Ballegaard M, Bjergstrom A, Brondum S, Hylander E, Jensen L & Ladefoged K (1997) Self-reported food intolerance in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 32, 569–571.
Barksdale J (1996) Titanium – Its Occurence, Chemistry and Technology. New York: Ronald.
Best WR, Becktel JM, Singleton JW & Kern F (1976) Development of a Crohn's disease activity index. National Cooperative Crohn's Disease Study. Gastroenterology 70, 439–444.
Calkins BM & Mendelhoff AI (1995) Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.
Churg A (1996) The uptake of mineral particles by pulmonary epithelial cells. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 154, 1124–1140.
Department of Health (1991). Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 41. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Desai MP, Labhasetwar V, Amidon GL & Levy RJ (1996) Gastrointestinal uptake of biodegradable microparticles: effect of particle size. Pharmaceutical Research 13, 1838–1845.
Ellingsen JE (1991) A study on the mechanism of protein adsorption to TiO2. Biomaterials 12, 593–596.
Ellis RD, Goodlad JR, Limb GA, Powell JJ, Thompson RP & Punchard NA (1998) Activation of nuclear factor kappa B in Crohn's disease. Inflammation Research 47, 440–445.
Favus MJ (1985) Factors that influence absorption and secretion of calcium in the small intestine and colon. American Journal of Physiology 248, 147–157.
Fiocchi C (1998) Inflammatory bowel disease: etiology and pathogenesis. Gastroenterology 115, 182–205.
Geigy (1981) Geigy Scientific Tables, vol. 1, Units of Measurement, Body fluids, Composition of the Body, Nutrition. Basle, Switzerland: Ciba-Geigy Ltd.
Govers MJAP, Termont DSML, Aken GAV & Van der Meer R (1994) Characterization of the adsorption of conjugated and unconjugated bile acids to insoluble, amorphous calcium phosphate. Journal of Lipid Research 35, 741–748.
Hampe J, Cuthbert A, Croucher PJ, Mirza MM, Mascheretti S, Fisher S, Frenzel H, King K, Hasselmeyer A, MacPherson AJ, Bridger S, Van Deventer S, Forbes A, Nikolaus S, Lennard-Jones JE, Foelsch UR, Krawczak M, Lewis C, Schreiber S & Mathew CG (2001) Association between insertion mutation in NOD2 gene and Crohn's disease in German and British populations. Lancet 357, 1925–1928.
Harvey RSJ, Powell JJ & Thompson RPH (1996) A review of the geochemical factors linked to podoconiosis. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 113, 255–260.
Hugot JP, Chamaillard M, Zouali H, Lesage S, Cezard JP, Belaiche J, Almer S, Tysk C, O'Morain CA, Gassull M, Binder V, Finkel Y, Cortot A, Modigliani R, Laurent-Puig P, Gower-Rousseau C, Macry J, Colombel JF, Sahbatou M & Thomas G (2001) Association of NOD2 leucine-rich repeat variants with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature 411, 599–603.
Jukes DJ (1997) Food Legislation of the UK. Oxford: Butterworth–Heinemann.
Kohilas K, Lyons M, Lofthouse R, Frondoza CG, Jinnah R & Hungerford DS (1999) Effect of prosthetic titanium wear debris on mitogen-induced monocyte and lymphoid activation. Journal of Biomedical Material Research 47, 95–103.
Kovacsovics-Bankowski M, Clark K, Benacerraf B & Rock KL (1993) Efficient major histocompatibility complex class I presentation of exogenous antigen upon phagocytosis by macrophages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90, 4942–4946.
Krebs J (1998) The role of calcium in apoptosis. Biometals 11, 375–382.
Lapré JA, De Vries HT & Van der Meer R (1991) Dietary calcium phosphate inhibits cytotoxicity of fecal water. American Journal of Physiology 261, 907–912.
Liou SH, Shih WY, Chen YP & Lee CC (1996) Pneumoconiosis and pulmonary function defects in silica-exposed fire brick workers. Archives of Environmental Health 51, 227–233.
Lomer MC, Harvey RS, Evans SM, Thompson RP & Powell JJ (2001) Efficacy and tolerability of a low microparticle diet in a double blind, randomized, pilot study in Crohn's disease. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 13, 101–106.
Lomer MC, Thompson RP, Commisso J, Keen CL & Powell JJ (2000) Determination of titanium dioxide in foods using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Analyst 125, 2339–2343.
Maloy KJ, Donachie AM, O'Hagan DT & Mowat AM (1994) Induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses by immunization with ovalbumin entrapped in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles. Immunology 81, 661–667.
Mansfield JC, Giaffer MH & Holdsworth CD (1995) Controlled trial of oligopeptide versus amino acid diet in treatment of active Crohn's disease. Gut 36, 60–66.
Martini GA & Brandes JW (1976) Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates in patients with Crohn's disease. Klinische Wochenschrift 54, 367–371.
Metintas M, Hillerdal G & Metintas S (1999) Malignant mesothelioma due to environmental exposure to erionite: follow-up of a Turkish emigrant cohort. European Respiratory Journal 13, 523–526.
Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food (1993). Dietary Intake of Food Additives in the UK: Initial Surveillance. Food Surveillance Paper no. 37. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Neutra MR (1998) Current concepts in mucosal immunity v. role of M cells in transepithelial transport of antigens and pathogens to the mucosal immune system. American Journal of Physiology 274, 785–791.
O'Morain C, Segal AW & Levi AJ (1984) Elemental diet as primary treatment of acute Crohn's disease: a controlled trial. British Medical Journal 288, 1859–1862.
