Skip to main content
×
Home

Energy balance and cancer: the role of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I

  • R. Kaaks (a1) and A. Lukanova (a1)
Abstract

Recent theories propose that a Western lifestyle may increase cancer risk through alterations in the metabolism of insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGF; McKeown-Eyssen, 1994; Giovannucci, 1995; Kaaks, 1996; Werner & LeRoith, 1996). Insulin regulates energy metabolism, and increases the bioactivity of IGF-I, by enhancing its synthesis, and by decreasing several of its binding proteins (IGFBP; IGFBP-1 and -2). Insulin and IGF-I both stimulate anabolic processes as a function of available energy and elementary substrates (e.g. amino acids). The anabolic signals by insulin or IGF-I can promote tumour development by inhibiting apoptosis, and by stimulating cell proliferation. Furthermore, both insulin and IGF-I stimulate the synthesis of sex steroids, and inhibit the synthesis of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), a binding protein that regulates the bioavailability of circulating sex steroids to tissues. The present paper reviews epidemiological findings relating the risk of cancers of the colo-rectum, pancreas, breast, endometrium and prostate to body size (obesity, height) and physical activity, and discusses the relationships between obesity and physical activity and plasma levels of insulin, IGF-I and IGFBP. Subsequent sections review epidemiological findings relating cancer risk to indices of chronic hyperinsulinaemia, and to plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP. Conclusions are that chronic hyperinsulinaemia may be a cause of cancers of the colon, pancreas and endometrium, and also possibly of the breast. On the other hand, elevated plasma IGF-I, as total concentrations or relative to levels of IGFBP-3, appears to be related to an increased risk of prostate cancer, breast cancer in young women, and possibly colo-rectal cancer. For cancers of the endometrium, breast and prostate, these findings are discussed in the context of relationships between insulin and IGF-I and levels of bioavailable sex steroids.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Energy balance and cancer: the role of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Energy balance and cancer: the role of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Energy balance and cancer: the role of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Dr R. Kaaks, fax +33 4 72 73 83 61, email kaaks@iarc.fr
References
Hide All
Abate N (1996) Insulin resistance and obesity. The role of fat distribution pattern. Diabetes Care 19, 292294.
Adami HO, Dami HO, McLaughlin J, Ekbom A, Berne C, Silverman D, Hacker D & Persson I (1991) Cancer risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cancer Causes Control 2, 307314.
Argente J, Caballo N, Barrios V, Munoz MT, Pozo J, Chowen JA, Morande G & Hernandez M (1997) Multiple endocrine abnormalities of the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor axis in patients with anorexia nervosa: effect of short- and long-term weight recuperation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82, 20842092.
Ayabe T, Tsutsumi O, Sakai H, Yoshikawa H, Yano T, Kurimoto F & Taketani Y (1997) Increased circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I and decreased circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in postmenopausal women with endometrial cancer. Endocrine Journal 44, 419424.
Ballard-Barbash R (1994) Anthropometry and breast cancer. Body size – a moving target. Cancer 74, 10901100.
Bang P, Brandt J, Degerblad M, Enberg G, Kaijser L, Thoren M & Hall K (1990) Exercise-induced changes in insulin-like growth factors and their low molecular weight binding protein in healthy subjects and patients with growth hormone deficiency. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 20, 285292.
Bang P, Brismar K, Rosenfeld RG & Hall K (1994) Fasting affects serum insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins differently in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus versus healthy nonobese and obese subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 78, 960967.
Barbieri RL, Smith S & Ryan KJ (1988) The role of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of ovarian hyperandrogenism. Fertility and Sterility 50, 197212.
Bates GW & Whitworth NS (1982) Effect of body weight reduction on plasma androgens in obese, infertile women. Fertility and Sterility 38, 406409.
Baumann G & Mercado M (1993) Growth hormone-binding proteins in plasma. Nutrition 9, 546553.
Baxter RC, Bryson JM & Turtle JR (1981) The effect of fasting on liver receptors for prolactin and growth hormone. Metabolism 30, 10861090.
Baxter RC & Turtle JR (1978) Regulation of hepatic growth hormone receptors by insulin. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 84, 350357.
Bebakar WM, Honour JW, Foster D, Liu YL & Jacobs HS (1990) Regulation of testicular function by insulin and transforming growth factor-beta. Steroids 55, 266270.
Belfiore F & Iannello S (1998) Insulin resistance in obesity: metabolic mechanisms and measurement methods. Molecular and Genetic Metabolism 65, 121128.
Bereket A, Lang CH, Blethen SL, Fan J, Frost RA & Wilson TA (1995 a) Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 proteolysis in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a possible role for insulin in the regulation of IGFBP-3 protease activity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, 22822288.
Bereket A, Lang CH, Blethen SL, Gelato MC, Fan J, Frost RA & Wilson TA (1995 b) Effect of insulin on the insulin-like growth factor system in children with new-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, 13121317.
Bereket A, Lang CH & Wilson TA (1999) Alterations in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Hormone and Metabolism Research 31, 172181.
Bermon S, Ferrari P, Bernard P, Altare S & Dolisi C (1999) Responses of total and free insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 after resistance exercise and training in elderly subjects. Acta Physiologia Scandinavica 165, 5156.
Bernardi F, Petraglia F, Seppala M, Spinetti A, Bertolini S, Ferdeghini M & Genazzani AR (1998) Somatotropic axis and body weight in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women: evidence for a neuroendocrine derangement, in absence of changes of insulin-like growth factor binding protein concentrations. Human Reproduction 13, 279284.
Bernstein L & Ross RK (1993) Endogenous hormones and breast cancer risk. Epidemiologic Reviews 15, 4865.
Bjorntorp P (1992) Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Annal of Medicine 24, 465468.
Bjorntorp P (1994) Fatty acids, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance: which comes first? Current Opinion in Lipidology 5, 166174.
