Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-w5x57 Total loading time: 0.351 Render date: 2022-07-06T06:38:07.911Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Lipid metabolism in women

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 March 2007

Christine M. Williams*
Affiliation:
Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, School of Food Biosciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK
*
Corresponding author: Professor C. M. Williams, fax +44 1189 318703, email c.m.williams@reading.ac.uk
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Differences in whole-body lipid metabolism between men and women are indicated by lower-body fat accumulation in women but more marked accumulation of fat in the intra-abdominal visceral fat depots of men. Circulating blood lipid concentrations also show gender-related differences. These differences are most marked in premenopausal women, in whom total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations are lower and HDL-cholesterol concentration is higher than in men. Tendency to accumulate body fat in intra-abdominal fat stores is linked to increased risk of CVD, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and other insulin-resistant states. Differential regional regulation of adipose tissue lipolysis and lipogenesis must underlie gender-related differences in the tendency to accumulate fat in specific fat depots. However, empirical data to support current hypotheses remain limited at the present time because of the demanding and specialist nature of the methods used to study adipose tissue metabolism in human subjects. In vitro and in vivo data show greater lipolytic sensitivity of abdominal subcutaneous fat and lesser lipolytic sensitivity of femoral and gluteal subcutaneous fat in women than in men. These differences appear to be due to fewer inhibitory α adrenergic receptors in abdominal regions and greater α adrenergic receptors in gluteal and femoral regions in women than in men. There do not appear to be major gender-related differences in rates of fatty acid uptake (lipogenesis) in different subcutaneous adipose tissue regions. In visceral fat rates of both lipolysis and lipogenesis appear to be greater in men than in women; higher rates of lipolysis may be due to fewer α adrenergic receptors in this fat depot in men. Fatty acid uptake into this depot in the postprandial period is approximately 7-fold higher in men than in women. Triacylglycerol concentrations appear to be a stronger cardiovascular risk factor in women than in men, with particular implications for cardiovascular risk in diabetic women. The increased triacylglycerol concentrations observed in women taking hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) may explain the paradoxical findings of increased rates of CVD in women taking HRT that have been reported from recent primary and secondary prevention trials of HRT.