Ogura Y, Bonen DK, Inohara N, Nicolae DL, Chen FF, Ramos R, Britton H, Moran T, Karaliuskas R, Duerr RH, Achkar JP, Brant SR, Bayless TM, Kirschner BS, Hanauer SB, Nunez G & Cho JH (2001) A frameshift mutation in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature 411, 603–606.
Okada M, Yao T, Yammamoto K, Takenaka K, Imamura K, Maeda K & Fujita K (1990) Controlled trial comparing an elemental diet with prednisolone in the treatment of active Crohn's disease. Hepatogastroenterology 37, 72–80.
Phillips SF & Giller J (1973) The contribution of the colon to electrolyte and water conservation in man. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 81, 733–746.
Powell JJ, Ainley CC, Harvey RS, Mason IM, Kendall MD, Sankey EA, Dhillon AP & Thompson RP (1996) Characterisation of inorganic microparticles in pigment cells of human gut associated lymphoid tissue. Gut 38, 390–395.
Powell JJ, Harvey RS, Ashwood P, Wolstencroft R, Gershwin ME & Thompson RP (2000) Immune potentiation of ultrafine dietary particles in normal subjects and patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Autoimmunity 14, 99–105.
Powell JJ, Jugdaohsingh R & Thompson RP (1999 a) The regulation of mineral absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58, 147–153.
Powell JJ, Whitehead MW, Ainley CC, Kendall MD, Nicholson JK & Thompson RP (1999 b) Dietary minerals in the gastrointestinal tract: hydroxypolymerisation of aluminium is regulated by luminal mucins. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 75, 167–180.
Powell JJ, Whitehead MW, Lee S & Thompson RPH (1994) Mechanisms of gastrointestinal absorption: Dietary minerals and the influence of beverage ingestion. Food Chemistry 51, 381–388.
Price EW (1990) Podiconiosis: Non-filarial Elephantiasis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Riordan AM, Hunter JO, Cowan RE, Crampton JR, Davidson AR, Dickinson RJ, Dronfield MW, Fellows IW, Hishon S & Kerrigan GN (1993) Treatment of active Crohn's disease by exclusion diet: East Anglian multicentre controlled trial. Lancet 342, 1131–1134.
Russel MG, Engels LG, Muris JW, Limonard CB, Volovics A, Brummer RJ & Stockbrugger RW (1998) Modern life in the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study with special emphasis on nutritional factors. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10, 243–249.
Rutgeerts P, Goboes K, Peeters M, Hiele M, Penninckx F, Aerts R, Kerremans R & Vantrappen G (1991) Effect of faecal stream diversion on recurrence of Crohn's disease in the neoterminal ileum. Lancet 338, 771–774.
Samet JM, Dominici F, Curriero FC, Coursac I & Zeger SL (2000) Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S. cities, 1987–1994. New England Journal of Medicine 343, 1742–1749.
Schedl HP, Osbaldiston GW & Mills IH (1967) Role of intraluminal precipitation in secretion of small intestinal calcium and phosphate in the dog. Nature 215, 198–199.
Schedl HP, Osbaldiston GW & Mills IH (1968) Absorption, secretion, and precipitation of calcium in the small intestine of the dog. American Journal of Physiology 214, 814–819.
Sedlik C, Deriaud E & Leclerc C (1997) Lack of Th1 or Th2 polarization of CD4+ T cell response induced by particulate antigen targeted to phagocytic cells. International Immunology 9, 91–103.
Shepherd NA, Crocker PR, Smith AP & Levison DA (1987) Exogenous pigment in Peyer's patches. Human Pathology 18, 50–54.
Song R & Harding CV (1996) Roles of proteasomes, transporter for antigen presentation (TAP), and β2-microglobulin in the processing of bacterial or particulate antigens via an alternative class I MHC processing pathway. Journal of Immunology 156, 4182–4190.
Stryhn A, Pedersen L, Romme T, Olsen AC, Nissen MH, Thorpe CJ & Buus S (1996) pH dependence of MHC class I-restricted peptide presentation. Journal of Immunology 156, 4191–4197.
Tagliarino C, Pink JJ, Dubyak GR, Nieminen AL & Boothman DA (2001) Calcium is a key signaling molecule in beta-lapachone-mediated cell death. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 19150–19159.
Thornton JR, Emmett PM & Heaton KW (1985) Smoking, sugar, and inflammatory bowel disease. British Medical Journal 290, 1786–1787.
Vidard L, Kovacsovics-Bankowski M, Kraeft SK, Chen LB, Benacerraf B & Rock KL (1996) Analysis of MHC class II presentation of particulate antigens by B lymphocytes. Journal of Immunology 156, 2809–2818.
Welberg JWM, Kleibeuker JH, Van der Meer R, Kuipers F, Cats A, Van Rijsbergen HDSMLT, Boersma-Van Ek W, Vonk RJ, Mulder NH & De Vries EGE (1993) Effect of oral calcium supplementation on intestinal bile and cytolytic activity of fecal water in patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 23, 63–68.
Wilschanski M, Sherman P, Pencharz P, Davis L, Corey M & Griffiths A (1996) Supplementary enteral nutrition maintains remission in paediatric Crohn's disease. Gut 38, 543–548.
Zoli G, Care M, Parazza M, Spano C, Biagi PL, Bernardi M & Gasbarrini G (1997) A randomized controlled study comparing elemental diet and steroid treatment in Crohn's disease. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 11, 735–740.