Bohlke K, Cramer DW, Trichopoulos D & Mantzoros CS (1998) Insulin-like growth factor-I in relation to premenopausal ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Epidemiology 9, 570573.
Bol DK, Kiguchi K, Gimenez-Conti I, Rupp T & Digiovanni J (1997) Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 induces hyperplasia, dermal abnormalities, and spontaneous tumor formation in transgenic mice. Oncogene 14, 17251734.
Boni-Schnetzler M, Schmid C, Mary JL, Zimmerli B, Meier PJ, Zapf J, Schwander J & Froesch ER (1990) Insulin regulates the expression of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 mRNA in rat hepatocytes. Molecular Endocrinology 4, 13201326.
Bonnefoy M, Kostka T, Patricot MC, Berthouze SE, Mathian B & Lacour JR (1999) Influence of acute and chronic exercise on insulin-like growth factor-I in healthy active elderly men and women. Aging (Milano) 11, 373379.
Bruning PF, Bonfrer JM, Van Noord PA, Hart AA, Jong-Bakker M & Nooijen WJ (1992) Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk. International Journal of Cancer 52, 511516.
Bruning PF, Van Doorn J, Bonfrer JM, Van Noord PA, Korse CM, Linders TC & Hart AA (1995) Insulin-like growth-factor-binding protein 3 is decreased in early-stage operable pre-menopausal breast cancer. International Journal of Cancer 62, 266270.
Calle EE, Murphy TK, Rodriguez C, Thun MJ & Heath CW Jr (1998) Diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer mortality in a prospective cohort of United States adults. Cancer Causes Control 9, 403410.
Cappon J, Brasel JA, Mohan S & Cooper DM (1994) Effect of brief exercise on circulating insulin-like growth factor I. Journal of Applied Physiology 76, 24902496.
Cara JF (1994) Insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins and ovarian androgen production. Hormone Research 42, 4954.
Casanueva FF (1992) Physiology of growth hormone secretion and action. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 21, 483517.
Caufriez A, Golstein J, Lebrun P, Herchuelz A, Furlanetto R & Copinschi G (1984) Relations between immunoreactive somatomedin C, insulin and T3 patterns during fasting in obese subjects. Clinical Endocrinology 20, 6570.
Chadan SG, Dill RP, Vanderhoek K & Parkhouse WS (1999) Influence of physical activity on plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in healthy older women. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 109, 2134.
Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Gann PH, Ma J, Wilkinson P, Hennekens CH & Pollak M (1998) Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Science 279, 563566.
Chang TC, Tung CC & Hsiao YL (1994) Hormonal changes in elderly men with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and the hormonal relationships to abdominal adiposity. Gerontology 40, 260267.
Chapman IM, Hartman ML, Pieper KS, Skiles EH, Pezzoli SS, Hintz RL & Thorner MO (1998) Recovery of growth hormone release from suppression by exogenous insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I): evidence for a suppressive action of free rather than bound IGF-I. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83, 28362842.
Chuzel F, Clark AM, Avallet O & Saez JM (1996) Transcriptional regulation of the lutropin/human choriogonadotropin receptor and three enzymes of steroidogenesis by growth factors in cultured pig Leydig cells. European Journal of Biochemistry 239, 816.
Clemmons DR, Klibanski A, Underwood LE, Mcarthur JW, Ridgway EC, Beitins IZ & Van Wyk JJ (1981) Reduction of plasma immunoreactive somatomedin C during fasting in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 53, 12471250.
Clemmons DR & Underwood LE (1991) Nutritional regulation of IGF-I and IGF binding proteins. Annual Review of Nutrition 11, 393412.
Colditz GA, Cannuscio CC & Frazier AL (1997) Physical activity and reduced risk of colon cancer: implications for prevention. Cancer Causes Control 8, 649667.
Conover CA & Lee PD (1990) Insulin regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein production in cultured HepG2 cells. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 70, 10621067.
Copeland KC, Colletti RB, Devlin JT & McAuliffe TL (1990) The relationship between insulin-like growth factor-I, adiposity, and aging. Metabolism 39, 584587.
Cordido F, Casanueva FF, Vidal JI & Dieguez C (1991) Study of insulin-like growth factor I in human obesity. Hormone Research 36, 187191.
Coulam CB, Annegers JF & Kranz JS (1983) Chronic anovulation syndrome and associated neoplasia. Obstetrics and Gynecology 61, 403407.
Counts DR, Gwirtsman H, Carlsson LM, Lesem M & Cutler GB Jr (1992) The effect of anorexia nervosa and refeeding on growth hormone-binding protein, the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and the IGF-binding proteins. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 75, 762767.
Crave JC, Lejeune H, Brebant C, Baret C & Pugeat M (1995) Differential effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I on the production of plasma steroid-binding globulins by human hepatoblastoma-derived (Hep G2) cells. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, 12831289.
Culig Z, Hobisch A, Cronauer MV, Radmayr C, Hittmair A, Zhang J, Thurnher M, Bartsch G & Klocker H (1996) Regulation of prostatic growth and function by peptide growth factors. Prostate 28, 392405.
Dahlgren E, Friberg LG, Johansson S, Lindstrom B, Oden A, Samsioe G & Janson PO (1991) Endometrial carcinoma; ovarian dysfunction – a risk factor in young women. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 41, 143150.
DeFronzo RA (1988) Lilly lecture 1987. The triumvirate: beta-cell, muscle, liver. A collusion responsible for NIDDM. Diabetes 37, 667687.
Del Giudice ME, Fantus IG, Ezzat S, McKeown-Eyssen G, Page D & Goodwin PJ (1998) Insulin and related factors in premenopausal breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 47, 111120.
De Mellow JS, Handelsman DJ & Baxter RC (1987) Short-term exposure to insulin-like growth factors stimulates testosterone production by testicular interstitial cells. Acta Endocrinologica 115, 483489.
