3. National Audit Office (2001) Tackling Obesity in England. London: The Stationery Office.
4. Varo JJ, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, De Irala-Estevez J, Kearney J, Gibney M & Martinez JA (2003) Distribution and determinants of sedentary lifestyles in the European Union. Int J Epidemiol 32, 138–146.
6. Prentice AM & Jebb SA (1995) Obesity in Britain: gluttony or sloth? Br Med J 311, 437–439.
7. Moore MS (2000) Interactions between physical activity and diet in the regulation of body weight. Proc Nutr Soc 59, 193–198.
8. Murgatroyd PR, Goldberg GR, Leahy FE, Gilsenan MB & Prentice AM (1999) Effects of inactivity and diet composition on human energy balance. Int J Obes 23, 1269–1275.
9. Stubbs RJ, Hughes DA, Johnstone AM, Horgan GW, King N & Blundell JE (2004) A decrease in physical activity affects appetite, energy, and nutrient balance in lean men feeding ad libitum. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 62–69.
10. British Nutrition Foundation (1999) Obesity. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
12. House of Commons (2004) Third Report from the Health Committee: Obesity: Session 2003–2004. London: The Stationery Office.
13. Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN et al. (1995) Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA 273, 402–407.
14. American College of Sports Medicine (1998) The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Position Stand. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30, 975–991.
15. Department of Health (2004) At Least Five a Week – Evidence of the Impact of Physical Activity and its Relationship to Health. London: Department of Health.
16. Blundell JE (1991) The biology of appetite. Clin Appl Nutr 1, 21–31.
17. Blundell JE & Halford JC (1994) Regulation of nutrient supply: the brain and appetite control. Proc Nutr Soc 53, 407–418.
18. King NA, Tremblay A & Blundell JE (1997) Effects of exercise on appetite control: implications for energy balance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29, 1076–1089.
19. Hellstrom PM, Geliebter A, Naslund E et al. (2004) Peripheral and central signals in the control of eating in normal, obese and binge-eating human subjects. Br J Nutr 92, Suppl. 1, 47–57.
20. Neary NM, Goldstone AP & Bloom SR (2004) Appetite regulation: from the gut to the hypothalamus. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 60, 153–160.
21. de Graaf C, Blom WA, Smeets PA, Stafleu A & Hendriks HF (2004) Biomarkers of satiation and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 946–961.
22. Cummings DE, Purnell JQ, Frayo RS, Schmidova K, Wisse BE & Weigle DS (2001) A preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin levels suggests a role in meal initiation in humans. Diabetes 50, 1714–1719.
23. Wilding JPH (2002) Neuropeptides and appetite control. Diabet Med 19, 619–627.
24. Trayhurn P & Bing C (2006) Appetite and energy balance signals from adipocytes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361, 1237–1249.
25. Schwartz MW, Baskin DG, Kaiyala KJ & Woods SC (1999) Model for the regulation of energy balance and adiposity by the central nervous system. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 584–596.
26. De Castro JM (1996) How can eating behavior be regulated in the complex environments of free-living humans? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 20, 119–131.
27. Saper CB, Chou TC & Elmquist JK (2002) The need to feed: homeostatic and hedonic control of eating. Neuron 36, 199–211.
28. Lowe MR & Levine AS (2005) Eating motives and the controversy over dieting: eating less than needed versus less than wanted. Obes Res 13, 797–806.
29. Thompson DA, Wolfe LA & Eikelboom R (1988) Acute effects of exercise intensity on appetite in young men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 20, 222–227.
30. King NA, Snell L, Smith RD & Blundell JE (1996) Effects of short-term exercise on appetite responses in unrestrained females. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, 663–667.
31. King NA & Blundell JE (1995) High-fat foods overcome the energy expenditure induced by high-intensity cycling or running. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 114–123.
32. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Verwegen CR, Ijedema MJ, Wijckmans NE & Saris WH (1997) Acute effects of exercise or sauna on appetite in obese and nonobese men. Physiol Behav 62, 1345–1354.
33. Lluch A, King NA & Blundell JE (1998) Exercise in dietary restrained women: no effect on energy intake but change in hedonic ratings. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 300–307.
34. Blundell JE & King NA (1999) Physical activity and regulation of food intake: current evidence. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31, Suppl., 573–583.
35. King NA, Lluch A, Stubbs RJ & Blundell JE (1997) High dose exercise does not increase hunger or energy intake in free living males. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 478–483.
36. King NA, Burley VJ & Blundell JE (1994) Exercise-induced suppression of appetite: effects on food intake and implications for energy balance. Eur J Clin Nutr 48, 715–724.
