This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
Y Abe , B El-Masri , KT Kimball , H Pownall , CF Reilly , K Osmundsen , CW Smith & CM Ballantyne (1998) Soluble cell adhesion molecules in hypertriglyceridaemia and potential significance on monocyte adhesion. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 18, 723–731.
JJ Agren , S Vaisanen , O Hanninen , AD Muller & G Hornstra (1997) Hemostatic factors and platelet aggregation after a fish-enriched diet or fish oil or docosahexaenoic acid supplementation. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 57, 419–421.
CM Albert , CH Hennekens , CJ O'Donnell , UA Ajani , VJ Carey , WC Willett , JN Ruskin & JE Manson (1998) Fish consumption and risk of sudden cardiac death. Journal of the American Medical Association 279, 23–28.
A Ascherio , EB Rimm , EL Giovannucci , D Spiegelman , M Stampfer & WC Willett (1996) Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States. British Medical Journal 313, 84–90.
A Ascherio , EB Rimm , MJ Stampfer , EL Giovannucci & WC Willett (1995) Dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of coronary heart disease among men. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 977–982.
HC Bucher , P Hengstler , C Schindler & G Meier (2002) N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. American Journal of Medicine 112, 298–304.
ML Burr , PA Ashfield-Watt , FD Dunstan , AM Fehily , P Breay , T Ashton , PC Zotos , NA Haboubi & PC Elwood (2003) Lack of benefit of dietary advice to men with angina: Results of a controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, 193–200.
JA Cairns , J Gill , B Morton , R Roberts , M Gent , J Hirsh , D Holder , K Finnie , JF Marquis , S Naqvi & E Cohen (1996) Fish oils and low-molecular weight heparin for the reduction of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The EMPAR Study. Circulation 94, 1553–1560.
JS Charnock (1994) Lipids and cardiac arrhythmia. Progress in Lipid Research 33, 355–385.
JP Chin & AM Dart (1995) How do fish oils affect vascular function. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 22, 71–81.
ML Daviglus , J Stamler , AJ Orencia , AR Dyer , K Liu , P Greenland , MK Walsh , D Morris & RB Shekelle (1997) Fish consumption and the 30-year risk of fatal myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 336, 1046–1053.
S Dayton & ML Pearce (1969) Prevention of coronary heart disease and other complications of arteriosclerosis by modified diet. American Journal of Medicine 46, 751–762.
R de Caterina & P Libby (1996) Control of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules by fatty acids. Lipids 31, S57–S63.
M de Lorgeril , S Renaud , N Mamelle , P Salen , JL Martin , I Monjaud , J Guidollet , P Touboul & J Delaye (1994) Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet 343, 1454–1459.
M de Lorgeril , P Salen , JL Martin , I Monjaud , J Delaye & N Mamelle (1999) Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction. Final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation 99, 779–785.
L Djousse , DK Arnett , JJ Carr , JH Eckfeldt , PN Hopkins , MA Province & RC Ellison (2005) Dietary linolenic acid is inversely associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Family Heart Study. Circulation 111, 2921–2926.
TA Dolecek (1992) Epidemiological evidence of relationships between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 200, 177–182.
TA Dolecek & G Granditis (1991) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 66, 205–216.
S Endres , C von Schacky (1996) n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and human cytokine synthesis. Current Opinion in Lipidology 7, 48–52.
J Eritsland , H Arnesen , K Gronseth , NB Fjeld & M Abdelnoor (1996) Effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids on coronary artery bypass graft patency. American Journal of Cardiology 77, 31–36.
KL Esrey , L Joseph & SA Grover (1996) Relationship between dietary intake and coronary heart disease mortality: lipid research clinics prevalence follow-up study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 49, 211–216.
Jr FrantzID , EA Dawson , PL Ashman , LC Gatewood , GE Bartsch , K Kuba , ER Brewer (1989) Test of effect of lipid lowering by diet on cardiovascular risk. The Minnesota Coronary Survey. Arteriosclerosis 9, 129–135.
JP Gapinski , JV VanRuiswyk , GR Heudebert & GS Schectman (1993) Preventing restenosis with fish oils following coronary angioplasty: a meta-analysis. Archives of Internal Medicine 153, 1595–1601.
GISSI-Prevenzione Trial Group (1999) Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarcto miocardico. Lancet 354, 447–455.
T Gordon , A Kagan , M Garcia-Palmieri , WB Kannel , WJ Zukel , J Tillotson , P Sorlie & M Hjortland (1981) Diet and its relation to coronary heart disease and death in three populations. Circulation 63, 500–515.
E Guallar , A Aro , FJ Jimenez , JM Martin-Moreno , I Salminen , P van't Veer (1999) Omega-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction: the EURAMIC study. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 19, 1111–1118.
E Guallar , MI Sanz-Gallardo , P van't Veer , P Bode , A Aro , J Gomez-Aracena , JD Kark , RA Riemersma , JM Martin-Moreno , FJ Kok , Metals Heavy andMyocardial Infarction Study Group (2002) Mercury, fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 347, 1747–1754.
K He , Y Song , ML Daviglus , K Liu , L van Horn , AR Dyer & P Greenland (2004) Accumulated evidence on fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Circulation 109, 2705–2711.
PR Howe (1997) Dietary fats and hypertension: focus on fish oil. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 827, 339–352.
FB Hu , JE Manson & WC Willett (2001) Types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a critical review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 20, 5–19.
FB Hu & MJ Stampfer (1999) Nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a review of epidemiologic evidence. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 1, 204–209.
FB Hu , MJ Stampfer , JE Manson , E Rimm , GA Colditz , BA Rosner , CH Hennekens & WC Willett (1997) Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. New England Journal of Medicine 337, 1491–1499.
FB Hu & WC Willett (2002) Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 288, 2569–2578.
D Jacobs , H Blackburn , M Higgins , D Reed , H Iso , G McMillan , J Neaton , J Nelson , J Potter & B Rifkind (1992) Report of the Conference on Low Blood Cholesterol: Mortality Associations. Circulation 86, 1046–1060.
DJ Jenkins , CW Kendall , A Marchie , DA Faulkner , JM Wong , R de Souza , al. et (2003) Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. Journal of the American Medical Association 290, 502–510.
O Johansen , M Brekke , I Seljeflot , M Abdelnoor & H Arnesen (1999) N-3 fatty acids do not prevent restenosis after coronary angioplasty: results from the CART study. Coronary Angioplasty Restenosis Trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 33, 1619–1626.
O Johansen , I Seljeflot , AT Hostmark & H Arnesen (1999) The effect of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on soluble markers of endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 19, 1681–1686.
MB Katan , PL Zock & RP Mensink (1995) Trans fatty acids and their effects on lipoproteins in humans. Annual Review of Nutrition 15, 473–493.
A Keys (1980) Seven Countries: a Multivariate Analysis of Death and Coronary Heart Disease. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
RM Krauss , RH Eckel , B Howard , LJ Appel , SR Daniels , RJ Deckelbaum (2000) AHA Dietary Guidelines: revision 2000: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 102, 2284–2299.
RA Kreisberg & A Oberman (2003) Medical management of hyperlipidemia/dyslipidemia. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 88, 2445–2461.
PM Kris-Etherton , WS Harris , LJ Appel , for the Nutrition Committee (2002) Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 106, 2747–2757.
D Kromhout (1998) Fish consumption and sudden cardiac death. Journal of the American Medical Association 279, 65–66.
D Kromhout , BP Bloemberg , EJ Feskens , MG Hertog , A Menotti & H Blackburn (1996) Alcohol, fish, fibre and antioxidant vitamin intake do not explain population differences in coronary heart disease mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology 25, 753–759.
D Kromhout , EB Bosschieter & C de Lezenne Coulander (1985) The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine 312, 1205–1209.
D Kromhout , EJ Feskens & CH Bowles (1995a) The protective effect of a small amount of fish on coronary heart disease mortality in an elderly population. International Journal of Epidemiology 24, 340–345.
D Kromhout , A Menotti , B Bloemberg , C Aravanis , H Blackburn , R Buzina (1995b) Dietary saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: the Seven Countries Study. Preventive Medicine 24, 308–315.