DeMoura MD, Choi D, Adashi EY & Payne DW (1997) Insulin-like growth factor-I-mediated amplification of follicle-stimulating hormone-supported progesterone accumulation by cultured rat granulosa cells: enhancement of steroidogenic enzyme activity and expression. Biology of Reproduction 56, 946953.
Dickson RB & Lippman ME (1995) Growth factors in breast cancer. Endocrinology Review 16, 559589.
DiGiovanni J, Bol DK, Wilker E, Beltran L, Carbajal S, Moats S, Ramirez A, Jorcano J & Kiguchi K (2000 a) Constitutive expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 in epidermal basal cells of transgenic mice leads to spontaneous tumor promotion. Cancer Research 60, 15611570.
DiGiovanni J, Kiguchi K, Frijhoff A, Wilker E, Bol DK, Beltran L, Moats S, Ramirez A, Jorcano J & Conti C (2000 b) Deregulated expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 in prostate epithelium leads to neoplasia in transgenic mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97, 34553460.
Di Luigi L, Conti FG, Casini A, Guidetti L, Zezze G, Pigozzi F, Spera G, Fortunio G & Romanelli F (1997) Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I responses to moderate submaximal acute physical exercise in man: effects of octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, administration. International Journal of Sports Medicine 18, 257263.
Dunaif A (1999) Insulin action in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 28, 341359.
Dunger DB & Cheetham TD (1996) Growth hormone insulin-like growth factor I axis in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Hormone Research 46, 26.
Eaton NE, Reeves GK, Appleby PN & Key TJ (1999) Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer: a quantitative review of prospective studies. British Journal of Cancer 80, 930934.
Ehrmann DA (1999) Insulin-lowering therapeutic modalities for polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 28, 423438.
Eliakim A, Brasel JA, Mohan S, Wong WLT & Cooper DM (1998) Increased physical activity and the growth hormone-IGF-I axis in adolescent males. American Journal of Physiology 275, R308R314.
Elias AN, Pandian MR, Wang L, Suarez E, James N & Wilson AF (2000) Leptin and IGF-I levels in unconditioned male volunteers after short-term exercise. Psychoneuroendocrinology 25, 453461.
Erfurth EM, Hagmar LE, Saaf M & Hall K (1996) Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 correlate with serum free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels in healthy young and middle-aged men. Clinical Endocrinology 44, 659664.
Everhart J & Wright D (1995) Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association 273, 16051609.
Falkner B, Sherif K, Sumner A & Kushner H (1999) Hyperinsulinism and sex hormones in young adult African Americans. Metabolism 48, 107112.
Ferrini RL & Barrett-Connor E (1998) Sex hormones and age: a cross-sectional study of testosterone and estradiol and their bioavailable fractions in community-dwelling men. American Journal of Epidemiology 147, 750754.
Fishbein L (1991) Biological Effects of Dietary Restriction, ILSI Monographs, pp. 1354. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer–Verlag.
Frame LT, Hart RW & Leakey JE (1998) Caloric restriction as a mechanism mediating resistance to environmental disease. Environmental Health Perspective 106, Suppl. 1, 313324.
Friedman GD & Van Den Eeden SK (1993) Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: an exploratory study. International Journal of Epidemiology 22, 3037.
Frystyk J, Vestbo E, Skjaerbaek C, Mogensen CE & Orskov H (1995) Free insulin-like growth factors in human obesity. Metabolism 44, 3744.
Gama R, Teale JD & Marks V (1990) The effect of synthetic very low calorie diets on the GH-IGF-1 axis in obese subjects. Clinical Chimica Acta 188, 3138.
Gammon MD, John EM & Britton JA (1998) Recreational and occupational physical activities and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 100117.
Gapstur SM, Gann PH, Lowe W, Liu K, Colangelo L & Dyer A (2000) Abnormal glucose metabolism and pancreatic cancer mortality. Journal of the American Medical Association 283, 25522558.
Giacosa A, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C, Favero A & Andreatta R (1999) Energy intake, overweight, physical exercise and colorectal cancer risk. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 8, Suppl. 1, S53S60.
Gill ZP, Perks CM, Newcomb PV & Holly JM (1997) Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP-3) predisposes breast cancer cells to programmed cell death in a non-IGF-dependent manner. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272, 2560225607.
Giovannucci E (1995) Insulin and colon cancer. Cancer Causes Control 6, 164179.
Giovannucci E, Pollak MN, Platz EA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Majeed N, Colditz GA, Speizer FE & Hankinson SE (2000) A prospective study of plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 and binding protein-3 and risk of colorectal neoplasia in women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 345349.
Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA & Willett WC (1998) Diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 9, 39.
Giustina A & Wehrenberg WB (1995) Influence of thyroid hormones on the regulation of growth hormone secretion. European Journal of Endocrinology 133, 646653.
Golden NH, Kreitzer P, Jacobson MS, Chasalow FI, Schebendach J, Freedman SM & Shenker IR (1994) Disturbances in growth hormone secretion and action in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Journal of Pediatrics 125, 655660.
Goodman MT, Hankin JH, Wilkens LR, Lyu LC, McDuffie K, Liu LQ & Kolonel LN (1997) Diet, body size, physical activity, and the risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer Research 57, 50775085.
Grady D & Ernster VL (1996) Endometrial Cancer. In Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, pp. 10581089 [Schottenfeld D and Fraumeni FJ, editors]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grimm JJ (1999) Interaction of physical activity and diet: implications for insulin-glucose dynamics. Public Health Nutrition 2, 363368.
Grino PB, Griffin JE & Wilson JD (1990) Testosterone at high concentrations interacts with the human androgen receptor similarly to dihydrotestosterone. Endocrinology 126, 11651172.
Haffner SM, Karhapaa P, Mykkanen L & Laakso M (1994) Insulin resistance, body fat distribution, and sex hormones in men. Diabetes 43, 212219.
Haffner SM, Mykkanen L, Valdez RA & Katz MS (1993 a) Relationship of sex hormones to lipids and lipoproteins in nondiabetic men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 77, 16101615.