37. Bellisle F (1999) Food choice, appetite and physical activity. Public Health Nutr 2, 357–361.
38. Maraki M, Tsofliou F, Pitsiladis YP, Malkova D, Mutrie N & Higgins S (2005) Acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite, energy intake and mood. Is there a time of day effect? Appetite 45, 272–278.
39. Verger P, Lanteaume MT & Louis-Sylvestre J (1992) Human intake and choice of foods at intervals after exercise. Appetite 18, 93–99.
40. Pomerleau M, Imbeault P, Parker T & Doucet E (2004) Effects of exercise intensity on food intake and appetite in women. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 1230–1236.
41. Verger P, Lanteaume T & Louis-Sylvestre J (1994) Free food choices after acute exercise in men. Appetite 22, 159–164.
42. Durrant ML, Royston JP & Wloch RT (1982) effects of exercise on energy intake and eating patterns in lean and obese humans. Physiol Behav 29, 449–454.
43. Imbeault P, Saint-Pierre S, Almeras N & Tremblay A (1997) Acute effects of exercise on energy intake and feeding behaviour. Br J Nutr 77, 511–521.
44. Tremblay A, Almeras N, Boer J, Kranenbarg EK & Despres JP (1994) Diet composition and postexercise energy balance. Am J Clin Nutr 59, 975–979.
45. Blundell JE, Stubbs RJ, Hughes DA, Whybrow S & King NA (2003) Cross talk between physical activity and appetite control: does physical activity stimulate appetite? Proc Nutr Soc 62, 651–661.
46. Hubert P, King NA & Blundell JE (1998) Uncoupling the effects of energy expenditure and energy intake: appetite response to short-term energy deficit induced by meal omission and physical activity. Appetite 31, 9–19.
47. Bensimhon DR, Kraus WE & Donahue MP (2006) Obesity and physical activity: A review. Am Heart J 151, 598–603.
48. Mann T, Nomiyama AJ, Westling E, Lew AM, Samuels B & Chatman J (2007) Medicare's search for effective obesity treatments: diets are not the answer. Am Psychol 62, 220–233.
49. Prentice A & Jebb S (2004) Energy intake/physical activity interactions in the homeostasis of body weight regulation. Nutr Rev 62, 98–104.
50. King NA (1999) What processes are involved in the appetite response to moderate increases in exercise-induced energy expenditure? Proc Nutr Soc 58, 107–113.
51. Ross R, Dagnone D, Jones PJH, Smith H, Paddags A, Hudson R & Janssen I (2000) Reduction in obesity and related comorbid conditions after diet-induced weight loss or exercise-induced weight loss in men. Ann Inter Med 133, 92–103.
52. Blundell JE & King NA (2000) Exercise, appetite control, and energy balance. Nutrition 16, 519–522.
53. Hill AJ, Melby C, Johnson SL & Peters JC (1995) Physical activity and energy requirements. Am J Clin Nutr 62, Suppl., 1059S–1066S.
54. Hill AJ & Peters JC (1995) Exercise and macronutrient balance. Int J Obes 19, Suppl. 4, S88–S92.
55. Wilmore JH (1996) Increasing physical activity: alterations in body mass and composition. Am J Clin Nutr 63, Suppl., 456S–460S.
56. Miller WC, Koceja DM & Hamilton EJ (1997) A meta-analysis of the past 25 years of weight loss research using diet, exercise or diet plus exercise intervention. Int J Obes 21, 941–947.
57. Garrow JS & Summerbell CD (1995) Meta-analysis: effect of exercise, with or without dieting, on body composition of overweight subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 1–10.
58. Ballor DL & Poehlman ET (1994) Exercise-training enhances fat-free mass preservation during diet-induced weight loss: a meta-analytical finding. Int J Obes 18, 35–40.
59. Meijer GAL, Jansen GME, Westerterp KR, Verhoeven F, Saris WHM & ten Hoor F (1991) The effect of a 5-month endurance-training programme on physical activity: evidence for a sex-difference in the metabolic response to exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 62, 11–17.
60. Goran ML & Poehlman ET (1992) Endurance training does not enhance total energy expenditure in healthy elderly persons. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 263, E950–E957.
61. Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Nadeau A et al. (1990) Long-term exercise training with constant energy intake. 1: Effect on body composition and selected metabolic variables. Int J Obes 14, 57–73.
62. Mayer J, Roy P & Mitra KP (1956) Relation between caloric intake, body weight, and physical work: studies in an industrial male population in West Bengal. Am J Clin Nutr 4, 169–175.
