Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Food-based strategies to meet the challenges of micronutrient malnutrition in the developing world

  • Kraisid Tontisirin (a1), Guy Nantel (a1) and Lalita Bhattacharjee (a1)
Abstract

The purpose of the present paper is to review the evidence in favour of food-based strategies to meet the challenges of micronutrient malnutrition in the developing world. Increasing dietary diversification is the most important factor in providing a wide range of micronutrients, and to achieve this objective in a development context requires an adequate supply, access and consumption of a variety of foods. Diets in developing countries generally lack many nutrients, including energy (inadequate amounts of food), so that strategies need to also emphasize an increase in total food intake, in addition to a greater variety. Agricultural and food policies tend to be oriented to primary agricultural productions, but they could also be formulated to promote and support home gardens and small livestock production for the explicit purpose of increasing the household consumption of micronutrient-rich foods. The adoption of ‘desirable’ dietary patterns for nutrition improvement, e.g. appropriately formulated to meet micronutrient needs, could be used in the formulation of agricultural policies and programmes. This process could be achieved through support for integrated farming systems oriented to assuring household food security, but also based on a variety of foods that will meet total dietary (including micronutrient) needs. Thus, availability of energy-rich staples, animal and/or fish as major sources of protein, and vitamin-, mineral- and phytonutrient-rich fruit and vegetables could constitute the types of production envisaged. The cultivation of edible indigenous plants as additional sources of micronutrients could also be added. The low bioavailability of some key micronutrients from foods, such as Fe, are substantially enhanced with the right food combinations and with appropriate food processing and preparation techniques. Simple appropriate technology for the preservation of micronutrientrich foods would need further development and promotion for their year-round availability. Linking community development policies to national programmes for the alleviation of hunger and malnutrition, with an emphasis on increasing the variety of foods consumed, is probably the best strategy for improving micronutrient malnutrition sustainably.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Food-based strategies to meet the challenges of micronutrient malnutrition in the developing world
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Food-based strategies to meet the challenges of micronutrient malnutrition in the developing world
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Food-based strategies to meet the challenges of micronutrient malnutrition in the developing world
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Dr Guy Nantel, fax +39 06 5705 4593, email Guy.Nantel@fao.org
Footnotes
Hide All

