Skip to main content

Diet, nutrition and the ageing brain: current evidence and new directions

  • Katie Moore (a1), Catherine F. Hughes (a1), Mary Ward (a1), Leane Hoey (a1) and Helene McNulty (a1)...

Globally populations are ageing. By 2050, it is estimated that there will be two billion people aged 60 years or over, of which 131 million are projected to be affected by dementia, while depression is predicted to be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Preventing or delaying the onset of these disorders should therefore be a public health priority. There is some evidence linking certain dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet, with a reduced risk of dementia and depression. Specific dietary components have also been investigated in relation to brain health, with emerging evidence supporting protective roles for n-3 PUFA, polyphenols, vitamin D and B-vitamins. At this time, the totality of evidence is strongest in support of a role for folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and riboflavin) in slowing the progression of cognitive decline and possibly reducing the risk of depression in ageing. Future studies incorporating new technologies, such as MRI and magnetoencephalography, offer much promise in identifying effective nutrition interventions that could reduce the risk of cognitive and mental disorders. This review will explore the ageing brain and the emerging evidence linking diet and specific nutrients with cognitive function and depression in ageing, with the potential to develop strategies that could improve quality of life in our ageing population.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Diet, nutrition and the ageing brain: current evidence and new directions
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Diet, nutrition and the ageing brain: current evidence and new directions
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Diet, nutrition and the ageing brain: current evidence and new directions
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: H. McNulty, email
Hide All
1.United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division (2015) World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. New York: United Nations.
2.Prince, MJ, Wu, F, Guo, Y et al. (2015) Series: the burden of disease in older people and implications for health policy and practice. Lancet 385, 549562.
3.World Health Organisation (2016) Mental health and older adults. WHO. (accessed May 2016).
4.Gauthier, S, Reisberg, B, Zaudig, M et al. (2006) Mild cognitive impairment. Lancet 367, 12621270.
5.World Health Organisation (2015) International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) Mental and behavioural disorders. (accessed January 2017).
6.Prince, M, Comas-Herrera, A, Knapp, M et al. (2016) World Alzheimer Report 2016 Improving Healthcare for People Living with Dementia Coverage, Quality and Costs Now and in the Future. London: Alzheimer's Disease International.
7.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (2010) The Treatment and Management of Depression in Adults (Updated Edition), National Clinical Practice Guideline 90. Leicester: The British Psychological Society and The Royal College of Psychiatrists.
8.Craig, R, Mindell, J, Becker, E et al. (2007) The Health of Older People. Leeds: The Information Centre.
9.O'Shea, E & Kennelly, E (2008) The economics of mental healthcare Ireland. NUI Galway: Mental Health Commission.
10.Livingston, G, Sommerlad, A, Orgeta, V et al. (2017) The Lancet Commissions: Dementia prevention, intervention, and care [Epublication ahead of print version].
11.Panza, F, Solfrizzi, V, Capurso, C et al. (2008) Lifestyle-related factors in predementia and dementia syndromes. Expert Rev Neurother 8, 133158.
12.Rechenberg, K (2016) Nutritional interventions in clinical depression. Clin Psychol Sci 4, 144162.
13.Resnick, SM, Pham, DL, Kraut, MA et al. (2003) Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies of older adults: a shrinking brain. J Neurosci 23, 32953301.
14.Peters, R (2006) Ageing and the brain. Postgrad Med J 82, 8488.
15.Svennerholm, L, Jungbjer, B & Boström, K (1997) Changes in weight and compositions of major membrane components of human brain during the span of adult human life of Swedes. Acta Neuropathol 94, 345352.
16.Elobeid, A, Libard, S, Alafuzoff, I et al. (2016) Altered proteins in the aging brain. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 75, 316325.
17.Serrano-Pozo, A, Frosch, MP, Masliah, E et al. (2011) Neuropathological alterations in Alzheimer disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 1, a006189.
18.Bishop, NA, Lu, T & Yankner, BA (2010) Neural mechanisms of ageing and cognitive decline. Nature 464, 529535.
19.Goodall, EF, Wang, C, Simpson, JE et al. (2017) Age-associated changes in the blood-brain barrier: comparative studies in human and mouse. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol [Epublication ahead of print version].
20.Winblad, B, Jelic, V, Wahlund, LO et al. (2004) Mild cognitive impairment – beyond controversies, towards a consensus: report of the international working group on mild cognitive impairment. J Intern Med 256, 240246.
21.Prince, M, Knapp, M, Guerchet, M et al. (2014) Dementia UK: Second Edition – Overview. London: Alzheimer's Society.
22.Luppa, M, Sikorski, C, Luck, T et al. (2012) Age- and gender-specific prevalence of depression in latest-life – systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 136, 212221.
23.Polyakova, M, Sonnabend, N, Sander, C et al. (2014) Prevalence of minor depression in elderly persons with and without mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review. J Affect Disord 152–154, 2838.
24.Büchtemann, D, Luppa, M, Bramesfeld, A et al. (2012) Incidence of late-life depression: a systematic review. J Affect Disord 142, 172179.
25.National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2017) Dementia Interventions. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (accessed June 2017).
26.Rang, H, Ritter, J, Flower, R et al. (2016) Antidepressant drugs. In Rang and Dales's Pharmacology, 8th ed., p. 570[Rang, HP, Dale, MM, Ritter, JM, Flower, RJ and Henderson, G, editors]. China: Elsevier.
27.Mann, JJ (2005) Drug therapy – the medical management of depression. N Engl J Med 353, 18191834.
28.Ilyas, S & Moncrieff, J (2012) Trends in prescriptions and costs of drugs for mental disorders in England, 1998–2010. Br J Psychiatry 200, 393398.
29.Rush, AJ, Trivedi, MH, Wisniewski, SR et al. (2006) Acute and longer-term outcomes in depressed outpatients requiring one or several treatment steps: a STAR*D report. Am J Psychiatry 163, 19051917. Jager, CA, Dye, L, de Bruin, EA et al. (2014) Criteria for validation and selection of cognitive tests for investigating the effects of foods and nutrients. Nutr Rev 72, 162179.
31.Ali, G, Ryan, G & De Silva, MJ (2016) Validated screening tools for common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: a systematic review. PLoS ONE 11, e0156939e0156939.
32.National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2017) Recognition, Assessment and Initial Management of Depression in Adults. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (accessed June 2017).
33.National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2017) Dementia Diagnosis and Assessment. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (accessed June 2017).
34.Macready, AL, Butler, LT, Kennedy, OB et al. (2010) Cognitive tests used in chronic adult human randomised controlled trial micronutrient and phytochemical intervention studies. Nutr Res Rev 23, 200229. Jager, CA & Kovatcheva, A (2010) Summary and discussion: methodologies to assess long-term effects of nutrition on brain function. Nutr Rev 68, Suppl. 1, S53S58.
36.Kang, JH, Ascherio, A & Grodstein, F (2005) Fruit and vegetable consumption and cognitive decline in aging women. Ann Neurol 57, 713720.
37.Barberger-Gateau, P, Raffaitin, C, Letenneur, L et al. (2007) Dietary patterns and risk of dementia: the Three-City cohort study. Neurology 69, 19211930.
38.Wu, L & Sun, D (2017) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of developing cognitive disorders: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Sci Rep 7, 4131741317.
39.Valls-Pedret, C, Sala-Vila, A, Serra-Mir, M et al. (2015) Mediterranean diet and age-related cognitive decline: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 175, 10941103.
40.Staubo, SC, Mielke, MM, Petersen, RC et al. (2017) Mediterranean diet, micronutrients and macronutrients, and MRI measures of cortical thickness. Alzheimer Dement 13, 168177.
41.Psaltopoulou, T, Sergentanis, TN, Panagiotakos, DB et al. (2013) Mediterranean diet, stroke, cognitive impairment, and depression: a meta-analysis. Ann Neurol 74, 580591.
42.Hodge, A, Almeida, OP, English, DR et al. (2013) Patterns of dietary intake and psychological distress in older Australians: benefits not just from a Mediterranean diet. Int Psychogeriatr 25, 456466.
43.Skarupski, KA, Tangney, CC, Li, H et al. (2013) Mediterranean diet and depressive symptoms among older adults over time. J Nutr Health Aging 17, 441445.
44.Rienks, J, Dobson, AJ & Mishra, GD (2013) Mediterranean dietary pattern and prevalence and incidence of depressive symptoms in mid-aged women: results from a large community-based prospective study. Eur J Clin Nutr 67, 7582.
45.Veronese, N, Stubbs, B, Noale, M et al. (2016) Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with better quality of life: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Am J Clin Nutr 104, 14031409.
46.Goodwin, JS, Goodwin, JM & Garry, PJ (1983) Association between nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a healthy elderly population. J Am Med Assoc 249, 29172921.
47.Roberts, R, Roberts, L, Geda, Y et al. (2012) Relative intake of macronutrients impacts risk of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Alzheimer Dement 32, 329–239.
48.Koehler, KM, La Rue, A, Wayne, SJ et al. (1997) Nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a normally aging sample: a 6-y reassessment. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 2029.
49.Daly, RM, Gianoudis, J, Prosser, M et al. (2015) The effects of a protein enriched diet with lean red meat combined with a multi-modal exercise program on muscle and cognitive health and function in older adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 16, 339.
50.Ooi, CP, Loke, SC, Yassin, Z et al. (2011) Carbohydrates for improving the cognitive performance of independent-living older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4, CD007220.
51.Power, SE, O'Connor, EM, Ross, RP et al. (2015) Dietary glycaemic load associated with cognitive performance in elderly subjects. Eur J Nutr 54, 557568.
52.Mwamburi, DM, Liebson, E, Folstein, M et al. (2011) Depression and glycemic intake in the homebound elderly. J Affect Disord 132, 9498.
53.Gangwisch, J, Hale, L, Garcia, L et al. (2015) High glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: analyses from the Women's Health Initiative. Am J Clin Nutr 102, 454463.
54.Aparicio, A, Robles, F, López-Sobaler, A et al. (2013) Dietary glycaemic load and odds of depression in a group of institutionalized elderly people without antidepressant treatment. Eur J Nutr 52, 10591066.
55.Grosso, G, Galvano, F, Marventano, S et al. (2014) Omega-3 fatty acids and depression: scientific evidence and biological mechanisms. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014, 313570313570.
56.Gillette-Guyonnet, S, Secher, M & Vellas, B (2013) Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research. Br J Clin Pharmacol 75, 738755.
57.Mazereeuw, G, Lanctot, KL, Chau, SA et al. (2012) Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Neurobiol Aging 33, 1482.e171482.e29.
58.Burckhardt, M, Herke, M, Wustmann, T et al. (2016) Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4, CD009002.
59.Hallahan, B, Ryan, T, Davis, JM et al. (2016) Efficacy of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of depression. Br J Psychiatry 209, 192201.
60.Grosso, G, Pajak, A, Marventano, S et al. (2014) Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorders: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS ONE 9, e96905e96905.
61.Appleton, KM, Sallis, HM, Perry, R et al. (2015) Omega-3 fatty acids for depression in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 11, CD004692.
62.Schaffer, S, Asseburg, H, Kuntz, S et al. (2012) Effects of polyphenols on brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease: focus on mitochondria. Mol Neurobiol 46, 161178.
63.Ward, L & Pasinetti, GM (2016) Recommendations for development of botanical polyphenols as ‘natural drugs’ for promotion of resilience against stress-induced depression and cognitive impairment. Neuromol Med 18, 487495.
64.Brickman, AM, Khan, UA, Provenzano, FA et al. (2014) Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults. Nat Neurosci 17, 17981803.
65.Letenneur, L, Proust-Lima, C, Le Gouge, A et al. (2007) Flavonoid intake and cognitive decline over a 10-year period. Am J Epidemiol 165, 13641371.
66.Kesse-Guyot, E, Fezeu, L, Andreeva, VA et al. (2012) Total and specific polyphenol intakes in midlife are associated with cognitive function measured 13 years later. J Nutr 142, 7683.
67.Rabassa, M, Cherubini, A, Zamora-Ros, R et al. (2015) Low levels of a urinary biomarker of dietary polyphenol are associated with substantial cognitive decline over a 3-year period in older adults: the Invecchiare in Chianti study. J Am Geriatr Soc 63, 938946.
68.Mastroiacovo, D, Raffaele, A, Pistacchio, L et al. (2015) Cocoa flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the cocoa, cognition, and aging (CoCoA) study-A randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 101, 538548.
69.Pase, MP, Scholey, AB, Pipingas, A et al. (2013) Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Psychopharmacol 27, 451458.
70.Zhu, W, Shi, H, Wei, Y et al. (2012) Green tea polyphenols produce antidepressant-like effects in adult mice. Pharmacol Res 65, 7480.
71.Hamer, M, Bates, CJ & Mishra, GD (2011) Depression, physical function, and risk of mortality: national diet and nutrition survey in adults older than 65 years. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 19, 7278.
72.Payne, ME, Steck, SE, George, RR et al. (2012) Fruit, vegetable, and antioxidant intakes are lower in older adults with depression. J Acad Nutr Diet 112, 20222027.
73.Devore, EE, Grodstein, F, van Rooij, FJA et al. (2010) Dietary antioxidants and long-term risk of dementia. Arch Neurol 67, 819825.
74.Luchsinger, JA, Tang, M, Shea, S et al. (2003) Antioxidant vitamin intake and risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 60, 203208.
75.Tsuboi, H, Hori, R, Kobayashi, F et al. (2004) Depressive symptoms are independently correlated with lipid peroxidation in a female population: comparison with vitamins and carotenoids. J Psychosom Res 56, 5358.
76.Kim, T, Lee, H, Choi, J et al. (2015) Associations between dietary pattern and depression in Korean adolescent girls. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 28, 533537.
77.Engelhart, MJ, Geerlings, MI, Ruitenberg, A et al. (2002) Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA 287, 32233229.
78.Banikazemi, Z, Safarian, M, Mazidi, M et al. (2015) Dietary vitamin E and fat intake are related to Beck's depression score. Clin Nutr ESPEN 10, e61e65.
79.Owen, AJ, Batterham, MJ, Probst, YC et al. (2005) Low plasma vitamin E levels in major depression: diet or disease? Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 304306.
80.Farina, N, Llewellyn, D, Isaac, M et al. (2017) Vitamin E for Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4, CD002854.
81.Morris, MC, Evans, DA, Bienias, JL et al. (2002) Vitamin E and cognitive decline in older persons. Arch Neurol 59, 11251132.
82.Eyles, DW, Smith, S, Kinobe, R et al. (2005) Distribution of the vitamin D receptor and 1 alpha-hydroxylase in human brain. J Chem Neuroanat 29, 2130.
83.Annweiler, C, Llewellyn, D & Beauchet, O (2013) Low serum vitamin D concentrations in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Alzheimer Dis 33, 659674.
84.Annweiler, C, Montero-Odasso, M, Llewellyn, DJ et al. (2013) Meta-analysis of memory and executive dysfunctions in relation to vitamin D. J Alzheimer Dis 37, 147171.
85.van der Schaft, J, Koek, HL, Dijkstra, E et al. (2013) The association between vitamin D and cognition: a systematic review. Ageing Res Rev 12, 10131023.
86.Miller, JW, Harvey, DJ, Beckett, LA et al. (2015) Vitamin D status and rates of cognitive decline in a multiethnic cohort of older adults. JAMA Neurol 72, 12951303.
87.Toffanello, ED, Coin, A, Perissinotto, E et al. (2014) Vitamin D deficiency predicts cognitive decline in older men and women: the Pro.V.A. Study. Neurology 83, 22922298.
88.Hooshmand, B, Lökk, J, Solomon, A et al. (2014) Vitamin D in relation to cognitive impairment, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and brain volumes. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 69, 11321138.
89.Williams, J, Sink, K, Tooze, J et al. (2014) Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations predict incident depression in well-functioning older adults: the health, aging, and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 70, 757763.
90.Brouwer-Brolsma, E, Dhonukshe-Rutten, R, van Wijngaarden, J et al. (2016) Low vitamin D status is associated with more depressive symptoms in Dutch older adults. Eur J Nutr 55, 15251534.
91.Okereke, OI & Singh, A (2016) The role of vitamin D in the prevention of late-life depression. J Affect Disord 198, 114.
92.Carney, MWP (1967) Serum folate values in 423 psychiatric patients. Br Med J 4, 512516.
93.Reynolds, EH, Preece, JM, Bailey, J et al. (1970) Folate deficiency in depressive illness. Br J Psychiatry 117, 287.
94.Strachan, RW & Henderson, JG (1965) Psychiatric syndromes due to avitaminosis B 12 with normal blood and marrow. Q J Med 34, 303317.
95.Shorvon, SD, Carney, MWP, Chanarin, I et al. (1980) The neuropsychiatry of megaloblastic anaemia. BMJ 281, 1036.
96.Carney, MW, Ravindran, A, Rinsler, MG et al. (1982) Thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine deficiency in psychiatric in-patients. Br J Psychiatry 141, 271272.
97.Selhub, J, Bagley, LC, Miller, J et al. (2000) B vitamins, homocysteine, and neurocognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 614S620S.
98.Bottiglieri, T, Laundy, M, Crellin, R et al. (2000) Homocysteine, folate, methylation, and monoamine metabolism in depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 69, 228232.