LH Kushi , RA Lew , FJ Stare , CR Ellison , M el Lozy , G Bourke , L Daly , I Graham , N Hickey & R Mulcahy (1985) Diet and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. The Ireland-Boston Diet-Heart Study. New England Journal of Medicine 312, 811–818.
KW Lee & GYH Lip (2003) The role of omega-3 fatty acids in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 96, 465–480.
P Leren (1970) The Oslo diet-heart study. Eleven-year report. Circulation 42, 935–942.
AH Lichtenstein , LM Ausman , W Carrasco , JL Jenner , JM Ordovas & EJ Schaefer (1993) Hydrogenation impairs the hypolipidemic effect of corn oil in humans. Hydrogenation, trans fatty acids, and plasma lipids. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 13, 154–161.
AH Lichtenstein , LM Ausman , SM Jalbert & EJ Schaefer (1999) Effects of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels. New England Journal of Medicine 340, 1933–1940.
JC Lovejoy (1999) Dietary fatty acids and insulin resistance. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 1, 215–220.
G Lu , SL Windsor & WS Harris (1999) Omega-3 fatty acids alter lipoprotein subfraction distributions and the in vitro conversion of very low density lipoproteins to low density lipoproteins. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 10, 151–158.
GE McVeigh , GM Brennan , JN Cohn , SM Finkelstein , RJ Hayes & GD Johnston (1994) Fish oil improves arterial compliance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 14, 1425–1429.
JI Mann (2002) Diet and risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Lancet 360, 783–789.
P Marckmann & M Gronbaek (1999) Fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 585–590.
RP Mensink (2005) Metabolic and health effects of isomeric fatty acids. Current Opinion in Lipidology 16, 27–30.
RP Mensink & MB Katan (1992) Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 12, 911–919.
TA Mori , LJ Beilin , V Burke , J Morris & J Ritchie (1997) Interactions between dietary fat, fish and fish oils and their effects on platelet function in men at risk of cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 17, 279–286.
MC Morris , F Sacks & B Rosner (1993) Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Circulation 88, 523–533.
LM Morrison (1951) Reduction of mortality rate in coronary atherosclerosis by a low cholesterol-low fat diet. American Heart Journal 42, 538–545.
M Mutanen & R Freese (1996) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and platelet aggregation. Current Opinion in Lipidology 7, 14–19.
AR Ness , J Hughes , PC Elwood , E Whitley , GD Smith & ML Burr (2002) The long-term effect of dietary advice in men with coronary disease: follow-up of the Diet and Reinfarction Trial (DART). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, 512–518.
RJ Nicolosi , AF Stucchi , MC Kowala , LK Hennessy , DM Hegsted & EJ Schaefer (1990) Effect of dietary fat saturation and cholesterol on LDL composition and metabolism. In vivo studies of receptor and nonreceptor-mediated catabolism of LDL in cebus monkeys. Arteriosclerosis 10, 119–128.
DJ O'Byrne , DA Knauft & RB Shireman (1997) Low fat-monounsaturated rich diets containing high-oleic peanuts improve serum lipoprotein profiles. Lipids 32, 687–695.
CM Oomen , EJ Feskens , L Rasanen , F Fidanza , AM Nissinen , A Menotti , FJ Kok & D Kromhout (2000) Fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality in Finland, Italy and the Netherlands. American Journal of Epidemiology 151, 999–1006.
CM Oomen , MC Ocke , EJM Feskens , M-AJ van Erp-Baart , FJ Kok & D Kromhout (2001) Association between trans fatty acid intake and 10-year risk of coronary heart disease in the Zutphen Elderly Study: a prospective population-based study. Lancet 357, 746–751.
P Pietinen , A Ascherio , P Korhonen , AM Hartman , WC Willett , D Albanes & J Virtamo (1997) Intake of fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men: the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 145, 876–887.
BM Posner , JL Cobb , AJ Belanger , LA Cupples , RB D'Agostino , J Stokes J (1991) Dietary lipid predictors of coronary heart disease in men. The Framingham Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 151, 1181–1187.