Haffner SM, Valdez RA, Stern MP & Katz MS (1993 b) Obesity, body fat distribution and sex hormones in men. International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolism Disorder 17, 643649.
Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Michaud DS, Deroo B, Rosner B, Speizer FE & Pollak M (1998) Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of breast cancer. Lancet 351, 13931396.
Hill HA & Austin H (1996) Nutrition and endometrial cancer. Cancer Causes Control 7, 1932.
Ho KK, O'Sullivan AJ, Weissberger AJ & Kelly JJ (1996) Sex steroid regulation of growth hormone secretion and action. Hormone Research 45, 6773.
Hochberg Z, Hertz P, Colin V, Ish-Shalom S, Yeshurun D, Youdim MB & Amit T (1992) The distal axis of growth hormone (GH) in nutritional disorders: GH-binding protein, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-I receptors in obesity and anorexia nervosa. Metabolism 41, 106112.
Hopkins NJ, Jakeman PM, Hughes SC & Holly JM (1994) Changes in circulating insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) during prolonged exercise: effect of carbohydrate feeding. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 79, 18871890.
Hornum M, Cooper DM, Brasel JA, Bueno A & Sietsema KE (1997) Exercise-induced changes in circulating growth factors with cyclic variation in plasma estradiol in women. Journal of Applied Psychology 82, 19461951.
Hu FB, Manson JE, Liu S, Hunter D, Colditz GA, Michels KB, Speizer FE & Giovannucci E (1999) Prospective study of adult onset diabetes mellitus (type 2) and risk of colorectal cancer in women. Journal of The National Cancer Institute 91, 542547.
Hu HY, Yamamoto H, Sohmiya M, Abe T, Murakami Y & Kato Y (1994) Body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the correlation with plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in normal Japanese subjects and patients with acromegaly and GH deficiency. Endocrinology Journal 41, 6369.
Hunter DJ & Willett WC (1993) Diet, body size, and breast cancer. Epidemiologic Reviews 15, 110132.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (1997) Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, vol. 8. IARC Scientific Publication i-1240. Lyon, France: IARC.
Jahreis G, Kauf E, Frohner G & Schmidt HE (1991) Influence of intensive exercise on insulin-like growth factor I, thyroid and steroid hormones in female gymnasts. Growth Regulation 1, 9599.
Jasper H, Pennis P, Vitale M, Mella A, Ropelato G & Chervin A (1999) Evaluation of disease activity by IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) in acromegaly patients distributed according to a clinical score. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 22, 2934.
Ji BT, Hatch MC, Chow WH, McLaughlin JK, Dai Q, Howe GR, Gao YT & Fraumeni JF Jr (1996) Anthropometric and reproductive factors and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a case-control study in Shanghai, China. International Journal of Cancer 66, 432437.
Jones JI & Clemmons DR (1995) Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins: biological actions. Endocrine Reviews 16, 334.
Juul A, Flyvbjerg A, Frystyk J, Muller J & Skakkebaek NE (1996) Serum concentrations of free and total insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding proteins -1 and -3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity in boys with normal or precocious puberty. Clinical Endocrinology 44, 515523.
Juul A, Main K, Blum WF, Lindholm J, Ranke MB & Skakkebaek NE (1994) The ratio between serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and the IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-1, 2 and 3) decreases with age in healthy adults and is increased in acromegalic patients. Clinical Endocrinology 41, 8593.
Kaaks R (1996) Nutrition, hormones, and breast cancer: is insulin the missing link? Cancer Causes Control 7, 605625.
Kaaks R, Toniolo P, Akhmedkhanov A, Lukanova A, Biessy C, Dechaud H, Rinaldi S, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Shore RE & Riboli E (2000) Serum C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-binding proteins and colorectal cancer risk in women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92, 15921600.
Karas M, Danilenko M, Fishman D, LeRoith D, Levy J & Sharon Y (1997) Membrane-associated insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 inhibits insulin-like growth factor-I-induced insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling in ishikawa endometrial cancer cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272, 1651416520.
Key TJ, Allen NE, Verkasalo PK & Banks E (2001) Energy balance and cancer: the role of sex hormones. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60, 8189.
Key TJ & Pike MC (1988 a) The dose-effect relationship between 'unopposed' oestrogens and endometrial mitotic rate: its central role in explaining and predicting endometrial cancer risk. British Journal of Cancer 57, 205212.
Key TJ & Pike MC (1988 b) The role of oestrogens and progestagens in the epidemiology and prevention of breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology 24, 2943.
Kiddy DS, Hamilton-Fairley D, Seppälä M, Koistinen R, James VH, Reed MJ & Franks S (1989) Diet-induced changes in sex hormone binding globulin and free testosterone in women with normal or polycystic ovaries: correlation with serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I. Clinical Endocrinology 31, 757763.
Koistinen H, Koistinen R, Selenius L, Ylikorkala Q & Seppälä M (1996) Effect of marathon run on serum IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 1 and 3 levels. Journal of Applied Psychology 80, 760764.
Koivisto VA, Yki-Jarvinen H & DeFronzo RA (1986) Physical training and insulin sensitivity. Diabetes and Metabolism Reviews 1, 445481.
Kolonel LN (1996) Nutrition and prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 7, 83–44.
Kopelman PG, White N, Pilkington TR & Jeffcoates SL (1981) The effect of weight loss on sex steroid secretion and binding in massively obese women. Clinical Endocrinology 15, 113116.
Koziris LP, Hickson RC, Chatterton RT Jr, Groseth RT, Christie JM, Goldflies DG & Unterman TG (1999) Serum levels of total and free IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are increased and maintained in long-term training. Journal of Applied Psychology 86, 14361442.
Kraemer WJ, Auiler BA, Terada M, Newton RU, Lynch JM, Rosendaal G, McBride JM, Gordon SE & Hakkinen K (1995) Responses of IGF-I to endogenous increases in growth hormone after heavy-resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Psychology 79, 13101315.
