1. Lee, R (2003) The demographic transition: three centuries of fundamental change. J Econ Perspect 17, 167–190.
2. Omran, AR (1971) The epidemiological transition: a theory of epidemiology of population change. Milbank Q 49, 509–538.
3. Detels, R & Breslow, L (1997) Current scope and concerns in public health. In Oxford Textbook of Public Health, vol. 1, 3rd ed., pp. 3–17 [Detels, R, Holland, WW, McEwen, J and Omenn, GS editors]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
4. Patel, MS, Srinivasan, M & Laycock, SG (2004) Nutrient-induced maternal hyperinsulinemia and metabolic programming in pregnancy. In The Impact of Maternal Nutrition on the Offspring. vol. 55, Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Pediatric Program, pp. 137–151 [Hornstra, G, Uauy, R and Yang, X editors]. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd.
5. Barker, D (1992) Fetal and Infant Origins of Adult Disease. London: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
6. Lucas, A (1994) Role of nutritional programming in determining adult morbidity. Arch Dis Child 71, 288–290.
7. de Onis, M & Blossner, M (2000) Prevalence and trends of overweight among preschool children in developing countries. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 1032–1039.
8. Ramakrishnan, U, Manjrekar, R, Rivera, J, Gonzales-Cossio, T & Martorell, R (1999) Micronutrients and pregnancy outcome: a review of the literature. Nutr Res 19, 103–159.
9. Beaglehole, R & Yach, D (2003) Globalisation and the prevention and control of non-communicable disease: the neglected chronic diseases of adults. Lancet 362, 903–908.
10. Prentice, AM, Spaaij, CJK, Goldberg, GR, Poppitt, SD, van Raaij, MAJ, Totto, M, Swann, D & Black, AE (1994) Energy requirements of pregnant and lactating women. In Energy and Protein Requirements. Proceedings of an International Dietary Energy Consultative Group Workshop [Scrimshaw, NS, Waterlow, JC and Schürch, B editors]. http://www.unu.edu/Unupress/food2/UID01E/uid01e14.htm#energy%20requirements%20of%20pregnant%20and%20lactating%20women
12. Food and Agriculture Organization (2004) Human Energy Requirements: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series no. 1. Rome: FAO.
13. Barker, DJP (1997a) Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in later life. Br Med Bull 53, 96–108.
14. Barker, DJP (1997b) Maternal nutrition, fetal nutrition and disease in later life. Nutrition 13, 807–813.
15. Godfrey, KM & Robinson, S (1998) Maternal nutrition, placental growth and fetal programming. Proc Nutr Soc 57, 105–111.
16. Barker, DJP, Gluckman, PD, Godfrey, KM, Harding, JE, Owens, JA & Robinson, JS (1993) Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Lancet 341, 938–941.
17. Goldberg, GR & Prentice, AM (1994) Maternal and fetal determinants of adult diseases. Nutr Rev 52, 191–200.
18. Lucas, A, Fewtrell, MS & Cole, TJ (1999) Fetal origins of adult disease – the hypothesis revisited. Br Med J 319, 245–249.
19. Robinson, R (2001) The fetal origins of adult disease. Br Med J 322, 375–376.
20. Ericksson, JD (2005) The fetal origins hypothesis – 10 years on. Br Med J 330, 1096–1097.
21. Prentice, AM & Goldberg, GR (2000) Energy adaptations in human pregnancy: limits and long-term consequences. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 1226S–1232S.
22. Kuzawa, CW (2005) Fetal origins of developmental plasticity: are fetal cues reliable predictors of future nutritional environment? Am J Hum Biol 17, 5–21.
23. Hytten, FE & Chamberlain, G (1991) Weight gain in pregnancy. In Clinical Physiology in Obstetrics, pp. 173–203 [Hytten, FE and Chamberlain, G editors]. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
24. Lawrence, M, Lawrence, F, Coward, WA, Cole, TJ & Whitehead, RG (1987) Energy requirements of pregnancy in the Gambia. Lancet ii, 1072–1076.
25. Godfrey, KM & Barker, DJB (2000) Fetal nutrition and adult disease. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 1344S–1352S.
26. Neuman, C, Bwibo, N & Sigman, M (1993) Diet Quantity and Quality: Functional Effects on Rural Kenyan Families. Kenya Project Final Report, Phase II – 1989–1992. Washington, DC: USAID.
27. King, JC (2003) The risk of maternal nutritional depletion and poor outcomes increases in early or closely spaced pregnancies. J Nutr 133, 1732S–1736S.
28. Lucas, A (1991) Programming by early nutrition in man. In The Childhood Environment and Adult Disease. CIBA Foundation Symposium no. 156, pp. 38–55 [Bock, GR and Whelan, J editors]. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons.
29. Barker, DJP, Osmond, C, Simmonds, SJ & Wield, GA (1993) The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. Br Med J 306, 422–426.
30. Hales, CN & Barker, DJ (1992). Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Diabetologia 35, 595–601.
31. Wells, JCK (2002) Thermal environment and human birth weight. J Theor Biol 214, 413–425.
32. Wells, JCK & Cole, TJ (2002) Birth weight and environmental heat load: a between-population analysis. Am J Phys Anthropol 119, 276–282.
33. Moore, SE (1998) Nutrition, immunity and the fetal and infant origins of disease hypothesis in developing countries. Proc Nutr Soc 57, 241–247.
34. Fowden, AL & Hill, DJ (2001) Intra-uterine programming of the endocrine pancreas. Br Med Bull 60, 123–142.
35. Reaven, GM (1998) Hypothesis: muscle insulin resistance in the (‘not-so’) thrifty genotype. Diabetologia 41, 482–484.
36. Lindsay, RS, Dabellea, D, Roumain, J, Hanson, RL, Bennett, PH & Knowler, WC (2000) Type 2 diabetes and low birth weight: the role of paternal inheritance in the association of low birth weight and diabetes. Diabetes 49, 445–449.
37. Hattersley, AT, Beards, F, Ballantyne, E, Appleton, M, Harvey, R & Ellard, S (1998) Mutations in the glucokinase gene of the fetus result in reduced birth weight. Nat Genet 19, 268–270.
38. Lindsay, RS & Bennett, PH (2001) Type 2 diabetes, the thrifty phenotype – an overview. Br Med Bull 60, 21–32.
39. World Health Organization (2002) Vaccines and Biologicals: WHO Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Monitoring System. 2002 Global Summary. Geneva: WHO.
41. Jackson, AA, Ashworth, A & Khanum, S (2006) Improving child survival: Malnutrition Taskforce and the paediatrician's responsibility. Arch Dis Child 91, 706–710.
42. Colecraft, E (2008) HIV/AIDS: nutritional implications and impact on human development. Proc Nutr Soc 67, 109–113.
43. Fanello, C, Santomalazza, F & della Torre, A (2003) Simultaneous identification of species and molecular forms of the Anopheles gambiae complex by PCR-RFLP. Med Vet Entomol 16, 461–464.
44. Yusuf, S, Reddy, S, Ôunpuu, S & Anand, S (2001) Global burden of cardiovascular diseases. Part II: Variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies. Circulation 104, 2855–2864.
45. Bellizzi, MC, Horgan, GW, Guillaume, M & Dietz, W (2002). Prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity in Asian and European countries. In Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series no. 49, pp. 23–35 [Chen, C and Dietz, WH editors]. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
46. Chen, C (2002) The growth pattern of Chinese children. In Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series no. 49, pp. 37–44 [Chen, C and Dietz, WH editors]. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
47. Kain, J, Burrows, R & Uauy, R (2002) Obesity trends in Chilean children and adolescents: Basic determinants. In Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series no. 49, pp. 45–61 [Chen, C and Dietz, WH editors]. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
48. Al-Moussa, MA, Shaltout, AA, Nkansa-Dwamena, D, Mourad, M, AlSheikh, N, Agha, N & Galal, DO (1999) Factors associated with obesity in Kuwaiti children. Eur J Epidemiol 15, 41–49.
49. Freedman, DS, Serdula, MK & Khan, LK (2002) The adult health consequences of childhood obesity. In Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series no. 49, pp. 63–82 [Chen, C and Dietz, WH editors]. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
50. Al-Shammari, H, Amuna, P, Tewfik, I, Bumejjdad, A & Zotor, F (2006) Changing trends in physical characteristics and obesity risk in 6–13 year old Kuwaiti school children: evidence of a nutritional and epidemiological transition? Proc Nutr Soc 65, 95A.
51. Al-Shammari, H, Bumejjdad, A, Amuna, P et al. (2005) Health habits and risk of obesity among 6–13 year old school children and adolescents. In Nutrition and Health Current Topics 4, pp. 207–208 [Carr, T and Descheemaeker, K editors]. Antwerp-Apeldoom, Garant.
52. Reddy, KS (2002) Cardiovascular diseases in the developing countries: dimensions, determinants, dynamics and directions for public health action. Public Health Nutr 5, 231–237.
53. Eid, N, Al-Hooti, S, Boorisly, N & Khalafawi, M (1986) Nutritional anthropometry of school children in Kuwait. Nutr Rep Int 33, 253–260.