63. King NA, Appleton K, Rogers PJ & Blundell JE (1999) Effects of sweetness and energy in drinks on food intake following exercise. Physiol Behav 66, 375–379.
64. Long SJ, Hart K & Morgan LM (2002) The ability of habitual exercise to influence appetite and food intake in response to high- and low-energy preloads in man. Br J Nutr 87, 517–523.
65. Martins C, Truby H & Morgan LM (2007) Short-term appetite control in response to a 6-week exercise programme in sedentary volunteers. Br J Nutr (In the Press).
66. Kraemer RR, Chu H & Castracane VD (2002) Leptin and exercise. Exp Biol Med 227, 701–708.
67. Kraemer RR & Castracane VD (2007) Exercise and humoral mediators of peripheral energy balance: ghrelin and adiponectin. Exp Biol Med 232, 184–194.
68. Bailey DM, Davies B, Castell LM, Newsholme EA & Calam J (2001) Physical activity and normobaric hypoxia: independent modulators of peripheral cholecystokinin metabolism in man. J Appl Physiol 90, 105–113.
69. O'Connor AM, Johnston CF, Buchanan KD, Boreham C, Trinick TR & Riddoch CJ (1995) Circulating gastrointestinal hormone changes in marathon running. Int J Sports Med 16, 283–287.
70. O'Connor AM, Pola S, Ward BM, Fillmore D, Buchanan KD & Kirwan JP (2006) The gastroenteroinsular response to glucose ingestion during postexercise recovery. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290, E1155–E1161.
71. Sullivan SN, Champion MD, Christofides ND, Adrian TE & Bloom SR (1984) Gastrointestinal regulatory peptide responses in long-distance runners. Phys Sportsmed 12, 77–82.
72. Hilsted J, Galbo H, Sonne B, Schwartz T, Fahrenkrug J, de Muckadell OB, Lauritsen KB & Tronier B (1980) Gastroenteropancreatic hormonal changes during exercise. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 239, G613–G640.
73. Greenberg GR, Marliss EB & Zinman B (1986) Effects of exercise on the pancreatic polypeptide response to food in man. Horm Metab Res 18, 194–196.
74. Holmqvist N, Secher NH, Sander-Jensen K, Knigge U, Warberg J & Schwartz TW (1986) Sympathoadrenal and parasympathetic responses to exercise. J Sports Sci 4, 123–128.
75. Hurley RS, Bossetti BM, O'Dorisio TM, Tenison EB, Welch MA & Rice RR (1991) The effects of exercise training on body weight and peptide hormone patterns in normal weight college-age men. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 31, 52–56.
76. Gingerich RL, Hickson RC, Hagberg JM & Winder WW (1979) Effect of endurance exercise training on plasma pancreatic polypeptide concentration during exercise. Metabolism 28, 1179–1182.
77. Martins C, Morgan LM, Bloom SR & Robertson MD (2007) Effects of exercise on gut peptides, energy intake and appetite. J Endocrinol 193, 251–258.
78. Herman CP & Mack D (1975) Restrained and unrestrained eating. J Pers 43, 647–660.
79. Rotenberg KJ & Flood D (2000) Dietary restraint, attributable styles for eating, and preloading effects. Eat Behav 1, 63–78.
80. Woody EZ, Costanzo PR, Liefer H & Conger J (1981) The effects of taste and caloric perceptions on the eating behaviour of restrained and unrestrained subjects. Cognit Ther Res 5, 381–390.
81. Polivy J, Heatherton T & Herman CP (1988) Self-esteem, restraint, and eating behavior. J Abnorm Psychol 97, 354–356.
82. Spencer JA & Fremouw W (1979) Binge eating as a function of restraint and weight classification. J Abnorm Psychol 88, 262–267.
83. Hibscher JA & Herman CP (1977) Obesity, dieting, and the expression of ‘obese’ characteristics. J Comp Physiol Psychol 91, 374–380.
84. Mattes RD (1996) Dietary compensation by human for supplemental energy provided as ethanol or carbohydrate in fluids. Physiol Behav 59, 179–187.
85. Foltin RW, Fischman MW, Moran TH, Rolls BJ & Kelly TH (1992) Caloric, but not macronutrient, compensation by humans for required-eating occasions with meals and snack varying in fat and carbohydrates. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 331–342.
86. Lluch A, King NA & Blundell JE (2000) No energy compensation at the meal following exercise in dietary restrained and unrestrained women. Br J Nutr 84, 219–225.
87. Polivy J (1976) Perception of calories and regulation of intake in restrained and unrestrained subjects. Addict Behav 1, 237–243.
88. Ruderman AJ & Christensen H (1983) Restraint theory and its applicability to overweight individuals. J Abnorm Psychol 92, 210–215.
89. Wardle J & Beales S (1987) Restraint and food intake: an experimental study of eating patterns in the laboratory and in normal life. Behav Res Ther 25, 179–185.
90. Lowe MR & Kleifield EI (1988) Cognitive restraint, weight supression, and the regulation of eating. Appetite 10, 159–168.
91. Ogden J & Wardle J (1991) Cognitive and emotional responses to food. Int J Eat Disord 10, 297–311.
92. McCann KL, Perri MG, Nezu AM & Lowe MR (1992) An investigation of counterregulatory eating in obese clinic attenders. Int J Eat Disord 12, 161–169.
93. Ouwens MA, van Strien T & van Der Staak CPF (2003) Tendency towards overeating and restraint as predictors of food consumption. Appetite 40, 291–298.
94. Herman CP & Polivy J (1975) Anxiety, restraint, and eating behaviour. J Abnorm Psychol 84, 666–672.
95. Stunkard AJ & Messick S (1985) The Three-factor Eating Questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, desinhibition and hunger. J Pschosomat Res 29, 71–83.
96. van Strien T, Frijters JER, Bergers GPA & Defares PB (1986) The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behavior. Int J Eat Disord 5, 259–315.
97. Laessle RG, Tuschl RJ, Kotthaus BC & Pirke KM (1989) A comparison of the validity of three scales for the assessment of dietary restraint. J Abnorm Psychol 98, 504–507.
98. Westenhoefer J, Broeckmann P, Munch AK & Pudel V (1994) Cognitive control of eating behavior and the disinhibition effect. Appetite 23, 27–41.
99. Westenhoefer J (1991) Dietary restraint and disinhibition: Is restraint a homogeneous construct? Appetite 16, 45–55.
100. Jansen A, Oosterlaan J, Merckelbach H & van den Hout M (1988) Nonregulation of food intake in restrained, emotional, and external eaters. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 10, 345–355.
101. Ridgway PS & Jeffrey DB (1998) A comparison of the three-factor eating questionnaire and the restraint scale and consideration of Lowe's three-factor model. Addict Behav 23, 115–118.
102. Ouwens MA, van Strien T & van der Staak CPF (2003) Tendency towards overeating and restraint as predictors of food consumption. Appetite 40, 291–298.
103. van Strien T, Cleven A & Schippers G (2000) Restraint, tendency towards overeating and ice cream consumption. Int J Eat Disord 28, 333–338.
104. Dritschel B, Cooper PJ & Charnock D (1993) A problematic counter-regulation experiment: implications for the link between dietary restraint and overeating. Int J Eat Disord 13, 297–304.
105. Karlsson J, Persson L-O, Sjostrom L & Sullivan M (2000) Psychometric properties and factor structure of the three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) in obese men and women. Results from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. Int J Obes 24, 1715–1725.
106. Tomarken AJ & Kirschenbaum DS (1984) Effects of plans for future meals on counterregulatory eating by restrained and unrestrained eaters. J Abnorm Psychol 93, 458–472.
107. Herman CP & Polivy J (1979) Effects of an observer on eating behaviour: The induction of ‘sensible’ eating. J Pers 47, 85–99.
108. Herman CP & Polivy J (1980) Restrained eating. In Obesity, pp. 209–225 [Stunkard AJ editor]. London: WB Saunders Company.
109. Laessle RG, Tuschl RJ, Kotthaus BC & Pirke KM (1989) Behavioural and biological correlates of dietary restraint in normal life. Appetite 12, 83–94.
110. Rennie KL, Siervo M & Jebb SA (2006) Can self-reported dieting and dietary restraint identify underreporters of energy intake in dietary surveys? J Am Diet Assoc 106, 1667–1672.
111. Beiseigel JM & Nickols-Richardson SM (2004) Cognitive eating restraint scores are associated with body fatness but not with other measures of dieting in women. Appetite 43, 47–53.
112. Keim NL & Horn WF (2004) Restrained eating behaviour and the metabolic response to dietary energy restriction in women. Obes Res 12, 141–149.
113. Pirke K-M, Tuschl RJ, Spyra B, Laessle RG, Schweiger U, Broocks A, Sambauer S & Zitzelsberger G (1990) Endocrine findings in restrained eaters. Physiol Behav 47, 903–906.
114. Burton-Freeman B (2005) Sex and cognitive dietary restraint influence cholecystokinin release and satiety in response to preloads varying in fatty acid composition and content. J Nutr 135, 1407–1414.