Kristiansen SB, Endoh A, Casson PR, Buster JE & Hornsby PJ (1997) Induction of steroidogenic enzyme genes by insulin and IGF-I in cultured adult human adrenocortical cells. Steroids 62, 258265.
Kritchevsky D (1999) Caloric restriction and experimental carcinogenesis. Toxicological Sciences 52, 1316.
La Vecchia C, Negri E, Decarli A & Franceschi S (1997) Diabetes mellitus and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 6, 10071010.
La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S, D'Avanzo B & Boyle P (1994) A case-control study of diabetes mellitus and cancer risk. British Journal of Cancer 70, 950953.
Lee AV, Hilsenbeck SG & Yee D (1998) IGF system components as prognostic markers in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 47, 295302.
Lee PD, Giudice LC, Conover CA & Powell DR (1997) Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1: recent findings and new directions. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 216, 319357.
Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR, Kolonel LN, Hankin JH & Lyu LC (1997) Associations of sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, and diabetes with the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Research 57, 47874794.
Lin T, Haskell J, Vinson N & Terraccio L (1986) Direct stimulatory effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on Leydig cell steroidogenesis in primary culture. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 137, 950956.
Lonning PE, Johannessen DC, Lien EA, Ekse D, Fotsis T & Adlercreutz H (1995) Influence of tamoxifen on sex hormones, gonadotrophins and sex hormone binding globulin in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 52, 491496.
McKeown-Eyssen G (1994) Epidemiology of colorectal cancer revisited: are serum triglycerides and/or plasma glucose associated with risk? Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 3, 687695.
McTiernan A, Ulrich C, Slates S & Potter J (1998) Physical activity and cancer etiology: associations and mechanisms. Cancer Causes Control 9, 487509.
Ma J, Pollak MN, Giovannucci E, Chan JM, Tao Y, Hennekens CH & Stampfer MJ (1999) Prospective study of colorectal cancer risk in men and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91, 620625.
Maes M, Ketelslegers JM & Underwood LE (1983) Low plasma somatomedin-C in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Correlation with changes in somatogenic and lactogenic liver binding sites. Diabetes 32, 10601069.
Magoffin DA, Kurtz KM & Erickson GF (1990) Insulin-like growth factor-I selectively stimulates cholesterol side-chain cleavage expression in ovarian theca-interstitial cells. Molecular Endocrinology 4, 489496.
Magoffin DA & Weitsman SR (1993 a) Differentiation of ovarian theca-interstitial cells in vitro: regulation of 17 alpha-hydroxylase messenger ribonucleic acid expression by luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I. Endocrinology 132, 19451951.
Magoffin DA & Weitsman SR (1993 b) Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulates the expression of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase messenger ribonucleic acid in ovarian theca-interstitial cells. Biology of Reproduction 48, 11661173.
Manousos O, Souglakos J, Bosetti C, Tzonou A, Chatzidakis V, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO & Mantzoros C (1999) IGF-I and IGF-II in relation to colorectal cancer. International Journal of Cancer 83, 1517.
Mantzoros CS, Tzonou A, Signorello LB, Stampfer M, Trichopoulos D & Adami HO (1997) Insulin-like growth factor 1 in relation to prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. British Journal of Cancer 76, 11151118.
Marin P, Kvist H, Lindstedt G, Sjoström L & Björntorp P (1993) Low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in abdominal obesity. International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolism Disorder 17, 8389.
Mercado M & Baumann G (1995) Characteristics of the somatotropic axis in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Archives of Medical Research 26, 101109.
Merimee TJ, Zapf J & Froesch ER (1982) Insulin-like growth factors in the fed and fasted states. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 55, 9991002.
Mesiano S, Katz SL, Lee JY & Jaffe RB (1997) Insulin-like growth factors augment steroid production and expression of steroidogenic enzymes in human fetal adrenal cortical cells: implications for adrenal androgen regulation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82, 13901396.
Møller H, Mellemgaard A, Lindvig K & Olsen JH (1994) Obesity and cancer risk: a Danish record-linkage study. European Journal of Cancer 30A, 344350.
Moore MA, Park CB & Tsuda H (1998) Physical exercise: a pillar for cancer prevention? European Journal of Cancer Prevention 7, 177193.
Morales AJ, Laughlin GA, Butzow T, Maheshwari H, Baumann G & Yen SS (1996) Insulin, somatotropic, and luteinizing hormone axes in lean and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: common and distinct features. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81, 28542864.
Moseson M, Koenig KL, Shore RE & Pasternack BS (1993) The influence of medical conditions associated with hormones on the risk of breast cancer. International Journal of Epidemiology 22, 10001009.
Nam SY, Lee EJ, Kim KR, Cha BS, Song YD, Lim SK, Lee HC & Huh KB (1997) Effect of obesity on total and free insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and their relationship to IGF-binding protein (BP)-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, insulin, and growth hormone. International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolism Disorder 21, 355359.
Nguyen UN, Mougin F, Simon-Rigaud ML, Rouillon JD, Marguet P & Regnard J (1998) Influence of exercise duration on serum insulin-like growth factor and its binding proteins in athletes. European Journal of Applied Psychology 78, 533537.
Nicklas BJ, Ryan AJ, Treuth MM, Harman SM, Blackman MR, Hurley BF & Rogers MA (1995) Testosterone, growth hormone and IGF-I responses to acute and chronic resistive exercise in men aged 55–70 years. International Journal of Sports and Medicine 16, 445450.
Niwa K, Imai A, Hashimoto M, Yokoyama Y, Mori H, Matsuda Y & Tamaya T (2000) A case-control study of uterine endometrial cancer of pre- and post-menopausal women. Oncology Reports 7, 8993.
Nyomba BL, Berard L & Murphy LJ (1997) Free insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy subjects: relationship with IGF-binding proteins and insulin sensitivity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82, 21772181.
O'Mara BA, Byers T & Schoenfeld E (1985) Diabetes mellitus and cancer risk: a multisite case-control study. Journal of Chronic Disease 38, 435441.
Parazzini F, LaVecchia C, Negri E, Riboldi GL, Surace M, Benzi G, Main A & Chiaffarino F (1999) Diabetes and endometrial cancer: an Italian case-control study. International Journal of Cancer 81, 539542.
Pasquali R, Casimirri F, Cantobelli S, Melchionda N, Morselli Labate AM, Fabbri R, Capelli M & Bortoluzzi L (1991) Effect of obesity and body fat distribution on sex hormones and insulin in men. Metabolism 40, 101104.
Pasquali R, Casimirri F & Vicennati V (1997) Weight control and its beneficial effect on fertility in women with obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome. Human Reproduction 12, Suppl. 1, 8287.
Penhoat A, Ouali R, Viard I, Langlois D & Saez JM (1996) Regulation of primary response and specific genes in adrenal cells by peptide hormones and growth factors. Steroids 61, 176183.
Petridou E, Papadiamantis Y, Markopoulos C, Spanos E, Dessypris N & Trichopoulos D (2000) Leptin and insulin growth factor I in relation to breast cancer (Greece). Cancer Causes Control 11, 383388.
Peyrat JP, Bonneterre J, Hecquet B, Vennin P, Louchez MM, Fournier C, Lefebvre J & Demaille A (1993) Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in human breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer 29A, 492497.
Pfeilschifter J, Scheidt-Nave C, Leidig-Bruckner G, Woitge HW, Blum WF, Wuster C, Haack D & Ziegler R (1996) Relationship between circulating insulin-like growth factor components and sex hormones in a population-based sample of 50- to 80-year-old men and women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81, 25342540.
Plymate SR, Jones RE, Matej LA & Friedl KE (1988) Regulation of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) production in Hep G2 cells by insulin. Steroids 52, 339340.
Poretsky L, Cataldo NA, Rosenwaks Z & Giudice LC (1999) The insulin-related ovarian regulatory system in health and disease. Endocrine Reviews 20, 535582.
Postel-Vinay MC, Cohen-Tanugi E & Charrier J (1982) Growth hormone receptors in rat liver membranes: effects of fasting and refeeding, and correlation with plasma somatomedin activity. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 28, 657669.
Prager D, Li HL, Asa S & Melmed S (1994) Dominant negative inhibition of tumorigenesis in vivo by human insulin-like growth factor I receptor mutant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91, 21812185.
Prelevic GM, Wurzburger MI, Balint-Peric L & Ginsburg J (1992) Twenty-four-hour serum growth hormone, insulin, C-peptide and blood glucose profiles and serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations in women with polycystic ovaries. Hormone Research 37, 125131.
Pugeat M, Crave JC, Elmidani M, Nicolas MH, Garoscio-Cholet M, Lejeune H, Dechaud H & Tourniaire J (1991) Pathophysiology of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG): relation to insulin. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 40, 841849.
Pugeat M & Ducluzeau PH (1999) Insulin resistance, polycystic ovary syndrome and metformin. Drugs 58, Suppl. 1, 4146.
Ragozzino M, Melton LJ III, Chu CP & Palumbo PJ (1982) Subsequent cancer risk in the incidence cohort of Rochester, Minnesota, residents with diabetes mellitus. Journal of Chronic Disease 35, 1319.
Rajah R, Valentinis B & Cohen P (1997) Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 induces apoptosis and mediates the effects of transforming growth factor-beta 1 on programmed cell death through a p53- and IGF-independent mechanism. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272, 1218112188.
Randle PJ (1998) Regulatory interactions between lipids and carbohydrates: the glucose fatty acid cycle after 35 years. Diabetes and Metabolism Reviews 14, 263283.
Rasmussen MH, Frystyk J, Andersen T, Breum L, Christiansen JS & Hilsted J (1994) The impact of obesity, fat distribution, and energy restriction on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3, insulin, and growth hormone. Metabolism 43, 315319.
Rasmussen MH, Hvidberg A, Juul A, Main KM, Gotfredsen A, Skakkebaek NE, Hilsted J & Skakkebaek NE (1995 a) Massive weight loss restores 24-hour growth hormone release profiles and serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels in obese subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, 14071415.
Rasmussen MH, Juul A, Kjems LL, Skakkebaek NE & Hilsted J (1995 b) Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, 796801.
Rechler MM (1997) Growth inhibition by insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 – what's IGF got to do with it? Endocrinology 138, 26452647.
Roelen CA, DeVries WR, Koppeschaar HP, Vervoorn C, Thijssen JH & Blankenstein MA (1997) Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and high affinity growth hormone-binding protein levels increase after two weeks of strenuous physical training. International Journal of Sports and Medicine 18, 238241.
Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Wan PC & Pike MC (2000) Effect of hormone replacement therapy on breast cancer risk: estrogen versus estrogen plus progestin. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92, 328332.
Rutanen EM (1998) Insulin-like growth factors in endometrial function. Gynecological Endocrinology 12, 399406.
Rutanen EM, Nyman T, Lehtovirta P, Ammala M & Pekonen F (1994) Suppressed expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 mRNA in the endometrium: a molecular mechanism associating endometrial cancer with its risk factors. International Journal of Cancer 59, 307312.
Schairer C, Lubin J, Troisi R, Sturgeon S, Brinton L & Hoover R (2000) Menopausal estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk. Journal of the American Medical Association 283, 485491.
Scheett TP, Mills PJ, Ziegler MG, Stoppani J & Cooper DM (1999) Effect of exercise on cytokines and growth mediators in prepubertal children. Pediatric Research 46, 429434.
Schmidt W, Dore S, Hilgendorf A, Strauch S, Gareau R & Brisson GR (1995) Effects of exercise during normoxia and hypoxia on the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor I axis. European Journal of Applied Psychology 71, 424430.
Schoen RE, Tangen CM, Kuller LH, Burke GL, Cushman M, Tracy RP, Dobs A & Savage PJ (1999) Increased blood glucose and insulin, body size, and incident colorectal cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91, 11471154.
Schwarz AJ, Brasel JA, Hintz RL, Mohan S & Cooper DM (1996) Acute effect of brief low- and high-intensity exercise on circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, II, and IGF-binding protein-3 and its proteolysis in young healthy men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81, 34923497.
Seidell JC, Björntorp P, Sjoström L, Kvist H & Sannerstedt R (1990) Visceral fat accumulation in men is positively associated with insulin, glucose, and C-peptide levels, but negatively with testosterone levels. Metabolism 39, 897901.
Sellers TA, Anderson KE, Olson JE & Folsom AR (1998) Family histories of diabetes mellitus and breast cancer and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer. Epidemiology 9, 102105.
Shoff SM & Newcomb PA (1998) Diabetes, body size, and risk of endometrial cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 148, 234240.
Shu XO, Brinton LA, Zheng W, Gao YT, Fan J & Fraumeni JF Jr (1991) A population-based case-control study of endometrial cancer in Shanghai, China. International Journal of Cancer 49, 3843.
Silverman DT, Schiffman M, Everhart J, Goldstein A, Lillemoe KD, Swanson GM, Schwartz AG, Brown LM, Greenberg RS, Schoenberg JB, Pottern LM, Hoover RN & Fraumeni JF (1999) Diabetes mellitus, other medical conditions and familial history of cancer as risk factors for pancreatic cancer. British Journal of Cancer 80, 18301837.
Silverman DT, Swanson CA, Gridley G, Wacholder S, Greenberg RS, Brown LM, Hayes RB, Swanson GM, Schoenberg JB, Pottern LM, Schwartz AG, Fraumeni JF Jr & Hoover RN (1998) Dietary and nutritional factors and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 17101719.
Singh A, Hamilton-Fairley D, Koistnen R, Seppälä M, James VH, Franks S & Reed MJ (1990) Effect of insulin-like growth factor-type I (IGF-I) and insulin on the secretion of sex hormone binding globulin and IGF-I binding protein (IBP-I) by human hepatoma cells. Journal of Endocrinology 124, R1R3.
Singh P & Rubin N (1993) Insulinlike growth factors and binding proteins in colon cancer. Gastroenterology 105, 12181237.
Smith GD, Egger M, Shipley MJ & Marmot MG (1992) Post-challenge glucose concentration, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, and cancer mortality in men. American Journal of Epidemiology 136, 11101114.
Stattin P, Bylund A, Rinaldi S, Biessy C, Dechaud H, Stenman U-H, Egevad L, Riboli E, Hallmans G & Kaaks R (2000) Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins, and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92 (In the Press).
Steenland K, Nowlin S & Palu S (1995) Cancer incidence in the National Health and Nutrition Survey I. Follow-up data: diabetes, cholesterol, pulse and physical activity. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 4, 807811.
Stein P, Bussmann LE & Tesone M (1995) In vivo regulation of the steroidogenic activity of rat luteal cells by insulin. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 52, 329335.
Stewart CE & Rotwein P (1996) Growth, differentiation, and survival: multiple physiological functions for insulin-like growth factors. Physiological Reviews 76, 10051026.
Straus DS (1994) Nutritional regulation of hormones and growth factors that control mammalian growth. FASEB Journal 8, 612.
Straus DS & Takemoto CD (1990) Effect of fasting on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and growth hormone receptor mRNA levels and IGF-I gene transcription in rat liver. Molecular Endocrinology 4, 91100.
Suikkari AM, Koivisto VA, Rutanen EM, Yki-Jarvinen H, Karonen SI & Seppälä M (1988) Insulin regulates the serum levels of low molecular weight insulin-like growth factor-binding protein. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 66, 266272.
Suwanichkul A, Allander SV, Morris SL & Powell DR (1994) Glucocorticoids and insulin regulate expression of the human gene for insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 through proximal promoter elements. Journal of Biological Chemistry 269, 3083530841.
Tanaka T, Maesaka H & Suwa S (1985) Changes in somatomedin activity in anorexia nervosa. Endocrinologica Japonica 32, 891897.
Tannenbaum GS, Guyda HJ & Posner BI (1983) Insulin-like growth factors: a role in growth hormone negative feedback and body weight regulation via brain. Science 220, 7779.
Thissen JP, Ketelslegers JM & Underwood IE (1994) Nutritional regulation of the insulin-like growth factors. Endocrine Reviews 15, 80101.
Thomas HV, Reeves GK & Key TJ (1997) Endogenous estrogen and postmenopausal breast cancer: a quantitative review. Cancer Causes Control 8, 922928.
Tibblin G, Adlerberth A, Lindstedt G & Bjorntorp P (1996) The pituitary-gonadal axis and health in elderly men: a study of men born in 1913. Diabetes 45, 16051609.
Tollet P, Enberg B & Mode A (1990) Growth hormone (GH) regulation of cytochrome P-450IIC12, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and GH receptor messenger RNA expression in primary rat hepatocytes: a hormonal interplay with insulin, IGF-I, and thyroid hormone. Molecular Endocrinology 4, 19341942.
Toniolo P, Bruning PF, Akhmedkhanov A, Bonfrer JMG, Koenig KL, Lukanova A, Shore RE & Jacquotte AZ (2000) Serum insulin-like growth factor-I and breast cancer. International Journal of Cancer (In the Press).
Troisi R, Potischman N, Hoover RN, Siiteri P & Brinton LA (1997) Insulin and endometrial cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 146, 476482.
Twigg SM & Baxter RC (1998) Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein 5 forms an alternative ternary complex with IGFs and the acid-labile subunit. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273, 60746079.