LS Rallidis , G Paschos , ML Papaioannou , GK Liakos , DB Panagiotakos , G Anastasiadis & A Zampelas (2004) The effect of diet enriched with alpha-linolenic acid on soluble cellular adhesion molecules in dyslipidaemic patients. Atherosclerosis 174, 127–132.
E Ros , I Nunez , A Perez-Heras , M Serra , R Gilabert , E Casals & R Deulofeu (2004) A walnut diet improves endothelial function in hypercholesterolaemic subjects – a randomized crossover trial. Circulation 109, 1609–1614.
F Sacks (1994) Dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Overview. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk 1, 3–8.
FM Sacks , PH Stone , CM Gibson , DI Silverman , B Rosner & RC Pasternak (1995) Controlled trial of fish oil for regression of human coronary atherosclerosis. HARP Research Group. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 25, 1492–1498.
JT Salonen , K Seppanen , TA Lakka , R Salonen & GA Kaplan (2000) Mercury accumulation and accelerated progression of carotid atherosclerosis: a population-based prospective 4-year follow-up study in men in eastern Finland. Atherosclerosis 148, 265–273.
I Seljeflot , H Arnesen , IR Brude , MS Nenseter , CA Drevon & I Hjermann (1998) Effects of omega-3 fatty acids and/or antioxidants on endothelial cell markers. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 28, 629–635.
NF Sheard (1998) Fish consumption and risk of sudden cardiac death. Nutrition Reviews 56, 177–179.
RB Shekelle , AM Shryock , O Paul , M Lepper , J Stamler , S Liu , Jr Raynor WJ (1981) Diet, serum cholesterol, and death from coronary heart disease. The Western Electric Study. New England Journal of Medicine 304, 65–70.
AP Simopoulos (2002) Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune disease. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 21, 495–505.
RB Singh , G Dubnov , MA Niaz , S Ghosh , R Singh , SS Rastogi , O Manor , D Pella & EM Berry (2002) Effect of an Indo-Mediterranean diet on progression of coronary artery disease in high risk patients (Indo-Mediterranean Diet Heart Study): a randomised single-blind trial. Lancet 360, 1455–1461.
RB Singh , MA Niaz , JP Sharma , R Kumar , V Rastogi & M Moshiri (1997) Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil and mustard oil in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction: the Indian experiment of infarct survival. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 11, 485–491.
DK Spady , DW Bilheimer & JM Dietschy (1983) Rates of receptor-dependent and -independent low density lipoprotein uptake in the hamster. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 80, 3499–3503.
F Thies , JMC Garry , P Yaqoob , K Rerkasem , J Williams , CP Shearman , PJ Gallagher , PC Calder & RF Grimble (2003) Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with stability of atherosclerotic plaques: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 361, 477–485.
AS Truswell (1994) Review of dietary intervention studies: effect on coronary events and on total mortality. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 24, 98–106.
AM Turpeinen , J Wubert , A Aro , R Lorenz & M Mutanen (1998) Similar effects of diets rich in stearic acid or trans-fatty acids on platelet function and endothelial prostacyclin production in humans. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 18, 316–322.
O Turpeinen , MJ Karvonen , M Pekkarinen , M Miettinen , R Elosuo & E Paavilainen (1979) Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease: the Finnish Mental Hospital Study. International Journal of Epidemiology 8, 99–118.
WM Verschuren , DR Jacobs , BP Bloemberg , D Kromhout , A Menotti , C Aravanis , H Blackburn , R Buzina , AS Dontas & F Fidenza (1995) Serum total cholesterol and long-term coronary heart disease mortality in different cultures. Twenty-five year follow-up of the Seven Countries Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 274, 131–136.
C von Schacky , P Angerer , W Kothny , K Theisen & H Mudra (1999) The effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on coronary atherosclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 130, 554–562.
SP Whelton , J He , PK Whelton & P Muntner (2004) Meta-analysis of observational studies on fish intake and coronary heart disease. American Journal of Cardiology 93, 1119–1123.
J Zhang , S Sasaki , K Amano & H Kestelot (1999) Fish consumption and mortality from all causes, ischemic heart disease, and stroke: an ecological study. Preventive Medicine 28, 520–529.