This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
KD Alahari , B Lobaugh & MJ Econs (1997) Vitamin D receptor alleles do not correlate with bone mineral density in premenopausal Caucasian women from the southeastern United States. Metabolism 46, 224–226.
MJ Barger-Lux , RP Heaney , J Hayes , HF DeLuca , M Johnson & G Gong (1995 b) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism, bone mass, body size, and vitamin D receptor density. Calcified Tissue International 57, 161–162.
T Carling , A Kindmark , P Hellman , L Holmberg , G Akerstrom & J Rastad (1997) Vitamin D receptor alleles B, A, and T-risk factors for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) but not HPT of uremia or MEN 1. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 231, 329–332.
T Carling , A Kindmark , P Hellman , E Lundgren , S Ljunghall , J Rastad , G Akerstrom & H Melhus (1995) Vitamin D receptor genotypes in primary hyperparathyroidism. Nature Medicine 1, 1309–1311.
C Cooper , G Campion & LJ Melton III (1992) Hip fractures in the elderly: A world-wide projection. Osteoporosis International 2, 285–289.
G Cooper & DM Umbach (1996) Are vitamin D receptor polymorphisms associated with bone mineral density – a meta-analysis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11, 1841–1849.
SR Cummings , MC Nevitt , WS Browner , K Stone , KM Fox , KE Ensrud , JC Cauley , D Black & TM Vogt (1995) Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 767–773.
B Dawson-Hughes , S Hanis & S Finneran (1995) Calcium absorption on high and low calcium intakes in relation to vitamin D receptor genotype. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, 3657–3661.
J Dequeker , J Nijs , A Verstaeten , P Geusen & G Gevars (1987) Genetic determinants of bone mineral content at the spine and radius: a twin study. Bone 8, 207–209.
JA Eisman (1995) Vitamin D receptor gene alleles and osteoporosis: An affirmative view. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10, 1289–1293.
JA Eisman , PN Sambrook , P Kelly & NA Pocock (1991) Exercise and its interaction with genetic influences in determination of bone mineral density. American Journal of Medicine 91, 5B–9B.
RA Evans , GM Marel , EK Lancaster , S Kos , M Evans & SYP Wong (1988) Bone mass is low in relatives of osteoporotic patients. Annals of Internal Medicine 109, 870–873.
S Ferrari , R Rizzoli , T Chevalley , D Slosman , J Eisman & J-P Bonjour (1995) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and the rate of change of lumbar spine bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Lancet 345, 423–424.
JC Fleet , SS Harris , R Wood & B Dawson-Hughes (1995) The BsmI vitamin D receptor restriction length polymorphism (BB) predicts low bone density in premenopausal black and white women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10, 985–990.
P Garnero , O Borel , E Sornay-Rendu , M Arlot & PD Delmas (1996) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are not related to bone turnover, rate of bone loss and bone mass in postmenopausal women: The OFELY study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11, 827–834.
P Garnero , O Borel , E Sornay-Rendu & PD Delmas (1995) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms do not predict bone turnover and bone mass in healthy premenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10, 1283–1288.
SFA Grant , DM Reid , G Blake , R Herd , I Fogelman & SH Ralston (1996) Reduced bone density and osteoporosis associated with a polymorphic Sp1 binding site in the collagen type Ia1 gene. Nature Genetics 14, 203–205.
JA Grisso , JL Kelsey , BL Strom , GY Chiu , G Maislin , LA O'Brien , S Hoffman & F Kaplan (1991) Risk factors for falls as a cause of hip fracture in women. New England Journal of Medicine 324, 1326–1331.
JA Grisso , JL Kelsey , BL Strom , LA O'Brien , G Maislin , Pann La , L Samelson , S Hoffman and the Northeast Hip Fracture Study Group (1994) Risk factors for hip fracture in black women. New England Journal of Medicine 330, 1555–1559.
C Gross , TR Eccleshall , PJ Malloy , ML Villa , R Marcus & D Feldman (1996) The presence of a polymorphism at the translation initiation site of the Vitamin D receptor gene is associated with low bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-American women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11, 1850–1855.
M Gunnes , JP Berg , J Halse & EH Lehmann (1997) Lack of relationship between vitamin D receptor genotype and forearm bone gain in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82, 851–855.
J Hopper & E Seeman (1994) The bone density of female twins discordant for tobacco use. New England Journal of Medicine 330, 387–392.
LA Houston , SFA Grant , D Reid & SH Ralston (1996) Vitamin D polymorphism, bone mineral density and osteoporotic vertebral fracture: Studies in a UK population. Bone 18, 249–252.
FG Hustmyer , M Peacock , S Hui , C Johnston & JC Christian (1994) Bone mineral density in relation to polymorphisms at the vitamin D receptor locus. Journal of Clinical Investigation 94, 2130–2134.
SA Ingles , RK Ross , MC Yu , RA Irvine , G Lapera , R Haile & GA Coetzee (1997) Association of prostate cancer risk with genetic polymorphisms in Vitamin D receptor and androgen receptor. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89, 166–170.
G Jones , TV Nguyen , PN Sambrook , P Kelly & JA Eisman (1994 a) Progressive femoral neck bone loss: Longitudinal findings from the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. British Medical Journal 309, 691–695.
G Jones , TV Nguyen , PN Sambrook , P Kelly & JA Eisman (1994 b) Symptomatic fracture incidence in elderly men and women: The Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. Osteoporosis International 4, 277–282.
HL Jorgensen , J Scholler , JC Sand , M Bjuring , C Hassager & C Christiansen (1996) Relation of common allelic variation at vitamin D receptor locus to bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss: Cross sectional and longitudinal population study. British Medical Journal 313, 586–590.
RW Keen , P Egger , C Fall , PJ Major , JS Lanchbury , T Spector & C Cooper (1997) Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor, infant growth, and adult bone mass. Calcijied Tissue International 60, 233–235.
RW Keen , PJ Major , J Lanchbury & TD Spector (1995) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and bone loss. Lancet 345, 990.
PJ Kelly , J Eisman & PN Sambrook (1990 a) Interaction of genetic and environmental influences on peak bone density. Osteoporosis International 1, 1–5.
PJ Kelly , JA Eisman , MC Stuart , NA Pocock , P Sambrook & T Gwinn (1990 b) Somatomedin-C, physical fitness and bone density. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 70, 718–723.
PJ Kelly , JL Hopper , GT Macaskill , NA Pocock , P Sambrook & JA Eisman (1991) Genetic factors in bone turnover. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 72, 808–813.
PJ? Kelly , T Nguyen , N Pocock , J Hopper , P Sambrook & JA Eisman (1993) Genetic determination of changes in bone density with age: a twin study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 8, 11–17.
HK Kinyamu , JC Gallagher , JA Knezetic , HF DeLuca , J Prahl & SJ Lanspa (1997) Effect of vitamin D receptor genotypes on calcium absorption, duodenal vitamin D receptor concentration, and serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D levels in normal women. Calcified Tissue International 60, 491–495.
EA Krall , P Pany , J Lichter & B Dawson-Hughes (1995) Vitamin D receptor alleles and rates of bone loss: Influences of years since menopause and calcium intake. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10, 978–984.
H Kroger , A Mahonen , S Ryhanen , AM Turunen , E Alhava & P Maenpaa (1995) Vitamin D receptor genotypes and bone mineral density. Lancet 345 1239.
H Kroger , M Tuppurainen , R Honkanen , E Alhava & S Saarikoski (1994) Bone mineral density and risk factors of osteoporosis a population based study of 1600 perimenopausal women. Calcified Tissue International 55, 1–7.
JE Looney , HK Yoon , M Fischer , SM Farley , JR Farley , J Wergedal & DJ Baylink (1995) Lack of a high prevalence of the BB vitamin D receptor genotype in severely osteoporotic women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, 2158–2162.
L McClure , TR Eccleshall , C Gross , ML Villa , N Lin , V Ramaswamy , L Kohlmeier , JL Kelsey , R Marcus & D Feldman (1997) Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, bone mineral density, and bone metabolism in postmenopausal Mexican-American women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 12, 234–240.
HA McKay , DA Bailey , A Wilkinson & CS Houston (1994) Familial comparison of bone mineral density at the proximal femur and lumbar spine. Bone Mineral 24, 95–110.
H Melhus , A Kindmark , S Amer , B Wilen , E Lindh & S Ljunghall (1994) Vitamin D receptor genotypes in osteoporosis. Lancet 344, 949.
H Mocharla , AW Butch , AA Pappas , J Flick , RS Weinstein , P De Togni , RL Jilka , PK Roberson , A Parfitt & SC Manolagas (1997) Quantification of vitamin D receptor mRNA by competitive polymerase chain reaction in PBMC: Lack of correspondence with common allelic variants. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 12, 726–733.
M Moller , A Horsman , B Harvald , M Hauage , K Henningsen & BEC Nordin (1978) Metacarpal morphometry in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Calcified Tissue International 25, 197–201.
NA Morrison , JC Qi , A Tokita , PJ Kelly , L Croft , TV Nguyen , P Sambrook & JA Eisman (1994) Prediction of bone density by vitamin D receptor alleles. Nature 367, 284–287.
NA Morrison , R Yeoman , P Kelly & JA Eisman (1992) Contribution of trans-acting factor alleles to normal physiological variability: Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and circulating osteocalcin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 89, 6665–6669.
T Nakamura (1997) The importance of genetic and nutritional factors in responses to vitamin D and its analogs in osteoporotic patients. Calcified Tissue International 60, 119–123.
TV Nguyen , PN Sambrook , PJ Kelly , G Jones , SR Lord , J Freund & JA Eisman (1993) Prediction of osteoporotic fractures by postural instability and bone density. British Medical Journal 307, 1111–1115.
M Peacock (1995) Vitamin D receptor gene alleles and osteoporosis: Contrasting view. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10, 1294–1297.
NA Pocock , JA Eisman , TH Gwinn , PN Sambrook , P Kelly , J Freund & MG Yeates (1989 a) Muscle strength, physical fitness and weight but not age predict femoral neck bone mass. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 4, 441–448.