Unterman TG (1993) Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1: identification, purification, and regulation in fetal and adult life. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 343, 215226.
Urban RJ, Garmey JC, Shupnik MA & Veldhuis JD (1990) Insulin-like growth factor type I increases concentrations of messenger ribonucleic acid encoding cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme in primary cultures of porcine granulosa cells. Endocrinology 127, 24812488.
Ursin G, Longnecker MP, Haile RW & Greenland S (1995) A meta-analysis of body mass index and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. Epidemiology 6, 137141.
Vance ML, Hartman ML & Thorner MO (1992) Growth hormone and nutrition. Hormone Research 38, Suppl. 1, 8588.
Veldhuis JD, Liem AY, South S, Weltman A, Weltman J, Clemmons DA, Abbott R, Mulligan T, Johnson ML & Pincus S (1995) Differential impact of age, sex steroid hormones, and obesity on basal versus pulsatile growth hormone secretion in men as assessed in an ultrasensitive chemiluminescence assay. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, 32093222.
Vermeulen A (1996) Decreased androgen levels and obesity in men. Annals of Medicine 28, 1315.
Vermeulen A, Goemaere S & Kaufman JM (1999) Testosterone, body composition and aging. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 22, 110116.
Vermeulen A, Kaufman JM & Giagulli VA (1996) Influence of some biological indexes on sex hormone-binding globulin and androgen levels in aging or obese males. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81, 18211826.
Vitiello MV, Wilkinson CW, Merriam GR, Moe KE, Prinz PN, Ralph DD, Colasurdo EA & Schwartz RS (1997) Successful 6-month endurance training does not alter insulin-like growth factor-I in healthy older men and women. Journal of Gerontology 52, M149M154.
Wabitsch M, Blum WF, Muche R, Heinze E, Haug C, Mayer H & Teller W (1996) Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins before and after weight loss and their associations with hormonal and metabolic parameters in obese adolescent girls. International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolism and Disorders 20, 10731080.
Wallace JD, Cuneo RC, Baxter R, Orskov H, Keay N, Pentecost C, Dall R, Rosen T, Jorgensen JO, Cittadini A, Longobardi S, Sacca L, Christiansen JS, Bengtsson BA, & Sonksen PH (1999) Responses of the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor axis to exercise, GH administration, and GH withdrawal in trained adult makes: a potential test for GH abuse in sport. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 84, 35913601.
Wehrenberg WB & Giustina A (1992) Basic counterpoint: mechanisms and pathways of gonadal steroid modulation of growth hormone secretion. Endocrine Reviews 13, 299308.
Weiderpass E, Gridley G, Persson I, Nyren O, Ekbom A & Adam HO (1997) Risk of endometrial and breast cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Cancer 71, 360363.
Weiderpass E, Partanen T, Kaaks R, Vainio H, Porta M, Kauppinen T, Ojajarvi A, Boffetta P & Malats N (1998) Occurrence, trends and environment etiology of pancreatic cancer. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 24, 165174.
Weiderpass E, Persson I, Adami HO, Magnusson C, Lindgren A & Baron JA (2000) Body size in different periods of life, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and risk of postmenopausal endometrial cancer. Cancer Causes Control 11, 185192.
Weindruch R (1992) Effect of caloric restriction on age-associated cancers. Experimental Gerontology 27, 575581.
Weiss HA, Brinton LA, Potischman NA, Brogan D, Coates RJ, Gammon MD, Malone KE & Schoenberg JB (1999) Breast cancer risk in young women and history of selected medical conditions. International Journal of Epidemiology 28, 816823.
Werner H & LeRoith D (1996) The role of the insulin-like growth factor system in human cancer. Advances in Cancer Research 68, 183223.
Wideman L, Weltman JY, Shah N, Story S, Veldhuis JD & Weltman A (1999) Effects of gender on exercise-induced growth hormone release. Journal of Applied Psychology 87, 11541162.
Wideroff L, Gridley G, Mellemkjaer L, Chow WH, Linet M, Keehn S, Borch-Johnsen K & Olsen JH (1997) Cancer incidence in a population-based cohort of patients hospitalized with diabetes mellitus in Denmark. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89, 13601365.
Wilker E, Bol D, Kiguchi K, Rupp T, Beltran L & DiGiovanni J (1999) Enhancement of susceptibility to diverse skin tumor promoters by activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in the epidermis of transgenic mice. Molecular Carcinogenesis 25, 122131.
Will JC, Galuska DA, Vinicor F & Calle EE (1998) Colorectal cancer: another complication of diabetes mellitus? American Journal of Epidemiology 147, 816825.
Will JC, Vinicor F & Calle EE (1999) Is diabetes mellitus associated with prostate cancer incidence and survival? Epidemiology 10, 313318.
Wilson DM (1992) Clinical actions of growth hormone. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 21, 519537.
Wilson JD (1996) Role of dihydrotestosterone in androgen action. Prostate 6, Suppl., 8892.
Wolk A, Mantzoros CS, Andersson SO, Bergstrom R, Signorello LB, Lagiou P, Adami HO & Trichopoulos D (1998) Insulin-like growth factor 1 and prostate cancer risk: a population-based, case-control study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 911915.
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (1997). Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective pp. 1670. Washington, DC: World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research.
Wu AH, Whittemore AS, Kolonel LN, John EM, Gallagher RP, West DW, Hankin J, Teh CZ, Dreon DM & Paffenbarger RS Jr (1995) Serum androgens and sex hormone-binding globulins in relation to lifestyle factors in older African-American, white, and Asian men in the United States and Canada. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 4, 735741.
Wyshak G & Frisch RE (2000) Breast cancer among former college athletes compared to non-athletes: a 15-year follow-up. British Journal of Cancer 82, 726730.
Yang XF, Beamer WG, Huynh H & Pollak M (1996) Reduced growth of human breast cancer xenografts in hosts homozygous for the lit mutation. Cancer Research 56, 15091511.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 310 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 482 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.