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Dietary assessment in the German National Cohort (GNC)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 June 2020

Sven Knüppel
Affiliation:
German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal, Germany
Matthias Clemens
Affiliation:
German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal, Germany
Johanna Conrad
Affiliation:
University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
Sylvia Gastell
Affiliation:
German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal, Germany
Karin Michels
Affiliation:
University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
Michael Leitzmann
Affiliation:
University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
Lilian Krist
Affiliation:
Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Tobias Pischon
Affiliation:
Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC), Berlin, Germany
Gerard Krause
Affiliation:
Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany
Wolfgang Ahrens
Affiliation:
Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Bremen, Germany University Bremen, Bremen, Germany
Nina Ebert
Affiliation:
Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany
Karl-Heinz Jöckel
Affiliation:
University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
Alexander Kluttig
Affiliation:
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany
Nadia Obi
Affiliation:
University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Rudolf Kaaks
Affiliation:
German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
Wolfgang Lieb
Affiliation:
Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany
Sabine Schipf
Affiliation:
University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Greifswald, Germany
Hermann Brenner
Affiliation:
German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg, Germany
Thorsten Heuer
Affiliation:
Max Rubner-Institut (MRI), Karlsruhe, Germany
Ulrich Harttig
Affiliation:
German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal, Germany
Jakob Linseisen
Affiliation:
Helmholtz Centre Munich, Neuherberg, Germany UNIKA-T Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany
Ute Nöthlings
Affiliation:
University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
Heiner Boeing
Affiliation:
German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal, Germany
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Abstract

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We describe a novel dietary assessment strategy to estimate usual food intake in the ongoing large-scale multi-center German National Cohort (GNC). The dietary assessment is based on three 24 h food lists (24h-FL) and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) enriched by information from the representative German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II). The novelty of this dietary assessment strategy is based on separating the probability of food intake from daily consumption amounts. The probability of consumption is estimated from 24h-FLs used in the GNC. To estimate daily consumption amounts, the already collected data of the NVS II are used. The 24h-FL simplifies the question on food consumption for all foods asked to consumption or not and so the questionnaire can be completed in about 10 minutes, reducing the burden on study participants. As proof of concept, we applied the assessment strategy to pretest data collected in 2012 to 2013 to assess the feasibility of the instruments. In brief, the novel dietary assessment strategy comprises three steps. First, the individuals’ consumption probability is estimated by three 24h-FLs and one FFQ applying a logistic linear mixed model adjusted for characteristics of the participants. Second, person-specific daily consumption amounts are estimated from the NVS II applying a linear mixed model taking the characteristics of the participants into account. Third, usual food intake is estimated by the consumption probability multiplied by person-specific daily amounts. Usual intake of 41 food groups in 318 men and 377 women were estimated. Of those participants who completed the first 24h-FL, 84.4, and 68.5% completed the second and third 24h-FL, respectively. No associations were observed between probability to participate and lifestyle factors. The estimated usual food intake distributions were in a plausible range as shown by comparing the estimated energy intake to the energy needs approximated by estimated total energy expenditure. Total energy was estimated to be 2,707 kcal/day for men and 2,103 kcal/day for women. With a few exceptions, the estimated food-based consumption probabilities did not differ considerably between men and women. The differences in energy intake between men and women were mainly due to their differences in the estimated person-specific daily amounts. As a conclusion, plausible but not validated values for usual food intake were derived in the pretest study, so that the combination of three repeated 24h-FLs, an FFQ and person-specific daily amounts from an external source is a feasible strategy for dietary assessment.

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Copyright © The Authors 2020
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