NA Pocock , JA Eisman , PJ Kelly , P Sambrook & MG Yeates (1989 b) Effects of tobacco use on axial and appendicular bone mineral density. Bone 10, 329–331.
NA Pocock , JA Eisman , MG Yeates , P Sambrook & S Eberl (1986) Physical fitness is a major determinant of femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral density. Journal of Clinical Investigation 78, 618–621.
NA Pocock , JA Eisman , MG Yeates , P Sambrook & S Eberl (1987) Genetic determinants of bone mass in adults: a twin study. Journal of Clinical Investigation 80, 706–710.
BL Riggs , TV Nguyen , LJ Melton III, NA Monison , WM O'Fallon , PJ Kelly , KS Egan , PN Sambrook , J Muhs & JA Eisman (1995) Contribution of vitamin D receptor gene alleles to the determination of bone mineral density in normal and osteoporotic women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10, 991–996.
LM Salamone , R Ferell , DM Black , L Palermo , RS Epstein , N Petro , N Steadman , L Kuller & JA Cauley (1996) The association between vitamin receptor gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density at the spine, hip and total body in premenopausal women. Osteoporosis International 6, 63–68.
E Seeman , C Tsalamandris , C Formica , J Hopper & J McKay (1994) Reduced femoral neck bone density in the daughters of women with hip fractures: The role of low bone density in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 9, 739–743.
CW Slemenda , JC Christian , CJ Williams , J Norton & CC Johnston Jr (1991) Genetic determinants of bone mass in adult women; a re-evaluation of the model and the potential importance of gene interaction on heritability estimates. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 6, 561–567.
DM Smith , WE Nance , KW Kang , J Christian & CC Johnston Jr (1973) Genetic factors in determining bone mass. Journal of Clinical Investigation 52, 2800–2808.
SB Soroko , E Barrett-Connor , S Edelstein & D Kritz-Siverstein (1994) Family history of osteoporosis and bone mineral density at the axial skeleton: The Rancho Bernardo study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 9, 761–769.
TD Spector , RW Keen , NK Arden , PJ Major , JR Baker , NA Monison , TV Nguyen , PJ Kelly , PN Sambrook , J Lanchbury & JA Eisman (1995) Vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) alleles and bone density in post menopausal women; a UK twin study. British Medical Journal 310, 1357–1360.
LD Spotila , A Colige , L Sereda , CD Constantinou-Deltas , MP Whyte , BL Riggs , JL Shaker , TD Spector , E Hume , N Olsen , M Attie , A Tenenhouse , E Shane , W Briney & DJ Prockop (1994) Mutation analysis of coding sequences for type I procollagen in individuals with low bone density. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 9, 923–932.
LD Spotila , CD Constantinou , L Sereda , A Ganguly , B Riggs & DJ Prockop (1991) Mutation in a gene for type I procollagen (COL1A2) in a woman with postmenopausal osteoporosis: Evidence for phenotypic and genotypic overlap with mild osteogenesis imperfecta. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88, 5423–5427.
M Tamai , M Yokouchi , K Mochizuki , S Hidaka , S Narita , A Inoue & K Itoh (1997) Correlation between vitamin D receptor genotypes and bone mineral density in Japanese patients with osteoporosis. Calcified Tissue International 60, 229–232.
D Teegarden , WR Proulx , BR Martin , J Zhao , GP McCabe , RM Lyle , M Peacock , C Slemenda , C Johnston & CM Weaver (1995) Peak bone mass in young women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10, 711–715.
A Tokita , PJ Kelly , TV Nguyen , J-C Qi , NA Morrison , L Risteli , J Risteli , P Sambrook & JA Eisman (1994) Genetic determinants of type I collagen synthesis and degradation: Further evidence for genetic regulation of bone turnover. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 78, 1461–1466.
A Tokita , H Matsumoto , NA Morrison , T Tawa , Y Miura , K Fukamauchi , N Mitsuhashi , M Irimoto , S Yamamori , M Miura , T Watanabe , Y Kuwabara , K Yabuta & JA Eisman (1996) Vitamin D receptor alleles, bone mineral density and turnover in premenopausal Japanese women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11, 1003–1009.
AG Uitterlinden , HAP Pols , H Burger , PLA van Daele , CM van Duijn , A Hofman , J Birkenhager & JPTM van Leeuwen (1996) Haplotypes at the vitamin D receptor gene locus are associated with bone mineral density. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11, 1241–1248.
C Vandevyver , T Wylin , JJ Cassiman , J Raus & P Geusens (1997) Influence of the vitamin D receptor gene alleles on bone mineral density in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 12, 241–247.
Z Yamagata , T Miyamura , S Iijima , A Asaka , M Sasaki , J Kato & K Koizumi (1994) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and bone mineral density in healthy Japanese women. Lancet 344, 102.
D Young , JL Hopper , CA Nowson , RM Green , AJ Sherwin , B Kaymacki , M Smid , CS Guest , R Larkins & JD Wark (1995) Determinants of bone mass in 10- to 26-year old females: A twin study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10, 558–567.