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Nutrient sensing and signalling by the gut

  • Rojo Rasoamanana (a1) (a2), Nicolas Darcel (a1), Gilles Fromentin (a2) and Daniel Tomé (a1)

Recent advances highlight that nutrient receptors (such as T1R1/T1R3 heterodimer, Ca sensing receptor and GPR93 for amino acids and protein, GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR120 for fatty acids, T1R2/T1R3 heterodimer for monosaccharides) are expressed in the apical face of the gut and sense nutrients in the lumen. They transduce signals for the regulation of nutrient transporter expressions in the apical face. Interestingly, they are also localised in enteroendocrine cells (EEC) and mainly exert a direct control on the secretion in the lamina propria of gastro-intestinal peptides such as cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY in response to energy nutrient transit and absorption in the gut. This informs central nuclei involved in the control of feeding such as the hypothalamus and nucleus of the solitary tract of the availability of these nutrients and thus triggers adaptive responses to maintain energy homoeostasis. These nutrient receptors then have a prominent position since they manage nutrient absorption and are principally the generator of the first signal of satiation mechanisms mainly transmitted to the brain by vagal afferents. Moreover, tastants are also able to elicit gut peptides secretion via chemosensory receptors expressed in EEC. Targeting these nutrient and tastant receptors in EEC may thus be helpful to promote satiation and so to fight overfeeding and its consequences.

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* Corresponding author: Professor Daniel Tomé, fax +33 144087248, email
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