Type
Meeting Report
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2004

References

Ariyo, AA & Villablanca, AC (2002) Estrogens and lipids. Postgraduate Medicine 111, 2330.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arner, P (1995) Differences in lipolysis between human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues. Annals of Medicine 27, 435438.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arner, P (1999) Catecholamine-induced lipolysis in obesity. International Journal of Obesity 23, 1013.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arner, P, Kriegholm, E, Engfeldt, P & Bolinder, J (1990) Adrenergic regulation of lipolysis in situ at rest and during exercise. Journal of Clinical Investigation 85, 893898.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bjorntorp, P (1985) Regional patterns of fat distribution. Annals of Internal Medicine 103, 994995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blaak, E (2001) Gender differences in fat metabolism. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 4, 499502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blum, A & Cannon, RO III (2001) Selective estrogen receptor modulator effects on serum lipoproteins and vascular function in postmenopausal women and in hypercholesterolemic men. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 949, 168174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corbalán, MS, Marti, A, Forga, L, Martínez-González, MA, Marti$?$nez, JA (2002) β 2 -Adrenergic receptor mutation and abdominal obesity risk: Effect modification by gender and HDL-cholesterol. European Journal of Nutrition 41, 114118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Couillard, C, Bergeron, N, Prud'homme, D, Bergeron, J, Tremblay, A, Bouchard, C, Mauriège, P & Després, JP (1999) Gender difference in postprandial lipemia. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 19, 24482455.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hellstrom, L, Blaak, E & Hagstrom-Toft, E (1996) Gender differences in adrenergic regulation of lipid mobilization during exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 17, 439447.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jensen, MD (1995) Gender differences in regional fatty acid metabolism before and after meal ingestion. Journal of Clinical Investigation 96, 22972303.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jensen, MD (1997) Lipolysis: Contribution from regional fat. Annual Review of Nutrition 17, 127139.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jensen, MD, Cryer, PE, Johnson, CM & Murray, MJ (1996) Effects of epinephrine on regional free fatty acid and energy metabolism in men and women. Annual Review of Physiology 33, 259264.Google Scholar
Kawamura, T, Egusa, G, Fujikawa, R & Okubo, M (2001) β 3 -Adrenergic receptor gene variant is associated with upper body obesity only in Japanese-American men but not in women. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 54, 4955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kissebah, AH, Vydelingum, N, Murray, R, Evans, DJ, Hartz, AJ, Kalkhoff, RK & Adams, PW (1982) Relation of body fat distribution to metabolic complications of obesity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 54, 254260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klein, KP & Herrington, DM (2002) Effects of estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators on indicators of cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. Medscape Womens Health Journal 7, 2.Google ScholarPubMed
Kortner, B, Wolf, A, Wendt, D, Beisegel, U & Evans, D (1999) Lack of association between a human beta-2 adrenoceptor gene polymorphism (gln27glu) and morbid obesity. International Journal of Obesity 23, 10991100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kotani, K, Tokunaga, K, Fujioka, S, Kobatake, T, Keno, Y, Yoshida, S, Shimomura, I, Tarui, S & Matsuzaw, Y (1994) Sexual dimorphism of age-related changes in whole-body fat distribution in the obese. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 18, 207212.Google ScholarPubMed
Large, V, Hellstrom, L, Reynisdottir, S, Lonnqvist, F, Eriksson, P, Lannfelt, L & Arner, P (1997) Human beta-2 adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms are highly frequent in obesity and associate with altered adipocyte beta-2 adrenoceptor function. Journal of Clinical Investigation 100, 30053013.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lemieux, S, Prud'homme, D, Bouchard, C, Tremblay, A Deprés J-P (1993) Sex differences in the relation of visceral adipose tissue accumulation to total body fatness. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 463467.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ley, CJ, Lees, B & Stevenson, JC (1992) Sex- and menopause-associated changes in body-fat distribution. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 950954.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marin, P, Oden, B & Björntorp, P (1995) Assimilation and mobilization of triglycerides in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue in vivo in men: effects of androgens. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, 239243.Google ScholarPubMed
Marin, P, Lonn, L, Andersson, B, Oden, B, Olbe, L, Bengtsson, B-A & Björntorp, P (1996) Assimilation of triglycerides in subcutaneous and intraabdominal adipose tissues in vivo in men: effects of testosterone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81, 10181022.Google ScholarPubMed
Mattiasson, I, Rendell, M, Tornquist, C, Jeppsson & Hulthien, UL (2002) Effects of estrogen replacement therapy on abdominal fat compartments as related to glucose and lipid metabolism in early postmenopausal women. Hormone and Metabolic Research 34, 583588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merkel, M, Eckel, RH & Goldberg, IJ (2002) Lipoprotein lipase: genetics, lipid uptake, and regulation. Journal Lipid Research 43, 19972006.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Millet, L, Barbe, P & Lafontan, M (1998) Catecholamine effects on lipolysis and blood flow in human abdominal and femoral adipose tissue. Journal of Applied Physiology 85, 181188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nguyen, TT, Mijares, AH, Johnson, CM & Jensen, MD (1996) Postprandial leg and splanchnic fatty acid metabolism in nonobese men and women. American Journal Physiology 271, E965E972.Google ScholarPubMed
Oberkofler, H, Esterbauer, H, Hell, E, Krempler, F & Patsch, W (2000) The Gln27Glu polymorphism in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene is not associated with morbid obesity in Austrian women. International Journal of Obesity 24, 388390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perseghin, G, Scifo, P, Pagliato, E, Battezzati, A, Benedini, S, Soldini, L, Testolin, G, Del Maschio, A & Luzi, L (2001) Gender factors affect fatty acids-induced insulin resistance in nonobese humans: Effects of oral steroidal contraception. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86, 31883196.Google ScholarPubMed
Ray, S, Rastogi, R & Kumar, A (2002) Current status of estrogen receptors. Progress in Drug Research 59, 202232.Google ScholarPubMed
Rebuffé-Scrive, , Andersson, B, Olbe, L & Bjorntorp, P (1989) Metabolism of adipose tissue in intraabdominal depots of nonobese men and women. Metabolism 38, 453458.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richelsen, B (1986) Increased α 2 - but similar β-adrenergic receptor activities in subcutaneous gluteal adipocytes from females compared with males. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 16, 302309.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Romanski, SA, Nelson, RM & Jensen, MD (2000) Meal fatty acid uptake in adipose tissue: gender effects in non obese humans. American Journal of Physiology 279, E455E462.Google Scholar
Stampfer, MJ & Colditz, GA (1991) Estrogen replacement and coronary heart disease: a quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic evidence. Preventive Medicine 20, 4763.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wahrenberg, H, Lonnqvist, F & Arner, P (1989) Mechanisms underlying regional differences in lipolysis in human adipose tissue. Journal of Clinical Investigation 84, 458467.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, CM (1997) Cardiovascular risk factors in women. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 383391.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Writing Group for the WHI Investigators (2002) Risks and benefits of estrogen and progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. Principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 288, 321333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
You have Access
123
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Lipid metabolism in women
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Lipid metabolism in women
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Lipid metabolism in women
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *