This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
VH Peden , CL Witzleben & MA Skelton (1971) Total parenteral nutrition. J Pediatr 78, 180–181.
KD Lindor , CR Fleming , A Abrams & MA Hirschkorn (1979) Liver function values in adults receiving total parenteral nutrition. JAMA 241, 2398–2400.
BM Wolfe , BK Walker , DB Shaul , L Wong & BH Ruebner (1988) Effect of total parenteral nutrition on hepatic histology. Arch Surg 123, 1084–1090.
W Luman & JL Shaffer (2002) Prevalence, outcome and associated factors of deranged liver function tests in patients on home parenteral nutrition. Clin Nutr 21, 337–343.
S Chan , KC McCowen , BR Bistrian , A Thibault , M Keane-Ellison , RA Forse , T Babineau & P Burke (1999) Incidence, prognosis, and etiology of end-stage liver disease in patients receiving home total parenteral nutrition. Surgery 126, 28–34.
M Cavicchi , P Beau , P Crenn , C Degott & B Messing (2000) Prevalence of liver disease and contributing factors in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition for permanent intestinal failure. Ann Intern Med 132, 525–532.
SV Beath , P Davies , A Papadopoulou , AR Khan , RG Buick , JJ Corkery , P Gornall & IW Booth (1996) Parenteral nutrition-related cholestasis in postsurgical neonates: multivariate analysis of risk factors. J Pediatr Surg 31, 604–606.
JM Nightingale (2003) Hepatobiliary, renal and bone complications of intestinal failure. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 17, 907–929.
BS Reddy , J MacFie , M Gatt , L Macfarlane-Smith , K Bitzopoulou & AM Snelling (2007) Commensal bacteria do translocate across the intestinal barrier in surgical patients. Clin Nutr 26, 208–215.
AL Buchman , K Iyer & J Fryer (2006) Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and the role for isolated intestine and intestine/liver transplantation. Hepatology 43, 9–19.
JM Langrehr , MJ Reilly , B Banner , VJ Warty , KK Lee & WH Schraut (1991) Hepatic steatosis due to total parenteral nutrition: the influence of short-gut syndrome, refeeding, and small bowel transplantation. J Surg Res 50, 335–343.
G Hernandez , N Velasco , C Wainstein , L Castillo , G Bugedo , A Maiz , F Lopez , S Guzman & C Vargas (1999) Gut mucosal atrophy after a short enteral fasting period in critically ill patients. J Crit Care 14, 73–77.
AA Moukarzel , KA Dahlstrom , AL Buchman & ME Ament (1992) Carnitine status of children receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition: a longitudinal prospective study. J Pediatr 120, 759–762.
YN Berner , WA Larchian , SF Lowry , RR Nicroa , MF Brennan & M Shike (1990) Low plasma carnitine in patients on prolonged total parenteral nutrition: association with low plasma lysine. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 14, 255–258.
AL Buchman , A Moukarzel , DJ Jenden , M Roch , K Rice & ME Ament (1993) Low plasma free choline is prevalent in patients receiving long term parenteral nutrition and is associated with hepatic aminotransferase abnormalities. Clin Nutr 12, 33–37.
AL Buchman , M Sohel , A Moukarzel (2001) Plasma choline in normal newborns, infants, toddlers, and in very-low-birth-weight neonates requiring total parenteral nutrition. Nutrition 17, 18–21.
AL Buchman , M Dubin , D Jenden , A Moukarzel , MH Roch , K Rice , J Gornbein , ME Ament & CD Eckhert (1992) Lecithin increases plasma free choline and decreases hepatic steatosis in long-term total parenteral nutrition patients. Gastroenterology 102, 1363–1370.
AL Buchman , ME Ament , M Sohel , M Dubin , DJ Jenden , M Roch , H Pownall , W Farley , M Awal & C Ahn (2001) Choline deficiency causes reversible hepatic abnormalities in patients receiving parenteral nutrition: proof of a human choline requirement: a placebo-controlled trial. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 25, 260–268.
DC Belli , CC Roy , LA Fournier , B Tuchweber , R Giguere & IM Yousef (1991) The effect of taurine on the cholestatic potential of sulfated lithocholate and its conjugates. Liver 11, 162–169.
A Cooper , JM Betts , GR Pereira & MM Ziegler (1984) Taurine deficiency in the severe hepatic dysfunction complicating total parenteral nutrition. J Pediatr Surg 19, 462–466.
AU Spencer , S Yu , TF Tracy (2005) Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in neonates: multivariate analysis of the potential protective effect of taurine. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 29, 337–343.
SM Schneider , F Joly , MF Gehrardt , AM Badran , A Myara , F Thuillier , C Coudray-Lucas , L Cynober , F Trivin & B Messing (2006) Taurine status and response to intravenous taurine supplementation in adults with short-bowel syndrome undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition: a pilot study. Br J Nutr 96, 365–370.
MA Schepens , HM Roelofs , WH Peters & GJ Wanten (2006) No evidence for oxidative stress in patients on home parenteral nutrition. Clin Nutr 25, 939–948.
JC Lavoie , P Chessex , C Gauthier , E Levy , F Alvarez , P St-Louis & T Rouleau (2005) Reduced bile flow associated with parenteral nutrition is independent of oxidant load and parenteral multivitamins. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 41, 108–114.
S Li , MS Nussbaum , D Teague , CL Gapen , R Dayal & JE Fischer (1988) Increasing dextrose concentrations in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) causes alterations in hepatic morphology and plasma levels of insulin and glucagon in rats. J Surg Res 44, 639–648.
FW Guglielmi , D Boggio-Bertinet , A Federico (2006) Total parenteral nutrition-related gastroenterological complications. Dig Liver Dis 38, 623–642.
MM Meguid , MP Akahoshi , S Jeffers , RJ Hayashi & WG Hammond (1984) Amelioration of metabolic complications of conventional total parenteral nutrition. A prospective randomized study. Arch Surg 119, 1294–1298.
C Bigorgne , A Le Tourneau , B Messing , B Rio , V Giraud , T Molina , J Audouin & J Diebold (1996) Sea-blue histiocyte syndrome in bone marrow secondary to total parenteral nutrition including fat-emulsion sources: a clinicopathologic study of seven cases. Br J Haematol 95, 258–262.
PT Clayton , P Whitfield & K Iyer (1998) The role of phytosterols in the pathogenesis of liver complications of pediatric parenteral nutrition. Nutrition 14, 158–164.
PT Clayton , A Bowron , KA Mills , A Massoud , M Casteels & PJ Milla (1993) Phytosterolemia in children with parenteral nutrition-associated cholestatic liver disease. Gastroenterology 105, 1806–1813.
YA Carpentier , M Richelle , D Haumont & RJ Deckelbaum (1990) New developments in fat emulsions. Proc Nutr Soc 49, 375–380.
KM Gura , CP Duggan , SB Collier , RW Jennings , J Folkman , BR Bistrian & M Puder (2006) Reversal of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in two infants with short bowel syndrome using parenteral fish oil: implications for future management. Pediatrics 118, e197–e201.
GL Klein (1991) The aluminum content of parenteral solutions: current status. Nutr Rev 49, 74–79.
JF Kennedy & JM Nightingale (2005) Cost savings of an adult hospital nutrition support team. Nutrition 21, 1127–1133.
SV Beath , IW Booth , MS Murphy , JA Buckels , AD Mayer , PJ McKiernan & DA Kelly (1995) Nutritional care and candidates for small bowel transplantation. Arch Dis Child 73, 348–350.
SG Spurr , LJ Grylack & NR Mehta (1989) Hyperalimentation-associated neonatal cholestasis: effect of oral gentamicin. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 13, 633–636.
A Kubota , A Okada , K Imura , H Kawahara , R Nezu , S Kamata & Y Takagi (1990) The effect of metronidazole on TPN-associated liver dysfunction in neonates. J Pediatr Surg 25, 618–621.
JM Nightingale , JE Lennard-Jones , DJ Gertner , SR Wood & CI Bartram (1992) Colonic preservation reduces need for parenteral therapy, increases incidence of renal stones, but does not change high prevalence of gall stones in patients with a short bowel. Gut 33, 1493–1497.
K Wallis , DA Lloyd & SM Gabe (2007) Promoting intestinal adaptation. Br J Hosp Med 68, 11–14.
S Chan , KC McCowen & B Bistrian (1998) Medium-chain triglyceride and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing emulsions in intravenous nutrition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1, 163–169.
CY Chen , PN Tsao , HL Chen , HC Chou , WS Hsieh & MH Chang (2004) Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) therapy in very-low-birth-weight infants with parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis. J Pediatr 145, 317–321.
G De Marco , D Sordino , E Bruzzese , S Di Caro , D Mambretti , A Tramontano , C Colombo , P Simoni & A Guarino (2006) Early treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid for cholestasis in children on parenteral nutrition because of primary intestinal failure. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 24, 387–394.
AL Buchman , MD Dubin , AA Moukarzel , DJ Jenden , M Roch , KM Rice , J Gornbein & ME Ament (1995) Choline deficiency: a cause of hepatic steatosis during parenteral nutrition that can be reversed with intravenous choline supplementation. Hepatology 22, 1399–1403.
S Misra , C Ahn , ME Ament , HJ Choi , DJ Jenden , M Roch & AL Buchman (1999) Plasma choline concentrations in children requiring long-term home parenteral nutrition: a case control study. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 23, 305–308.
D Grant , K Abu-Elmagd , J Reyes , A Tzakis , A Langnas , T Fishbein , O Goulet & D Farmer (2005) 2003 report of the intestine transplant registry: a new era has dawned. Ann Surg 241, 607–613.