99.Smith, AD & Refsum, H (2016) Homocysteine, B vitamins, and cognitive impairment. Annu Rev Nutr 36, 211239.
100.Porter, K, Hoey, L, Hughes, CF et al. (2016) Causes, consequences and public health implications of low B-vitamin status in ageing. Nutrients 8, 129.
101.Durga, J, van Boxtel, MPJ, Schouten, EG et al. (2007) Articles: effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet 369, 208216. Jager, C, Oulhaj, A, Jacoby, R et al. (2012) Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 27, 592600.
103.Smith, AD, de Jager, CA, Whitbread, P et al. (2010) Homocysteine-lowering by b vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 5, 110.
104.Douaud, G, Nichols, TE, Smith, SM et al. (2013) Preventing Alzheimer's disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110, 95239528.
105.Clarke, R, Bennett, D, Parish, S et al. (2014) Effects of homocysteine lowering with B vitamins on cognitive aging: meta-analysis of 11 trials with cognitive data on 22,000 individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 657666.
106.Garrard, P & Jacoby, R (2015) B-vitamin trials meta-analysis: less than meets the eye. Am J Clin Nutr 101, 414415.
107.Smith, A, de Jager, C, Refsum, H et al. (2015) Homocysteine lowering, B vitamins, and cognitive aging. Am J Clin Nutr 101, 415416.
108.Xiu, L, Wahlqvist, ML, Li, D et al. (2012) Low and high homocysteine are associated with mortality independent of B group vitamins but interactive with cognitive status in a free-living elderly cohort. Nutr Res 32, 928939.
109.Gilbody, S, Lightfoot, T & Sheldon, T (2007) Is low folate a risk factor for depression? A meta-analysis and exploration of heterogeneity. J Epidemiol Commun Health 61, 631637.
110.Sánchez-Villegas, A, Doreste, J, Schlatter, J et al. (2009) Association between folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake and depression in the SUN cohort study. J Hum Nutr Diet 22, 122133.
111.Skarupski, KA, Tangney, C, Li, H et al. (2010) Longitudinal association of vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 with depressive symptoms among older adults over time. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 330335.
112.Robinson, DJ, O'Luanaigh, C, Tehee, E et al. (2011) Associations between holotranscobalamin, vitamin B12, homocysteine and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 26, 307313.
113.Ng, TP, Feng, L, Niti, M et al. (2009) Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and depressive symptoms in a population sample of older Chinese adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 57, 871876.
114.Kim, JM, Stewart, R, Kim, SW et al. (2008) Predictive value of folate, vitamin B-12 and homocysteine levels in late-life depression. Br J Psychiatry 192, 268274.
115.Reynolds, E (2006) Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the nervous system. Lancet Neurol 5, 949960.
116.Merete, C, Falcon, LM & Tucker, KL (2008) Vitamin B6 is associated with depressive symptomatology in Massachusetts elders. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 421427.
117.Hvas, A, Juul, S, Bech, P et al. (2004) Vitamin B6 level is associated with symptoms of depression. Psychother Psychosom 73, 340343.
118.Walker, JG, Mackinnon, AJ, Batterham, P et al. (2010) Mental health literacy, folic acid and vitamin B12, and physical activity for the prevention of depression in older adults: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 197, 4554.
119.Almeida, OP, Marsh, K, Alfonso, H et al. (2010) B-vitamins reduce the long-term risk of depression after stroke: the VITATOPS-DEP trial. Ann Neurol 68, 503510.
120.Okereke, OI, Cook, NR, Albert, CM et al. (2015) Effect of long-term supplementation with folic acid and B vitamins on risk of depression in older women. Br J Psychiatry 206, 324331.
121.Ford, AH, Flicker, L, Thomas, J et al. (2008) Vitamins B12, B6, and folic acid for onset of depressive symptoms in older men: results from a 2-year placebo-controlled randomized trial. J Clin Psychiatry 69, 12031209.
122.Coppen, A & Bailey, J (2000) Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: a randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Affect Disord 60, 121130.
123.Almeida, OP, Ford, AH, Hirani, V et al. (2014) B vitamins to enhance treatment response to antidepressants in middle-aged and older adults: results from the B-VITAGE randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 205, 450457.
124.Taylor, MJ, Carney, SM, Goodwin, GM et al. (2004) Folate for depressive disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Psychopharmacol 18, 251256.
125.Almeida, OP, Ford, AH & Flicker, L (2015) Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of folate and vitamin B12 for depression. Int Psychogeriatr 27, 727737.
126.Sizonenko, SV, Babiloni, C, de Bruin, EA et al. (2013) Brain imaging and human nutrition: which measures to use in intervention studies? Br J Nutr 110, Suppl. 1, S1S30.
127.Jernerén, F, Elshorbagy, AK, Oulhaj, A et al. (2015) Brain atrophy in cognitively impaired elderly: the importance of long-chain ω−3 fatty acids and B vitamin status in a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 102, 215221.
128.Selnes, P, Aarsland, D, Bjørnerud, A et al. (2013) Diffusion tensor imaging surpasses cerebrospinal fluid as predictor of cognitive decline and medial temporal lobe atrophy in subjective cognitive impairment and mild cognitive impairment. J Alzheimer Dis 33, 723736.
129.Gu, Y, Vorburger, RS, Gazes, Y et al. (2016) White matter integrity as a mediator in the relationship between dietary nutrients and cognition in the elderly. Ann Neurol 79, 10141025.
130.Ritchie, CW, Bajwa, J, Coleman, G et al. (2014) Souvenaid®: a new approach to management of early Alzheimer's disease. J Nutr Health Aging 18, 291299.
131.Nugent, S, Pifferi, F, Fortier, M et al. (2011) Brain and systemic glucose metabolism in the healthy elderly following fish oil supplementation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 85, 287291.
132.Maestú, F, Campo, P, Del Río, D et al. (2008) Increased biomagnetic activity in the ventral pathway in mild cognitive impairment. Clin Neurophysiol 119, 13201327. Haan, W, van der Flier, WM, Koene, T et al. (2012) Disrupted modular brain dynamics reflect cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroimage 59, 30853093.
134.Cheng, C, Wang, P, Hsu, W et al. (2012) Inadequate inhibition of redundant auditory inputs in Alzheimer's disease: an MEG study. Biol Psychol 89, 365373.
135.Kurita, S, Takei, Y, Maki, Y et al. (2016) Magnetoencephalography study of the effect of attention modulation on somatosensory processing in patients with major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 70, 116125.
136.Gougeon, L, Gray-Donald, K, Payette, H et al. (2016) Intakes of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 and risk of depression in community-dwelling older adults: the Quebec longitudinal study on nutrition and aging. Eur J Clin Nutr 70, 380385.
137.Moorthy, D, Peter, I, Scott, TM et al. (2012) Status of vitamins B-12 and B-6 but not of folate, homocysteine, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism are associated with impaired cognition and depression in adults. J Nutr 142, 15541560.
138.Beydoun, MA, Shroff, MR, Beydoun, HA et al. (2010) Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine and their association with depressive symptoms among U.S. Adults. Psychosom Med 72, 862873.
139.Ng, T, Feng, L, Niti, M et al. (2009) Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and depressive symptoms in a population sample of older Chinese adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 57, 871876.
140.Murakami, K, Mizoue, T, Sasaki, S et al. (2008) Dietary intake of folate, other B vitamins, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive symptoms in Japanese adults. Nutrition 24, 140147.
141.Dimopoulos, N, Piperi, C, Salonicioti, A et al. (2007) Correlation of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine plasma levels with depression in an elderly Greek population. Clin Biochem 40, 604608.
142.Ramos, MI, Allen, LH, Haan, MN et al. (2004) Plasma folate concentrations are associated with depressive symptoms in elderly Latina women despite folic acid fortification. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 10241028.
143.Bjelland, I, Tell, GS, Vollset, SE et al. (2003) Folate, vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and the MTHFR 677C -> T polymorphism in anxiety and depression – the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60, 618626.
144.Tiemeier, H, van Tuiji, H, Hofman, A et al. (2002) Vitamin B-12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: the Rotterdam study. Am J Psychiatry 159, 20992101.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


" class="button small radius grey keywords">
Alzheimer's disease
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • " class="button small radius grey keywords">
    mild cognitive impairment
  • randomised controlled trial
  • " class="button small radius grey keywords">
    randomised controlled trial
  • Nutrition
  • Cognition
  • Depression
  • Ageing
  • B-vitamins
  • Metrics

    Altmetric attention score

    Full text views

    Total number of HTML views: 171
    Total number of PDF views: 1071 *
    Loading metrics...

    Abstract views

    Total abstract views: 3881 *
    Loading metrics...

    * Views captured on Cambridge Core between 10th January 2018 - 18th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.