115. Tuschl RJ, Platte P, Laessle RG, Stichler W & Pirke K-M (1990) Energy expenditure and everyday eating behavior in healthy young women. Am J Clin Nutr 52, 81–86.
116. Lawson OL, Williamson DA, Champagne CM, DeLany JP, Brooks ER, Howat PM, Wozniak PJ, Bray GA & Ryan DH (1995) The association of body weight, dietary intake, and energy expenditure with dietary restraint and disinhibition. Obes Res 3, 153–161.
117. Teff KL & Engelman K (1996) Palatability and dietary restraint: Effect on cephalic phase insulin release in women. Physiol Behav 60, 567–573.
118. Tepper BJ (1992) Dietary restraint and responsiveness to sensory-based food cues as measured by cephalic phase salivation and sensory specific satiety. Physiol Behav 52, 305–311.
119. Crystal SR & Teff KL (2006) Tasting fat: Cephalic phase hormonal responses and food intake in restrained and unrestrained eaters. Physiol Behav 67, 181–187.
120. von Prittwitz S, Blum WF, Ziegler A, Scharmann S, Remschmidt H & Hebebrand J (1997) Restrained eating is associated with low leptin levels in underweight females. Mol Psychiatry 2, 420–422.
121. Adami G, Campostano A, Cella F & Ferrandes G (2002) Serum leptin level and restrained eating. Study with the eating disorder examination. Physiol Behav 75, 189–192.
122. Laessle RG, Wurmser H & Pirke KM (2000) Restrained eating and leptin levels in overweight preadolescents girls. Physiol Behav 70, 45–47.
123. Anderson DA, Shapiro JR, Lundgren JD, Spataro LE & Frye CA (2002) Self-reported dietary restraint is associated with elevated levels of salivary cortisol. Appetite 38, 13–17.
124. McLean JA, Barr SI & Prior JC (2001) Cognitive dietary restraint is associated with higher urinary cortisol excretion in healthy premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 7–12.
125. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Van den Heuvel E, Wouters L & ten Hoor F (1992) Diet-induced thermogenesis and cumulative food intake curves as a function of familiarity with food and dietary restraint in humans. Physiol Behav 51, 457–465.
126. Mantzoros CS (1997) Obesity, eating disorders and restrained eating: is leptin the missing link? Molecular Psychiatry 2, 377–380.
127. de Lauzon-Guillain B, Basdevant A, Romon M, Karlsson J, Borys JM, Charles MA & FLVS Study Group (2006) Is restrained eating a risk factor for weight gain in a general population? Am J Clin Nutr 83, 132–138.
128. Provencher V, Drapeau V, Tremblay A, Despres JP & Lemieux S (2003) Eating behaviors and indexes of body composition in men and women from the Quebec Family Study. Obes Res 11, 783–792.
129. Klesges RC, Isbell TR & Klesges LM (1992) Relationship between dietary restraint, energy intake, physical activity, and body weight: a prospective analysis. J Abnorm Psychol 101, 668–674.
130. Tovar SA, Seoane LM, Caminos JE, Nogueiras R, Casanueva FF & Dieguez C (2004) Regulation of peptide YY levels by age, hormonal, and nutritional status. Obesity Res 12, 1944–1950.
131. Kim BJ, Carlson OD, Jang HJ, Elahi D, Berry C & Egan JM (2005) Peptide YY is secreted after oral glucose administration in a gender-specific manner. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 6665–6671.
132. le Roux CW, Batterham RL, Aylwin SJB et al. (2006) Attenuated peptide YY release in obese subjects is associated with reduced satiety. Endocrinology 147, 3–8.
133. Batterham RL, Cohen MA, Ellis SM, le Roux CW, Withers DJ, Frost GS, Ghatei MA & Bloom SR (2003) Inhibition of food intake in obese subjects by peptide YY3–36. New Eng J Med 349, 941–948.
134. Krarup N (1992) The effects of noradrenaline and adrenaline on hepatosplanchnic hemodynamics, functional capacity of the liver and hepatic metabolism. Acta Physiol Scand 87, 307–319.
135. Heatherton T, Polivy J & Herman CP (1989) Restraint and internal responsiveness: effects of placebo manipulations on hunger state on eating. J Abnorm Psychol 98, 89–92.
136. Ruderman AJ (1986) Dietary restraint: a theoretical and empirical review. Psychol Bull 99, 247–262.
137. Ogden J & Wardle J (1990) Cognitive restraint and sensitivity to cues for hunger and satiety. Physiol Behav 47, 477–481.