Quinoa (Chenopodium quínoa W) is a pseudocereal native to the Andean region of South America that has been recognized as an extremely nutritious grain all over the world( Reference Izquierdo, Mujica, Jacobsen and Marathee 1 ). In previous studies, we characterized the nutritional properties of quinoa from Argentinean Northwest( Reference Vidueiros, Dyner, Bertero and Pallaro 2 , Reference Vidueiros, Peterson, Bertero and Pallaro3 ). Moreover, quinoa seeds have a high content of saponins that give them a bitter taste and may alter the intestinal mucosa due to their detergent properties( Reference Izquierdo, Mujica, Jacobsen and Marathee 1 ).
The aim of the present study was to find out the effect of a variety of quinoa from Campo Tapial de Colanzuli, Iruya, Salta, without washing treatment, on the intestinal mucosa of growing rats.
In this study, Wistar rats (n = 6/group) from weaning to 7 days fed a 10% protein diet with 1) unwashed quinoa (Q), 2) commercial washed quinoa (QR), and 3) casein (C) as control group. Body weight (BW, g) and diet intake (I, g/day) were determined, and Ponderal Growth Rate (PGR, g/day/100g) was calculated. Intestines were removed, processed by Saint Marie´s technique and stained with Alcian Blue-H/E. Goblets cells/100 epithelial cells (GC) were determined in 10 intestinal villi/rat. Tissue sections were studied by indirect immunofluorescence technique4). IL-17+ cells, CD5+ T cells and TCRγδ+ subset levels were measured in lamina propria (LP) and intraepithelium (iIEL). IgA-B+ cells were determined in LP by reading the number of cells/30 fields.
Results are shown in the table below.
Means within rows with different superscript, differ 0.05 > p < 0.001 (ANOVA, followed by SNK test).
No differences were observed in IgA-B+ cells, CD5+ T cells and TCRγδ+ subset among groups. Moreover, goblets cells and IL-17+ cells were significant increased in Q group which could indicate an inflammatory process caused by the saponins from unwashed quinoa. This could affect the normal intestinal absorption of nutrients which is reflected in BW, PGR and I, compared to QR group.
This work was supported by UBACyT 20020100100255 and 20620100100014.