Consultant.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Allen, LH & Ahluvalia, N (1997) Improving Iron Status Through Diet: The Application of Knowledge Concerning Dietary Iron Availability in Human Populations. Washington, DC: US Agency for International Development and Opportunities for Micronutrient Interventions.
Annapurna, V Shah, N Bhaskaram, P Bamji, MS &Reddy, V (1991) Bioavailability of spirulina carotene. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 10, 145151.
Bhattacharjee, LI Mudambi, SR Bhusan, B & Patanakar, AV (1994) Provitamin A content of selected Indian foods. Journal of Food Science and Technology 31 249251.
Booth, SL Johns, T & Lopez-Palacios, CY (1993) Factors influencing the dietary intake of indigenous leafy greens by the K' ekchi people of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Ecology of Food and Nutritional, 31, 127145.
Brune, M Rossander, L & Hallberg, L (1989) Iron absorption and phenolic compounds: importance of different phenolic structures. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 547558.
Bulux, J Quan, de Serano J Guiliano, A Parez, R Lopez, CY Rivera, C Solomons, NW & Canfield, LM (1994) Plasma response of children to short term chronic beta carotene supplementation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 369375.
Caballero, JN & Mapes, CS (1985) Gathering and subsistence patterns among the P’urhepecha Indians of Mexico. Journal of Ethnobiology 5, 31147.
Charlton, RW (1983) The effects of organic acids, phytates and polyphenols on the absorption of iron from vegetables. British Journal of Nutrition 49, 331342.
Combs, GF Welch, RM Duxbury, JM Uphoff, NT & Nesheim, MC (editors) (1995) Food-based Approaches to Preventing Micronutrient Malnutrition: An International Research Agenda. Summary Report of an International Workshop. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Internation Institute for food, Argiculture and Development, Cornell University.
Cook, JD & Monsen, ER (1976) Food iron absorption in human subjects. 3. Comparison of the effect of animal proteins on non-heme iron absorption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 29, 859867.
De Maeyer, EM with the collaboration of Dallman, P Gurney, JM Hallberg, L Sood, SK & Srikantia, SK (1989) Preventing and Controlling Iron Deficiency Anemia Through Primary Health Care. A Guide for Health Administrators and Programme Managers. Geneva: WHO.
Dikshit, SN Udipi, SA Rao, A & Manoharan, V (1988) Separation of carotenoids and estimation of beta carotene content of selected Indian food preparations by HPLC. Journal of Food Science and Technology 25, 3941.
Florentino, S (editor) (1996) Dietary Guidelines in Asian Countries: Towards a Food-based Approach. Proceedings of a Seminar and Workshop on National Dietary Guidelines, Meeting Nutritional Needs of Asian Countries in the 21st Century. Singapore: ILSI, Southeast Asia.
Food and Agriculture Organization (1996) World Food Summit. Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action. Rome: FAO.
Food and Agriculture Organization (2000) The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Rome: FAO.
Food and Agriculture Organization and International Life Sciences Institute (1997) Preventing Micronutrient Malnutrition: A Guide to Food Based Approaches – A Manual for Policy Makers and Programme Planners. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (1988) Requirements of Vitamin A, Iron, Folate and Vitamin B12. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Food and Nutrition Series no. 23. Geneva: WHO.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (1992) International Conference on Nutrition. World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition. Rome: FAO.
Gibson, RS & Ferguson, E (2000) An Interactive 24 Hour Recall for Assessing Dietary Adequacy of Iron and Zinc Intakes in Developing Countries. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.
Gibson, RS Hotz, C Temple, L Yeudall, F Mtitmuni, B & Ferguson, E (2000) Dietary strategies to combat deficiencies of iron, zinc and vitamin A in developing countries: Development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 20, 219230.
Hallberg, L & Rossander, L (1984) Improvement of iron nutriture in developing countries: comparisons of adding meat, soy protein, ascorbic acid, citric acid and ferrous sulphate on iron absorption from a simple Latin American-type of meal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39, 577583.
Hanumatha, Rao D Mathur, YN Radhaiah, G & Prahalad, Rao N (1986) Health and Nutritional Status of Tribals in Madhya Pradesh. Hyderabad, India: National Institute of Nutrition.
Hussain, L & El-Tohamy, M (1988) Effect of supplementation with vitamin A or plant carotenes on plasma retinol levels among young Egyptian males. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 59, 229233.
Hussain, L & El-Tohamy, M (1990) Vitamin A potency of carrot and spinach carotenes in human metabolic studies. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 60, 229235.
International Institute of Population Studies (1998) National Family Health Survey of India 1994–1996. Bombay, India: IIPS.
Kataria, A Chauhan, BM & Gandhi, S (1988) Effect of domestic processing and cooking on the antinutrients of black gram. Food Chemistry 30, 149156.
Kearney, M & Gibney, MJ (1994) Qualitative research by focus group discussion to identify concerns about weight among adult females. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 53, 120A.
Krause, VM Kuhnlein, HV Lopez-Palacios, CY Tucker, KL Ruz, M & Solomons, NW (1993) Preparation effects on tortillas mineral content in Guatemala. Archivos LatinoAmericanos de Nutricion 43, 7377.
Lynch, SR Hurrell, RF Dassenko, SA & cook, JD (1989) The effect of dietary proteins on iron bioavailability in man. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 248, 117132.
Marfo, EK Simpson, BK Idowu, JS & Oke, OL (1990) Effect of local food processing on phytate levels in cassava, cocoyam, yam, maize, sorghum, rice, cowpea and soybean. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 38, 15801585.
National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (2000) Fifty Years ofNNMB. Annual Report. Hyderabad, India: Indian Council of Medical Research.
Padmavati, K Udipi, SA & Rao, M (1992) Effect of different cooking methods on carotene content of vegetables. Journal of Food Science and Technology 29, 137140.
Prabhavathi, T & Rao, N (1979) Effects of domestic preparation of cereals and legumes on ionizable iron. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 30, 597602.
Rahman, MM Mahalanabis, D Islam, MA & Biswas, E (1993) Can infants and young children eat enough green leafy vegetables from a single traditional meal to meet their daily vitamin A requirements European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47, 6872.
Rao, Narasinga BS (1991) Use of beta carotene rich foods for combating vitamin A deficiency. NFI Bulletin 12, 16.
Reddy, V & Vijayaraghavan, K (1995) Carotene Rich Foods for Combating Vitamin A Deficiency. Hyderabad, India: National Institute of Nutrition.
Sankara, Rao DS & Deosthale, YG (1980) Effect of pearling on mineral and trace element composition and ionisable iron content of sorghum. Nutrition Reports International 22, 723728.
Sankara, Rao DS & Deosthale, YG (1981) Mineral composition, ionizable iron and soluble zinc in malted grains of pearl millet and ragi. Food Chemistry 11, 217223.
Seshadri, S Shah, ABhade, S (1985) Hematologic response of anemic preschool children to ascorbic acid supplementation. Human Nutrition: Applied Nutrition 39A, 151154.
Thompson, FEByers, T (1994) Dietary assessment resource manual. Journal of Nutrition 124, 2245S2317S.
Tontisirin, KBhattacharjee, L (1999) National policy on micronutrient deficiencies elimination. Regional Conference on Micronutrient Deficiencies Elimination, ILSI, Bangkok, September 1999. Bangkok, Thailand: ILSI, Southeast Asia.
Tontisirin, KGillespie, S (1999) Linking community based programmes and service delivery for improving maternal and child nutrition. Asian Development Review 1, 133.
Tontisirin, KYamborisut, U (1995) Appropriate weaning practices and foods to prevent protein-energy malnutrition: An Asian review. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 16, 3439.
Yip, R (1996) Prevention and control of iron deficiency in developing countries. Current Issues in Public Health 2, 253263.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed