Trapp, EG, Chisholm, DJ, Freund, J et al. (2008) The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on fat loss and fasting insulin levels of young women. Int J Obes 32, 684691.
61. Tremblay, A, Simoneau, JA & Bouchard, C (1994) Impact of exercise intensity on body fatness and skeletal muscle metabolism. Metabolism 43, 814818.
62. Naish, J (2013) Is three minutes a week of exercise all you need to get fit? Scientists say ideal fitness regime involves intense bursts of activity. The Daily Mail. Available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2255867/Is-minutes-week-exercise-need-fit-Scientists-say-ideal-fitness-regime-involves-intense-bursts-activity.html
63. Bendoris, M (2012) The two-minute wonder workout. The Scottish Sun. Available at http://www.thescottishsun.co.uk/scotsol/homepage/scotlandfeatures/4159373/The-two-minute-wonder-workout.html
64. Deighton, K, Barry, R, Connon, CE et al. (2013) Appetite, gut hormone and energy intake responses to low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 113, 11471156.
65. Deighton, K, Karra, E, Batterham, RL et al. (2013) Appetite, energy intake, and PYY3-36 responses to energy-matched continuous exercise and submaximal high-intensity exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 38, 947952.
66. Barwell, ND, Malkova, D, Leggate, M et al. (2009) Individual responsiveness to exercise-induced fat loss is associated with change in resting substrate utilization. Metabolism 58, 13201328.
67. Jakicic, JM, Marcus, BH, Lang, W et al. (2008) Effect of exercise on 24-month weight loss maintenance in overweight women. Arch Intern Med 168, 15501559.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed